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11 Central Bank Independence in Austria

11 Central Bank Independence in Austria »

Source: The Evolving Role of Central Banks

Series: Books

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 June 1991

ISBN: 9781557751850

Keywords: central bank, banking, monetary policy, national bank, inflation

I would like to discuss the evolution of central bank independence in Austria and how it functions today. I shall first give a short history as background and then describe the pres...

Valuation and Treatment of Depletable Resources in the National Accounts

Valuation and Treatment of Depletable Resources in the National Accounts »

Source: Valuation and Treatment of Depletable Resources in the National Accounts

Volume/Issue: 1991/73

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Jonathan Levin

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 1991

ISBN: 9781451958560

Keywords: natural resources, natural resource, oil and gas, probable reserves, gas reserves

To assess the feasibility of the national accounts treating as assets depletable resources extracted for sale, the paper examines three issues: 1. whether treating natural resources as assets when they are used req...

Raising Resources for IDA: The Eighth Replenishment - Changes in key policies; higher financing

Raising Resources for IDA: The Eighth Replenishment - Changes in key policies; higher financing »

Source: Finance & Development, September 1987

Volume/Issue: 24/3

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 1987

ISBN: 9781616353704

Keywords: environment, trade, environments, development, industrialization

The enhancement of the IMF's structural adjustment facility is discussed. In its April 1987 meeting, the IMF's Interim Committee highlighted the plight of low-income countries, and outlined a strategy for their rec...

Risk Instability and the Pattern of Foreign Direct Investment in the Middle East and North Africa Region

Risk Instability and the Pattern of Foreign Direct Investment in the Middle East and North Africa Region »

Source: Risk Instability and the Pattern of Foreign Direct Investment in the Middle East and North Africa Region

Volume/Issue: 2004/139

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2004

ISBN: 9781451856071

Keywords: Multinational firms, MENA countries, fdi, investment risk, direct investment

This paper demonstrates that instability associated with investment risk is critical in explaining the level of foreign direct investment for the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries, which generally have...

Technical Assistance: IMF to Step Up Work with Donors to Boost Effectiveness of Assistance

Technical Assistance: IMF to Step Up Work with Donors to Boost Effectiveness of Assistance »

Source: IMF Survey, Volume 36 Issue 14

Volume/Issue: 36/14

Series: IMF Survey

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 December 2007

ISBN: 9781451938630

Keywords: oil prices, oil demand, spot price, organization of petroleum exporting countries, crude prices

Rising Energy Costs, Liberia to get debt relief, Climate Change, World Economic Outlook, European Economic Outlook, Latin American Economic Outlook, Mideast-Central Asia Economic Outlook, Technical Assistance, Rese...

The Global Environment Facility

The Global Environment Facility »

Source: Finance & Development, March 1991

Volume/Issue: 28/1

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1991

ISBN: 9781451953046

Keywords: exchange rate, monetary policy, exchange rates, monetary authorities, exchange rate regime

European Community member states now face critical decisions on the design and implementation of monetary policy...

Recent Activity—International Monetary Fund

Recent Activity—International Monetary Fund »

Source: Finance & Development, September 1970

Volume/Issue: 7/3

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 1970

ISBN: 9781616353001

Keywords: human environment, environment, environmental problem, environmental impact

This paper analyzes the impact of economic development on the environment. The paper highlights that the environmental impact of the industrial process includes everything from the effects of withdrawing the inputs...

Environmental Protectionism, North-South Trade, and the Uruguay Round1/

Environmental Protectionism, North-South Trade, and the Uruguay Round1/ »

Source: Environmental Protectionism, North-South Trade, and the Uruguay Round

Volume/Issue: 1995/6

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Piritta Sorsa

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1995

ISBN: 9781451929041

Keywords: environment, environmental standards, environmental agreements, environmental problems, environmental taxes

The paper seeks to provide an overview of the present state of debate on trade, environment and the GATT for developing countries. Potential for green protectionism and relevant GATT rules are discussed in three ar...

The Fifth General Review of Quotas

The Fifth General Review of Quotas »

Source: Finance & Development, September 1970

Volume/Issue: 7/3

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 1970

ISBN: 9781616353001

Keywords: human environment, environment, environmental problem, environmental impact

This paper analyzes the impact of economic development on the environment. The paper highlights that the environmental impact of the industrial process includes everything from the effects of withdrawing the inputs...

Taxes and Tradable Permits As Instruments for Controlling Pollution

Taxes and Tradable Permits As Instruments for Controlling Pollution »

Source: Taxes and Tradable Permits As Instruments for Controlling Pollution : Theory and Practice

Volume/Issue: 2000/13

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): John Norregaard , and Valerie Reppelin

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2000

ISBN: 9781451842999

Keywords: Environmental taxes, tradable permits, emission, pollution, emission tax, emission taxes

This paper examines the relative merits of two dominant economic instruments for reducing pollution—”green” taxes and tradable permits. Theoretically, the two instruments share many similaritie...