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How Macroeconomic Factors Affect Income Distribution

How Macroeconomic Factors Affect Income Distribution »

Source: How Macroeconomic Factors Affect Income Distribution : The Cross-Country Evidence

Volume/Issue: 1997/152

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Michael Sarel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 1997

ISBN: 9781451922714

Keywords: income distribution, macroeconomic factors, terms of trade, external position, income distribution data, distribution of income

This study develops a cross-section empirical framework to examine the relationship between the macroeconomic environment and trends in income distribution. The macroeconomic variables that are found to be associat...

Bond Restructuring and Moral Hazard

Bond Restructuring and Moral Hazard »

Source: Bond Restructuring and Moral Hazard : Are Collective Action Clauses Costly?

Volume/Issue: 2001/92

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Torbjorn Becker , Anthony Richards , and Yunyong Thaicharoen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2001

ISBN: 9781451851595

Keywords: Bond restructuring, contract design, law, bonds, bond, bondholders, International Lending and Debt Problems,

Many official groups have endorsed the wider use by emerging market borrowers of contract clauses which allow for a qualified majority of bondholders to restructure repayment terms in the event of financial distres...

The Effect of Capital Controlson Foreign Direct Investment Decisions Under Country Risk with Intangible Assets

The Effect of Capital Controlson Foreign Direct Investment Decisions Under Country Risk with Intangible Assets »

Source: The Effect of Capital Controlson Foreign Direct Investment Decisions Under Country Risk with Intangible Assets

Volume/Issue: 2007/79

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Kinga Elo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2007

ISBN: 9781451866438

Keywords: Foreign direct investments, decisions under uncertainty, fdi, capital control, direct investment, foreign direct investment, General Financial Markets: Government Policy and Regulation, Corporate Finance and Governance: Government Policy and Regulation,

This paper examines how capital controls affect FDI decisions and how the impact of these restrictive measures varies with different levels of country risk. We construct a model of firms' FDI decisions, broadly in...

What Causes Firms to Hide Output? the Determinants of Informality

What Causes Firms to Hide Output? the Determinants of Informality »

Source: What Causes Firms to Hide Output? the Determinants of Informality

Volume/Issue: 2005/160

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Gabriela Inchauste , Mark Gradstein , and Era Dabla-Norris

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2005

ISBN: 9781451861792

Keywords: determinants, institutions, survey, business environment, regulatory burden, probability, firm size, Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents: Firm, Education: Other, institution,

In many developing countries, a significant part of economic activity takes place in the informal sector. Earlier work has examined the determinants of the size of the informal sector, focusing separately on factor...

Monetary Transmission in Low Income Countries

Monetary Transmission in Low Income Countries »

Source: Monetary Transmission in Low Income Countries

Volume/Issue: 2010/223

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Peter Montiel , Antonio Spilimbergo , and Prachi Mishra

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2010

ISBN: 9781455208883

Keywords: exchange rate, interest rate, institutions, bank lending, monetary transmission, central bank, government securities, Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development,

This paper reviews monetary transmission mechanisms in low-income countries (LICs) to identify aspects of the channels that may operate differently in LICs relative to advanced and emerging economies. Given the wea...

Offshore Banking

Offshore Banking »

Source: Offshore Banking : An Analysis of Micro- and Macro-Prudential Issues

Volume/Issue: 1999/5

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Luca Errico , and Alberto Musalem Borrero

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1999

ISBN: 9781451842166

Keywords: Offshore Banking, Cross-Border Capital Flows, Banking Problems, Financial Crises, Prudential Regulations, Banking Supervision, banking, offshore banks, consolidated supervision, supervisory authorities

The paper takes a closer look at offshore banking—a pervasive practice that has played a role in recent crises. Offshore banking is an increasingly attractive alternative to the sometimes heavily regulated f...

Taxation of Petroleum Products

Taxation of Petroleum Products »

Source: Taxation of Petroleum Products : Theory and Empirical Evidence

Volume/Issue: 1994/32

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Poonam Gupta , and Walter Mahler

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 1994

ISBN: 9781451979756

Keywords: petroleum products, fuel oil, automotive diesel, heavy fuel oil, petroleum prices

The domestic taxation of petroleum products is an important source of revenue in most countries. However, there is a wide variation of tax rates on petroleum products across countries, which cannot be explained by...

Informality and Regulations

Informality and Regulations »

Source: Informality and Regulations : What Drives Firm Growth?

Volume/Issue: 2007/112

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Era Dabla-Norris , and Gabriela Inchauste

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2007

ISBN: 9781451866766

Keywords: Firm growth, informality, business environment, Transition countries, regulatory burden, survey, organized crime, correlation, standard errors,

The paper relies on a rich firm-level data set on transition economies to examine the role of informality as an important channel through which regulatory and other policy constraints affect firm growth. We find th...

How Large Are Global Energy Subsidies?

How Large Are Global Energy Subsidies? »

Source: How Large Are Global Energy Subsidies?

Volume/Issue: 2015/105

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): David Coady , Ian Parry , Louis Sears , and Baoping Shang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 May 2015

ISBN: 9781513532196

Keywords: energy subsidies, efficient taxation, deadweight loss, revenue, subsidies, tax, vehicle, traffic, subsidy, Demand and Supply

This paper provides a comprehensive, updated picture of energy subsidies at the global and regional levels. It focuses on the broad notion of post-tax energy subsidies, which arise when consumer prices are below su...

Spillovers of Domestic Shocks

Spillovers of Domestic Shocks »

Source: Spillovers of Domestic Shocks : Will They Counteract the 'Great Moderation'?

Volume/Issue: 2010/78

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ashoka Mody , and Alina Carare

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2010

ISBN: 9781451982213

Keywords: Output growth volatility, vertical specialization, output growth, domestic shocks, global trade,

Even prior to the extreme volatility just observed, output growth volatility-following protracted decline-was flattening or mildly rising in some countries. More widespread was an increasing tendency from the mid-1...