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Annex I

Annex I »

Source: The Economy of the Middle East and North Africa in 1997

Series: Books

Author(s): Mohamed El-Erian , and Susan Fennell

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 November 1997

ISBN: 9781557757111

Keywords: oil prices, oil exporters, stock market, crude oil, natural gas

MENA at a Glance Coverage. The MENA region is defined to encompass the economies of the Arab League (Algeria, Bahrain, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon,...

II. Recent Developments in the Macroeconomy

II. Recent Developments in the Macroeconomy »

Source: The Economy of the Middle East and North Africa in 1997

Series: Books

Author(s): Mohamed El-Erian , and Susan Fennell

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 November 1997

ISBN: 9781557757111

Keywords: oil prices, oil exporters, stock market, crude oil, natural gas

A. Overview As recognized by governments throughout the region, sustaining a high rate of growth is the primary economic challenge facing the MENA economies. This is needed to enhanc...

1 Reform and Growth

1 Reform and Growth »

Source: Building on Progress : Reform and Growth in the Middle East and North Africa

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 November 1996

ISBN: 9781557756251

Keywords: trade liberalization, financial sector, uruguay round, banking, oil countries

Unprecedented opportunities have opened up for the countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region to transform their economies through accelerated economic growth. The opportunities are many and...

4 Financial Structure and Reforms

4 Financial Structure and Reforms »

Source: Building on Progress : Reform and Growth in the Middle East and North Africa

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 November 1996

ISBN: 9781557756251

Keywords: trade liberalization, financial sector, uruguay round, banking, oil countries

Strong and dynamic modern financial institutions and systems are important prerequisites for MENA countries to compete in the global economy and achieve full integration into world financial markets. While m...

VI. Public Sector Employment

VI. Public Sector Employment »

Source: Public Expenditure Handbook : A Guide to Public Policy Issues in Developing Countries

Series: Books

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1991

ISBN: 9781557752222

Keywords: expenditure, public expenditure, military, health care, fiscal policy

What determines the number of public sector employees? What is the relationship between the publ...

3 Fiscal Structure and Reform

3 Fiscal Structure and Reform »

Source: Building on Progress : Reform and Growth in the Middle East and North Africa

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 November 1996

ISBN: 9781557756251

Keywords: trade liberalization, financial sector, uruguay round, banking, oil countries

Governments in the countries of the MENA region have traditionally played a dominant role in their economies, especially in terms of the resources that they command, their contribution to output, and their i...

5 Adjusting to the New Realities

5 Adjusting to the New Realities »

Source: Building on Progress : Reform and Growth in the Middle East and North Africa

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 November 1996

ISBN: 9781557756251

Keywords: trade liberalization, financial sector, uruguay round, banking, oil countries

The MENA region, with the exception of the GCC countries, remains one of the most protectionist in the world. Furthermore, despite the remarkable growth in international trade over the past few decades, MENA...

2 Investment and Growth

2 Investment and Growth »

Source: Building on Progress : Reform and Growth in the Middle East and North Africa

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 November 1996

ISBN: 9781557756251

Keywords: trade liberalization, financial sector, uruguay round, banking, oil countries

How to achieve a better economic growth is the major economic policy challenge facing the countries of MENA. Sustained high growth is needed to improve living standards, reduce unemployment, and provide jobs...

Appendix A. Estimating Pretax and Posttax Global Energy Subsidies

Appendix A. Estimating Pretax and Posttax Global Energy Subsidies »

Source: Energy Subsidy Reform : Lessons and Implications

Series: Books

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Stefania Fabrizio , Sanjeev Gupta , Trevor Alleyne , and Carlo Sdralevich

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 September 2013

ISBN: 9781475558111

Keywords: prices, electricity, pricing, electricity sector, electricity subsidies

This appendix describes the data sources and methodologies used for the estimation of subsidies for petroleum products, coal, natural gas, and electricity. Pretax Subsidies...