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Financial Intermediation Costs in Low-Income Countries

Financial Intermediation Costs in Low-Income Countries »

Source: Financial Intermediation Costs in Low-Income Countries : The Role of Regulatory, Institutional, and Macroeconomic Factors

Volume/Issue: 2012/140

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Tigran Poghosyan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2012

ISBN: 9781475503937

Keywords: Net Interest Margins, Low Income Countries, Emerging Economies, market concentration, banking, net interest margin, competition, bank entry

We analyze factors driving persistently higher financial intermediation costs in low-income countries (LICs) relative to emerging market (EMs) country comparators. Using the net interest margin as a proxy for finan...

Petroleum Product Subsidies

Petroleum Product Subsidies »

Source: Petroleum Product Subsidies : Costly, Inequitable, and On the Rise

Volume/Issue: 2010/05

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): John Piotrowski , David Coady , Justin Tyson , Rolando Ossowski , Robert Gillingham , and Shamsuddin Tareq

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 February 2010

ISBN: 9781455239108

Keywords: Commodity price fluctuations, Oil exporting countries, Oil product prices, Oil subsidies, Price stabilization, Fiscal reforms, Governance, Taxes, Subsidies, Petroleum products

Petroleum product subsidies have again started to increase with the rebound in international prices. This note reviews recent developments in subsidy levels and argues that reforming the policy framework for settin...

XVIII. The Distributional Impact of Public Expenditure

XVIII. The Distributional Impact of Public Expenditure »

Source: Public Expenditure Handbook : A Guide to Public Policy Issues in Developing Countries

Series: Books

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1991

ISBN: 9781557752222

Keywords: expenditure, public expenditure, military, health care, fiscal policy

What data are needed to determine the incidence of fiscal policy? Are such data likely to be available in developing countries?...

9 Panel Discussion

9 Panel Discussion »

Source: Africa : Adjustment to the Challenges of Globalization

Series: Books

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 January 1999

ISBN: 9781557758293

Keywords: banking, expenditure, trade liberalization, civil service, banking system

Tomáz Salomão In the past, for most of the countries in Africa, globalization was something we read about, not something that we participated in. Historically, the integration of fir...

CHAPTER 7 Progress Toward External Viability

CHAPTER 7 Progress Toward External Viability »

Source: Economic Adjustment and Reform in Low-Income Countries (ESAF Review Background Papers)

Series: Books

Author(s): Susan Schadler , and Hugh Bredenkamp

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 June 1999

ISBN: 9781557757159

Keywords: inflation, public enterprises, public enterprise, enterprise reform, public enterprise sector

Progress toward external viability is a central objective in ESAF-supported programs. To this end, the programs emphasize macroeconomic policies and structural reforms that are designed to strengthen externa...

2 Achieving Better Results in Human Development

2 Achieving Better Results in Human Development »

Source: Global Monitoring Report, 2008 : MDGs and the Environment: Agenda for Inclusive and Sustainable Development

Series: Other Official Rpts and Docs

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 April 2008

ISBN: 9780821373842

Keywords: environment, climate change, environmental sustainability, health care, malnutrition

The world has made steady progress toward meeting the numerical targets for the human development Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Achievements have been impressive in some cases, and even in countries t...

CHAPTER 4 The Policy Record

CHAPTER 4 The Policy Record »

Source: Economic Adjustment and Reform in Low-Income Countries (ESAF Review Background Papers)

Series: Books

Author(s): Susan Schadler , and Hugh Bredenkamp

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 June 1999

ISBN: 9781557757159

Keywords: inflation, public enterprises, public enterprise, enterprise reform, public enterprise sector

This chapter examines developments in the macroeconomic and structural policies of the ESAF countries during the period under review and takes stock of the progress achieved toward greater macroeconomic stab...

CHAPTER 2 Methodological Issues

CHAPTER 2 Methodological Issues »

Source: Economic Adjustment and Reform in Low-Income Countries (ESAF Review Background Papers)

Series: Books

Author(s): Susan Schadler , and Hugh Bredenkamp

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 June 1999

ISBN: 9781557757159

Keywords: inflation, public enterprises, public enterprise, enterprise reform, public enterprise sector

The extent of progress with respect to the objectives of the ESAF can be assessed from a variety of perspectives. The most commonly used in evaluations of adjustment programs are:...

Chapter 14. Distributional Consequences and Policy Responses to Food Price Inflation in Developing Asia

Chapter 14. Distributional Consequences and Policy Responses to Food Price Inflation in Developing Asia »

Source: Commodity Price Volatility and Inclusive Growth in Low-Income Countries

Series: Books

Author(s): Rabah Arezki , Catherine Pattillo , Marc Quintyn , and Min Zhu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 October 2012

ISBN: 9781616353797

Keywords: hedging, fiscal policy, inflation, terms of trade, food prices

Introduction Rapidly rising food prices are not just a macroeconomic problem. By directly influencing poverty levels, they create a political challenge for developing countries. As t...

1 Growth, Poverty Reduction, and Environmental Sustainability

1 Growth, Poverty Reduction, and Environmental Sustainability »

Source: Global Monitoring Report, 2007 : Confronting the Challenges of Gender Equality and Fragile States

Series: Other Official Rpts and Docs

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 April 2007

ISBN: 9780821369753

Keywords: debt, girls, child mortality, maternal mortality

Under the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG1), the international community aims to halve the global rate of extreme income poverty—as measured by the share of the population living on less than $1 per d...