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Appendix A. Estimating Pretax and Posttax Global Energy Subsidies

Appendix A. Estimating Pretax and Posttax Global Energy Subsidies »

Source: Energy Subsidy Reform : Lessons and Implications

Series: Books

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Stefania Fabrizio , Sanjeev Gupta , Trevor Alleyne , and Carlo Sdralevich

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 September 2013

ISBN: 9781475558111

Keywords: prices, electricity, pricing, electricity sector, electricity subsidies

This appendix describes the data sources and methodologies used for the estimation of subsidies for petroleum products, coal, natural gas, and electricity. Pretax Subsidies...

Appendix B. Assessing the Environmental and Health Impacts of Energy Subsidy Reform

Appendix B. Assessing the Environmental and Health Impacts of Energy Subsidy Reform »

Source: Energy Subsidy Reform : Lessons and Implications

Series: Books

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Stefania Fabrizio , Sanjeev Gupta , Trevor Alleyne , and Carlo Sdralevich

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 September 2013

ISBN: 9781475558111

Keywords: prices, electricity, pricing, electricity sector, electricity subsidies

This appendix describes the methodologies used to provide calculations of the impact of energy subsidy reform on CO2 emissions, SO2 emissions, and other local pollutants. Here we consider a scenario in which...

Chapter 2. Defining and Measuring Energy Subsidies

Chapter 2. Defining and Measuring Energy Subsidies »

Source: Energy Subsidy Reform : Lessons and Implications

Series: Books

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Stefania Fabrizio , Sanjeev Gupta , Trevor Alleyne , and Carlo Sdralevich

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 September 2013

ISBN: 9781475558111

Keywords: prices, electricity, pricing, electricity sector, electricity subsidies

Definition and Measurement Energy subsidies comprise both consumer and producer subsidies. Consumer subsidies arise when the prices paid by consumers, including both firms (intermedi...

Chapter 4. Reforming Energy Subsidies: Lessons from Experience

Chapter 4. Reforming Energy Subsidies: Lessons from Experience »

Source: Energy Subsidy Reform : Lessons and Implications

Series: Books

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Stefania Fabrizio , Sanjeev Gupta , Trevor Alleyne , and Carlo Sdralevich

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 September 2013

ISBN: 9781475558111

Keywords: prices, electricity, pricing, electricity sector, electricity subsidies

Overview This chapter provides insights from country case studies to identify ingredients for successful subsidy reform. The country case studies include both successful and unsucces...

Energy Subsidy Reform
			: Lessons and Implications

Energy Subsidy Reform : Lessons and Implications »

Series: Books

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Stefania Fabrizio , Sanjeev Gupta , Trevor Alleyne , and Carlo Sdralevich

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 September 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475558111.071

ISBN: 9781475558111

Keywords: prices, electricity, pricing, electricity sector, electricity subsidies

Energy subsidies are aimed at protecting consumers, however, subsidies aggravate fiscal imbalances, crowd out priority public spending, and depress private investment, including in the energy sector. This book prov...

Environmental Tax Reform

Environmental Tax Reform »

Source: Environmental Tax Reform : Principles from Theory and Practice to Date

Volume/Issue: 2012/180

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ian Parry , John Norregaard , and Dirk Heine

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2012

ISBN: 9781475505283

Keywords: design principles, externalities, fuel taxes, country evaluation, environmental tax, tax systems, tax reform, tax system, Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation: Government Policy, Energy: Government Policy,

This paper recommends a system of upstream taxes on fossil fuels, combined with refunds for downstream emissions capture, to reduce carbon and local pollution emissions. Motor fuel taxes should also account for con...

Environmental Tax Reform
			: Principles from Theory and Practice to Date

Environmental Tax Reform : Principles from Theory and Practice to Date »

Volume/Issue: 2012/180

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ian Parry , John Norregaard , and Dirk Heine

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475505283.001

ISBN: 9781475505283

Keywords: design principles, externalities, fuel taxes, country evaluation, environmental tax, tax systems, tax reform, tax system, Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation: Government Policy, Energy: Government Policy,

This paper recommends a system of upstream taxes on fossil fuels, combined with refunds for downstream emissions capture, to reduce carbon and local pollution emissions. Motor fuel taxes should also account for con...

Informality and Regulations
			: What Drives Firm Growth?

Informality and Regulations : What Drives Firm Growth? »

Volume/Issue: 2007/112

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Era Dabla-Norris , and Gabriela Inchauste

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451866766.001

ISBN: 9781451866766

Keywords: Firm growth, informality, business environment, Transition countries, regulatory burden, survey, organized crime, correlation, standard errors,

The paper relies on a rich firm-level data set on transition economies to examine the role of informality as an important channel through which regulatory and other policy constraints affect firm growth. We find th...

Informality and Regulations

Informality and Regulations »

Source: Informality and Regulations : What Drives Firm Growth?

Volume/Issue: 2007/112

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Era Dabla-Norris , and Gabriela Inchauste

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2007

ISBN: 9781451866766

Keywords: Firm growth, informality, business environment, Transition countries, regulatory burden, survey, organized crime, correlation, standard errors,

The paper relies on a rich firm-level data set on transition economies to examine the role of informality as an important channel through which regulatory and other policy constraints affect firm growth. We find th...

3. Balance of Payments Accounts

3. Balance of Payments Accounts »

Source: Financial Programming and Policy the Case of Turkey (Reprint) : The Case of Turkey (Reprint)

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 November 2005

ISBN: 9781557758750

Keywords: interest, debt, inflation, payments, central bank

a. Conceptual framework of the balance of payments According to the Balance of Payments Manual, the balance of payments is “a statistical statement that systematically summarizes, fo...