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World Economic Outlook, April 2019

Growth Slowdown, Precarious Recovery

The global economic expansion decelerated in the second half of 2018 with global growth projected to slow to 3.3 percent in 2019, with risks to future growth on the downside.

World Economic Outlook, April 2019

Growth Slowdown, Precarious Recovery

The global economic expansion decelerated in the second half of 2018 with global growth projected to slow to 3.3 percent in 2019, with risks to future growth on the downside.

Risk Instability and the Pattern of Foreign Direct Investment in the Middle East and North Africa Region

Risk Instability and the Pattern of Foreign Direct Investment in the Middle East and North Africa Region »

Source: Risk Instability and the Pattern of Foreign Direct Investment in the Middle East and North Africa Region

Volume/Issue: 2004/139

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2004

ISBN: 9781451856071

Keywords: Multinational firms, MENA countries, fdi, investment risk, direct investment

This paper demonstrates that instability associated with investment risk is critical in explaining the level of foreign direct investment for the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries, which generally have...

Ambiguity, Transparency, and Institutional Strength

Ambiguity, Transparency, and Institutional Strength »

Source: Ambiguity, Transparency, and Institutional Strength

Volume/Issue: 2004/115

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): S. Erbas

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2004

ISBN: 9781451853896

Keywords: risk, Knightian uncertainty, vertical and horizontal integration, institutions, probability, probabilities, investors, investment decisions, expected value, Analysis of Collective Decision-Making: General

Institutional transparency makes future contingencies more easily predictable for investors. Greater transparency can be achieved through vertical and horizontal integration of policy rules, which may result in low...

Primeron Reforms in a Second-Best Ambiguous Environment

Primeron Reforms in a Second-Best Ambiguous Environment »

Source: Primeron Reforms in a Second-Best Ambiguous Environment : A Case for Gradualism

Volume/Issue: 2002/50

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): S. Erbas

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2002

ISBN: 9781451846980

Keywords: reform, sequencing, gradualism, big bang, uncertainty, ambiguity, flexibility, reform outcomes, reform package, expected value

Ambiguity, as opposed to uncertainty, reflects lack of sufficient information about distribution and payoffs of infrequent events. Reforms are infrequent events, undertaken in ambiguous second-best environments whe...

Risk Instability and the Pattern of Foreign Direct Investment in the Middle East and North Africa Region

Risk Instability and the Pattern of Foreign Direct Investment in the Middle East and North Africa Region »

Volume/Issue: 2004/139

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451856071.001

ISBN: 9781451856071

Keywords: Multinational firms, MENA countries, fdi, investment risk, direct investment

This paper demonstrates that instability associated with investment risk is critical in explaining the level of foreign direct investment for the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries, which generally have...

Ambiguity, Transparency, and Institutional Strength

Ambiguity, Transparency, and Institutional Strength »

Volume/Issue: 2004/115

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): S. Erbas

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451853896.001

ISBN: 9781451853896

Keywords: risk, Knightian uncertainty, vertical and horizontal integration, institutions, probability, probabilities, investors, investment decisions, expected value, Analysis of Collective Decision-Making: General

Institutional transparency makes future contingencies more easily predictable for investors. Greater transparency can be achieved through vertical and horizontal integration of policy rules, which may result in low...

Primeron Reforms in a Second-Best Ambiguous Environment
			: A Case for Gradualism

Primeron Reforms in a Second-Best Ambiguous Environment : A Case for Gradualism »

Volume/Issue: 2002/50

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): S. Erbas

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451846980.001

ISBN: 9781451846980

Keywords: reform, sequencing, gradualism, big bang, uncertainty, ambiguity, flexibility, reform outcomes, reform package, expected value

Ambiguity, as opposed to uncertainty, reflects lack of sufficient information about distribution and payoffs of infrequent events. Reforms are infrequent events, undertaken in ambiguous second-best environments whe...