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Aspects of strategic climate work in Nordic municipalities
			: NordLead Project Final Report

Aspects of strategic climate work in Nordic municipalities : NordLead Project Final Report »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Kirsi-Marja Lonkila

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2012

ISBN: 9789289324434

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Nordic Municipalities, Climate Change Management, Climate-friendly, Local Climate, Climate Change Work, Commonalities

Nordic municipalities can have a significant impact on creating a more climate-friendly Nordic region. This study gathers valuable information about climate change management in Nordic municipalities and gives a ge...

The Environment and Public Procurement
			: Common Nordic Procurement Criteria?

The Environment and Public Procurement : Common Nordic Procurement Criteria? »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2007

ISBN: 9789289314459

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Public Procurement, Environmental Considerations, Common Nordic Procurement Criteria, Economy and national budget, National Auspices, Nordic Environmental Labelling Scheme

In order to assist public procurement in facing up to environmental considerations, criteria have been developed in the Nordic countries over the last 15 years for a number of product groups both under national aus...

Central America: Economic Progress and Reforms

Central America: Economic Progress and Reforms »

Source: Central America : Economic Progress and Reforms

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): Dominique Desruelle , and Alfred Schipke

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 November 2008

ISBN: 9781589067653

Keywords: customs, social spending, common, customs union, capital markets

Central America has made substantial progress in recent years in moving economic reforms forward and deepening regional and global integration. As result of these efforts, the region has experienced higher growth,...

chapter 1 Introduction and Overview

chapter 1 Introduction and Overview »

Source: Central America : Economic Progress and Reforms

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): Dominique Desruelle , and Alfred Schipke

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 November 2008

ISBN: 9781589067653

Keywords: customs, social spending, common, customs union, capital markets

Central America 1 has made substantial progress over the past years in moving economic reforms forward and deepening regional and global integration. As a result, Central America...

chapter 2 Moving Forward with Economic Integration

chapter 2 Moving Forward with Economic Integration »

Source: Central America : Economic Progress and Reforms

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): Dominique Desruelle , and Alfred Schipke

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 November 2008

ISBN: 9781589067653

Keywords: customs, social spending, common, customs union, capital markets

Introduction Central America appears to be an ideal candidate for economic integration. Despite differences in economic development, the countries share a common language, history, c...

chapter 3 Central America’s Regional Trends and U.S. Cycles

chapter 3 Central America’s Regional Trends and U.S. Cycles »

Source: Central America : Economic Progress and Reforms

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): Dominique Desruelle , and Alfred Schipke

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 November 2008

ISBN: 9781589067653

Keywords: customs, social spending, common, customs union, capital markets

Introduction The economies of Central America share a close relationship with the United States, with considerable comovement of GDP growth over a long period of time. The open natur...

chapter 4 Equity and Fiscal Policy: Income Distribution Effects of Taxation and Social Spending

chapter 4 Equity and Fiscal Policy: Income Distribution Effects of Taxation and Social Spending »

Source: Central America : Economic Progress and Reforms

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): Dominique Desruelle , and Alfred Schipke

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 November 2008

ISBN: 9781589067653

Keywords: customs, social spending, common, customs union, capital markets

Introduction Central America’s high levels of poverty and income inequality place the distributional effects of fiscal policy at the center of policy dialogue. Central American gover...

chapter 5 Central American Customs Union and Challenges for Tax and Customs Administration

chapter 5 Central American Customs Union and Challenges for Tax and Customs Administration »

Source: Central America : Economic Progress and Reforms

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): Dominique Desruelle , and Alfred Schipke

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 November 2008

ISBN: 9781589067653

Keywords: customs, social spending, common, customs union, capital markets

Introduction In December 2007, the governments of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua signed the Framework Agreement for the Establishment of the Central Amer...

chapter 6 Financial Sector Development: Equity and Private Debt Markets1

chapter 6 Financial Sector Development: Equity and Private Debt Markets1 »

Source: Central America : Economic Progress and Reforms

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): Dominique Desruelle , and Alfred Schipke

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 November 2008

ISBN: 9781589067653

Keywords: customs, social spending, common, customs union, capital markets

Introduction Banks and their affiliates dominate the financial system. While growing rapidly, financial intermediation in Central America continues to take place mainly through the b...

The Political Economy of Conditional and Unconditional Foreign Assistance

The Political Economy of Conditional and Unconditional Foreign Assistance »

Source: The Political Economy of Conditional and Unconditional Foreign Assistance : Grants vs. Loan Rollovers

Volume/Issue: 2004/38

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Wolfgang Mayer , and Alex Mourmouras

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2004

ISBN: 9781451845723

Keywords: common agency models, grants vs. loans, interest group, economic policies, interest groups, political influence, International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions, International Lending and Debt Problems,

Improving the effectiveness of financial assistance programs is a priority of international financial institutions (IFIs). This paper examines the effectiveness of alternative assistance instruments in a dynamic po...