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Brazil

Boom, Bust, and Road to Recovery

Brazil is at crossroads, emerging slowly from a historic recession that was preceded by a huge economic boom.

The Future of China's Bond Market

This book analyzes segments of China's bond market, from sovereign, policy bank, and credit bonds, to the rapidly growing local government bond market.

APPENDIX

APPENDIX »

Source: Tax Policy Handbook

Series: Books

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 April 1995

ISBN: 9781557754905

Keywords: taxation, vat, tax system, tax structure, tax systems

Summary Tax Structure Tables, 1975–92 Asegedech Woldemariam The attached tables contain cross-country statistical information...

Appendix A. Estimating Pretax and Posttax Global Energy Subsidies

Appendix A. Estimating Pretax and Posttax Global Energy Subsidies »

Source: Energy Subsidy Reform : Lessons and Implications

Series: Books

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Stefania Fabrizio , Sanjeev Gupta , Trevor Alleyne , and Carlo Sdralevich

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 September 2013

ISBN: 9781475558111

Keywords: prices, electricity, pricing, electricity sector, electricity subsidies

This appendix describes the data sources and methodologies used for the estimation of subsidies for petroleum products, coal, natural gas, and electricity. Pretax Subsidies...

Appendix B. Assessing the Environmental and Health Impacts of Energy Subsidy Reform

Appendix B. Assessing the Environmental and Health Impacts of Energy Subsidy Reform »

Source: Energy Subsidy Reform : Lessons and Implications

Series: Books

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Stefania Fabrizio , Sanjeev Gupta , Trevor Alleyne , and Carlo Sdralevich

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 September 2013

ISBN: 9781475558111

Keywords: prices, electricity, pricing, electricity sector, electricity subsidies

This appendix describes the methodologies used to provide calculations of the impact of energy subsidy reform on CO2 emissions, SO2 emissions, and other local pollutants. Here we consider a scenario in which...

Appendix 5Business and Economic Environment

Appendix 5Business and Economic Environment »

Source: Sub-Saharan Africa : Financial Sector Challenges

Series: Books

Author(s): Catherine Pattillo , Anne Gulde , Kevin Carey , Smita Wagh , and Jakob Christensen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 August 2006

ISBN: 9781589065659

Keywords: banking, microfinance, financial services, banking sector

This appendix gives further background on the legal and economic environment in which financial sectors in sub-Saharan Africa operate. Poor legal and instit...

Appendix. Illustrative Labor Market Scenarios in GCC Countries, 1995-2010

Appendix. Illustrative Labor Market Scenarios in GCC Countries, 1995-2010 »

Source: Financial Systems and Labor Markets in the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 November 1997

ISBN: 9781557757128

Keywords: labor market, employment, labor force, financial institutions, financial systems

Supply of Labor The supply for labor is projected on the basis of the World Bank estimates of working age population (World Development Indicators CD-ROM, 1997) and staff estimates o...

7 Applying Basle Standards in Developing and Transition Economies

7 Applying Basle Standards in Developing and Transition Economies »

Source: Banking Soundness and Monetary Policy

Series: Books

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 September 1997

ISBN: 9781557756459

Keywords: loans, interest, banking system, banking sector

The Basle Committee has now been in existence for more than twenty years, gradually moving from information gathering to coordination and then to harmonization of international banking standards. The thrust...

4 Arab Capital Flows: Recent Trends and Policy Implications

4 Arab Capital Flows: Recent Trends and Policy Implications »

Source: Economic Development of the Arab Countries : Selected Issues

Series: Books

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 May 1993

ISBN: 9781557753328

Keywords: fdi, balance of payments, foreign investors, natural resources

International financial intermediation since the mid-eighties has made an enormous leap in apparent efficiency going hand in hand with the unprecedented explosion of cross-border capital flows,...

11 Are Banks Still Special?

11 Are Banks Still Special? »

Source: Banking Soundness and Monetary Policy

Series: Books

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 September 1997

ISBN: 9781557756459

Keywords: loans, interest, banking system, banking sector

Let me begin by discussing why, and in what senses, banks have been regarded as special. The term “bank,” historically and more than ever today, covers a multitude of sins. In practice it refers to a range o...

11 Are Export Duties Optimal in Developing Countries? Some Supply-Side Considerations

11 Are Export Duties Optimal in Developing Countries? Some Supply-Side Considerations »

Source: Supply-Side Tax Policy : Its Relevance to Developing Countries

Series: Books

Author(s): Ved Gandhi , Liam Ebrill , Parthasarathi Shome , Luis Manas Anton , Jitendra Modi , Fernando Sanchez-Ugarte , and George Mackenzie

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 June 1987

ISBN: 9780939934911

Keywords: tax evasion, tax incentives, taxation, tax rates, tax system

Export duties play an important role in the revenue structures of developing countries. For these countries, export duties are a useful tool for raising revenue, since compared with their enormous financing...

3 Are Labor Supply, Savings, and Investment Price-Sensitive in Developing Countries? A Survey of the Empirical Literature

3 Are Labor Supply, Savings, and Investment Price-Sensitive in Developing Countries? A Survey of the Empirical Literature »

Source: Supply-Side Tax Policy : Its Relevance to Developing Countries

Series: Books

Author(s): Ved Gandhi , Liam Ebrill , Parthasarathi Shome , Luis Manas Anton , Jitendra Modi , Fernando Sanchez-Ugarte , and George Mackenzie

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 June 1987

ISBN: 9780939934911

Keywords: tax evasion, tax incentives, taxation, tax rates, tax system

This chapter aims to summarize the available empirical estimates of the impact of a number of direct tax instruments on labor supply, investment, and savings in developing countries with a view to determinin...