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Appendix 1. Reforming Energy Subsidies

Appendix 1. Reforming Energy Subsidies »

Source: Fiscal Monitor, April 2013 : Fiscal Adjustment in an Uncertain World

Series: Fiscal Monitor

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 April 2013

ISBN: 9781475566253

Keywords: public debt, government debt, fiscal adjustment, central bank, debt ratios

IMF (2013a), which presents estimates of energy subsidies for 176 countries. It also discusses how to undertake energy subsidy reform, drawing on insights from 22 country case st...

Hold Your Nose and Vote
			: Why Do Some Democracies Tolerate Corruption?

Hold Your Nose and Vote : Why Do Some Democracies Tolerate Corruption? »

Volume/Issue: 2009/83

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Marco Pani

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451872309.001

ISBN: 9781451872309

Keywords: Political Equilibrium, Public Expenditure, Constitution, voter, law, law enforcement, voters, election,

This paper analyses why corruption can persist for long periods in a democracy and inquires whether this can result from a well-informed rational choice of the citizens. By applying a citizen-candidate model of rep...

Hold Your Nose and Vote

Hold Your Nose and Vote »

Source: Hold Your Nose and Vote : Why Do Some Democracies Tolerate Corruption?

Volume/Issue: 2009/83

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Marco Pani

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2009

ISBN: 9781451872309

Keywords: Political Equilibrium, Public Expenditure, Constitution, voter, law, law enforcement, voters, election,

This paper analyses why corruption can persist for long periods in a democracy and inquires whether this can result from a well-informed rational choice of the citizens. By applying a citizen-candidate model of rep...

Banking Supervision
			: Quality and Governance

Banking Supervision : Quality and Governance »

Volume/Issue: 2007/82

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Alessandro Gambini , Salim Darbar , and Marco Arnone

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451866469.001

ISBN: 9781451866469

Keywords: accountability, banking supervision, banking, banking supervisors, banking sector, Financial Institutions and Services: Government Policy and Regulation,

This paper examines the relationship between the quality of banking supervision and governance of the supervisory agency, based on assessments of the Basel Core Principles and the IMF Code on Transparency in Financ...

Banking Supervision

Banking Supervision »

Source: Banking Supervision : Quality and Governance

Volume/Issue: 2007/82

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Alessandro Gambini , Salim Darbar , and Marco Arnone

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2007

ISBN: 9781451866469

Keywords: accountability, banking supervision, banking, banking supervisors, banking sector, Financial Institutions and Services: Government Policy and Regulation,

This paper examines the relationship between the quality of banking supervision and governance of the supervisory agency, based on assessments of the Basel Core Principles and the IMF Code on Transparency in Financ...

Italy-Assessing Competition and Efficiency in the Banking System

Italy-Assessing Competition and Efficiency in the Banking System »

Source: Italy-Assessing Competition and Efficiency in the Banking System

Volume/Issue: 2007/26

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2007

ISBN: 9781451865905

Keywords: efficiency, merger, banking sector, mergers,

The paper assesses the degree of banking competition and efficiency in Italy?over time as well as compared to that in other countries, such as France, Germany, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The...

Italy-Assessing Competition and Efficiency in the Banking System

Italy-Assessing Competition and Efficiency in the Banking System »

Volume/Issue: 2007/26

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451865905.001

ISBN: 9781451865905

Keywords: efficiency, merger, banking sector, mergers,

The paper assesses the degree of banking competition and efficiency in Italy?over time as well as compared to that in other countries, such as France, Germany, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The...

Ambiguity, Transparency, and Institutional Strength

Ambiguity, Transparency, and Institutional Strength »

Volume/Issue: 2004/115

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): S. Erbas

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451853896.001

ISBN: 9781451853896

Keywords: risk, Knightian uncertainty, vertical and horizontal integration, institutions, probability, probabilities, investors, investment decisions, expected value, Analysis of Collective Decision-Making: General

Institutional transparency makes future contingencies more easily predictable for investors. Greater transparency can be achieved through vertical and horizontal integration of policy rules, which may result in low...

Ambiguity, Transparency, and Institutional Strength

Ambiguity, Transparency, and Institutional Strength »

Source: Ambiguity, Transparency, and Institutional Strength

Volume/Issue: 2004/115

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): S. Erbas

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2004

ISBN: 9781451853896

Keywords: risk, Knightian uncertainty, vertical and horizontal integration, institutions, probability, probabilities, investors, investment decisions, expected value, Analysis of Collective Decision-Making: General

Institutional transparency makes future contingencies more easily predictable for investors. Greater transparency can be achieved through vertical and horizontal integration of policy rules, which may result in low...

Social Capital and Civil Society

Social Capital and Civil Society »

Source: Social Capital and Civil Society

Volume/Issue: 2000/74

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Francis Fukuyama

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2000

ISBN: 9781451849585

Keywords: Institutions, social capital, second generation reforms, religion, virtues, individualism, sect

Social capital is an instantiated informal norm that promotes cooperation between individuals. In the economic sphere it reduces transaction costs, and in the political sphere it promotes the kind of associational...