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Appendix 1. Reforming Energy Subsidies

Appendix 1. Reforming Energy Subsidies »

Source: Fiscal Monitor, April 2013 : Fiscal Adjustment in an Uncertain World

Series: Fiscal Monitor

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 April 2013

ISBN: 9781475566253

Keywords: public debt, government debt, fiscal adjustment, central bank, debt ratios

Energy subsidies are high in many emerging market economies and low-income countries because of limited pass-through of recent increases in international energy prices to domestic c...

16 Argentina

16 Argentina »

Source: Fiscal Federalism in Theory and Practice

Series: Books

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 September 1997

ISBN: 9781557756633

Keywords: tax administration, taxation, intergovernmental fiscal relations, tax revenue, local governments

Argentina is a large and decentralized country with significant constitutional powers bestowed to the provincial level of government. As defined in Article 1 of its National Constitution, there are three mai...

2 Assigning Expenditure Responsibilities

2 Assigning Expenditure Responsibilities »

Source: Fiscal Federalism in Theory and Practice

Series: Books

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 September 1997

ISBN: 9781557756633

Keywords: tax administration, taxation, intergovernmental fiscal relations, tax revenue, local governments

Economic theory offers limited guidance for assigning expenditure responsibilities among different levels of government. At the micro level, the benefit principle suggests that a given service should be prov...

8 Australia

8 Australia »

Source: Fiscal Federalism in Theory and Practice

Series: Books

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 September 1997

ISBN: 9781557756633

Keywords: tax administration, taxation, intergovernmental fiscal relations, tax revenue, local governments

The Australian federation is distinguished by a large vertical imbalance between revenue and expenditure assignments at the national and subnational level. The central government raises about 70 percent of t...

17 Bolivia

17 Bolivia »

Source: Fiscal Federalism in Theory and Practice

Series: Books

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 September 1997

ISBN: 9781557756633

Keywords: tax administration, taxation, intergovernmental fiscal relations, tax revenue, local governments

As previous chapters have related, the major objective of recent reforms of intergovernmental financial relations in countries around the world has been the decentralization of government operations from the...

18 Brazil

18 Brazil »

Source: Fiscal Federalism in Theory and Practice

Series: Books

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 September 1997

ISBN: 9781557756633

Keywords: tax administration, taxation, intergovernmental fiscal relations, tax revenue, local governments

The history of intergovernmental fiscal relations in Brazil has been characterized by alternating phases of decentralization and recentralization. The period of the dictatorship, from the mid-1960s to the mi...

6 Budgetary and Financial Management

6 Budgetary and Financial Management »

Source: Fiscal Federalism in Theory and Practice

Series: Books

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 September 1997

ISBN: 9781557756633

Keywords: tax administration, taxation, intergovernmental fiscal relations, tax revenue, local governments

Whether in a federation or in a unitary state, lower-tier governments play an important role in delivering public policies and services. Their provision of services has an economic impact on overall activity...

25 Bulgaria

25 Bulgaria »

Source: Fiscal Federalism in Theory and Practice

Series: Books

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 September 1997

ISBN: 9781557756633

Keywords: tax administration, taxation, intergovernmental fiscal relations, tax revenue, local governments

Bulgaria’s prereform economy, roughly before 1991, was a highly centralized state, similar to most countries of the former Soviet Union. With the radical liberalization and stabilization program adopted in F...

9 Canada

9 Canada »

Source: Fiscal Federalism in Theory and Practice

Series: Books

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 September 1997

ISBN: 9781557756633

Keywords: tax administration, taxation, intergovernmental fiscal relations, tax revenue, local governments

Sparsely populated and stretching from the Atlantic to the Pacific Oceans, Canada is a federal nation composed of heterogeneous provinces. The British North American Act of 1867 established the federal natio...

26 China

26 China »

Source: Fiscal Federalism in Theory and Practice

Series: Books

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 September 1997

ISBN: 9781557756633

Keywords: tax administration, taxation, intergovernmental fiscal relations, tax revenue, local governments

Since 1994, China has undertaken major reforms of its public finances, driven largely by the desire to establish a level playing field to facilitate its entry into the global economy. The authorities have al...