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Brazil

Boom, Bust, and Road to Recovery

Brazil is at crossroads, emerging slowly from a historic recession that was preceded by a huge economic boom.

An Analytical Framework of Environmental Issues

An Analytical Framework of Environmental Issues »

Source: An Analytical Framework of Environmental Issues

Volume/Issue: 1993/53

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Jonathan Levin

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 1993

ISBN: 9781451847314

Keywords: environment, pollution, environmental effects, sulfur, carbon dioxide

Environmental effects which were insignificant in the past, when the fewer concentrations of population or products of modern technology allowed the vast absorptive capacity of nature to act as a sink, are quite ev...

Appendices

Appendices »

Source: International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1999

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 September 1999

ISBN: 9781451945232

Keywords: interest, debt, payments, loans, external debt

Contents Appendix I. International Reserves...

APPENDIX I Incidence Analyses and Income Redistribution

APPENDIX I Incidence Analyses and Income Redistribution »

Source: Fund-Supported Programs, Fiscal Policy, and Income Distribution

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1986

ISBN: 9780939934645

Keywords: taxation, expenditure, salaries, subsidies, income distribution

Most studies of the income distributional effects of public policy fall within the category of “incidence analyses” of taxation and expenditure. They either analyze the effects of particular measures or, if...

Appendix I. International Reserves

Appendix I. International Reserves »

Source: International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1999

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 September 1999

ISBN: 9781451945232

Keywords: interest, debt, payments, loans, external debt

Total international reserves remained essentially unchanged in 1998 relative to the previous year—at SDR 1.4 trillion (Table I.I). Nongold reserves, which consist of foreign exchange reserves and IMF-related...

Appendix II. Financial Operations and Transactions

Appendix II. Financial Operations and Transactions »

Source: International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1999

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 September 1999

ISBN: 9781451945232

Keywords: interest, debt, payments, loans, external debt

The tables in this appendix supplement the information given in Chapter 10 on the IMF’s financial operations and policies. Table II.1 Arrangemen...

APPENDIX II Some Empirical Evidence on Price and Subsidy Policy

APPENDIX II Some Empirical Evidence on Price and Subsidy Policy »

Source: Fund-Supported Programs, Fiscal Policy, and Income Distribution

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1986

ISBN: 9780939934645

Keywords: taxation, expenditure, salaries, subsidies, income distribution

Empirical information concerning the direct effect of price and subsidy policy on income distribution is scarce and of questionable quality. In addition, existing studies do not cover a sufficient range of c...

APPENDIX III A Review of Policies in Fund Programs, 1980–84

APPENDIX III A Review of Policies in Fund Programs, 1980–84 »

Source: Fund-Supported Programs, Fiscal Policy, and Income Distribution

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1986

ISBN: 9780939934645

Keywords: taxation, expenditure, salaries, subsidies, income distribution

Selection of the Sample The Fund approved 117 stand-by programs and 23 extended facilities from January 1980 to December 1984, for 68 countries. Twenty-two countries had programs in...

Appendix III. Principal Policy Decisions of the Executive Board

Appendix III. Principal Policy Decisions of the Executive Board »

Source: International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1999

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 September 1999

ISBN: 9781451945232

Keywords: interest, debt, payments, loans, external debt

A. Access Policy—Guidelines on Access Limits (a) Extension of Annual Access Limit and Period for Review The Fund decides that the annual review of the...

Appendix IV. IMF Relations with Other International Organizations

Appendix IV. IMF Relations with Other International Organizations »

Source: International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1999

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 September 1999

ISBN: 9781451945232

Keywords: interest, debt, payments, loans, external debt

The lessons and experiences of the Asian financial crisis, and the need to strengthen the architecture of the international financial system, led to continuing extensive collaboration between the IMF and oth...