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Energy Subsidies and Public Social Spending
			: Theory and Evidence

Energy Subsidies and Public Social Spending : Theory and Evidence »

Volume/Issue: 2015/101

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Christian Ebeke , and Constant Lonkeng Ngouana

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 May 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475580747.001

ISBN: 9781475580747

Keywords: Energy subsidies, Public social spending, Causality, subsidy, tax, energy subsidy, Cross-Sectional Models, Single Equation Models: Single Variables: Instrumental Variables (IV) Estimation, Causality.,

This paper shows that high energy subsidies and low public social spending can emerge as an equilibrium outcome of a political game between the elite and the middle-class when the provision of public goods is subje...

Selected Decisions and Selected Documents of the International Monetary Fund, Thirty-Sixth Issue
			: Thirty-Sixth Issue

Selected Decisions and Selected Documents of the International Monetary Fund, Thirty-Sixth Issue : Thirty-Sixth Issue »

Series: Selected Decisions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 July 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616353889.014

ISBN: 9781616353889

Keywords: payments, debt, obligations, external debt, balance of payments

The Thirty-Sixth Issue of Selected Decisions and Selected Documents of the International Monetary Fund includes decisions, interpretations, and resolutions of the Executive Board and the Board of Governors of the I...

Financial Deepening, Property Rights and Poverty
			: Evidence From Sub-Saharan Africa

Financial Deepening, Property Rights and Poverty : Evidence From Sub-Saharan Africa »

Volume/Issue: 2011/196

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Yifei Huang , and Raju Singh

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462305230.001

ISBN: 9781462305230

Keywords: financial development, property rights, dependent variable, gini coefficient, descriptive statistics, Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development, Financial Economics: General,

Recent studies on the relationship between financial development and poverty have been inconclusive. Some claim that, by allowing more entrepreneurs to obtain financing, financial development improves the allocatio...

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2010

Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 2010 »

Series: Balance of Payments Statistics

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 November 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616350024.044

ISBN: 9781616350024

Keywords: liabilities, debt, payments, portfolio investment, loans, direct investment, financial derivatives, bonds, debt securities, equity securities

The BOPS Yearbook, usually published in December, contains balance of payments statistics for most of the world, compiled in accordance with the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual. Part 1 includes aggregate as well a...

Bhutan
			: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper

Bhutan : Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper »

Volume/Issue: 2010/180

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 June 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455207381.002

ISBN: 9781455207381

Keywords: education, youth, literacy, teachers, human development

Bhutan has evolved from a closed economy to a trading nation that exhibits a high degree of dependence on trade. Exports have grown rapidly but overall the country's trade deficit continues to widen owing to an eve...

Weathering the Storm So Far
			: The Impact of the 2003-05 Oil Shock on Low-Income Countries

Weathering the Storm So Far : The Impact of the 2003-05 Oil Shock on Low-Income Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2006/171

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Helaway Tadesse , Mark Lewis , Jörg Zeuner , James John , Luzmaria Monasi , and Paolo Dudine

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451864311.001

ISBN: 9781451864311

Keywords: adjustment, fiscal, quasi-fiscal, pass-through, low-income country, IMF financing, oil imports, oil importers, National Deficit Surplus, Energy and the Macroeconomy

This paper examines the impact of the 2003-05 oil price increase on the balance of payments positions and IMF financing needs of low-income country oil importers. It finds that stronger exports reflecting favorable...

Taxation of Petroleum Products
			: Theory and Empirical Evidence

Taxation of Petroleum Products : Theory and Empirical Evidence »

Volume/Issue: 1994/32

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Poonam Gupta , and Walter Mahler

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 1994

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451979756.001

ISBN: 9781451979756

Keywords: petroleum products, fuel oil, automotive diesel, heavy fuel oil, petroleum prices

The domestic taxation of petroleum products is an important source of revenue in most countries. However, there is a wide variation of tax rates on petroleum products across countries, which cannot be explained by...

International Environmental Taxation in the Absence of Sovereignty

International Environmental Taxation in the Absence of Sovereignty »

Volume/Issue: 1992/104

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Bernard Herber

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 1992

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451947847.001

ISBN: 9781451947847

Keywords: environmental externalities, environment, global environment facility, carbon tax, global warming

Traditional public finance theory may be applied to the internalization of international environmental externalities. The policy constraint imposed by the absence of sovereign international government may be partia...