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Inclusive Growth, Institutions, and the Underground Economy

Inclusive Growth, Institutions, and the Underground Economy »

Source: Inclusive Growth, Institutions, and the Underground Economy

Volume/Issue: 2012/47

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Adil Mohommad , Anoop Singh , and Sonali Jain-Chandra

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2012

ISBN: 9781463937089

Keywords: institutions, law, property rights, regulatory burden, institutional development, income tax rate, Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity: General,

Worldwide protests against the perceived lack of economic opportunity and failure of governance have refocused attention on the need for inclusive growth and strong institutions. In developing countries, large info...

Energy Subsidies and Public Social Spending

Energy Subsidies and Public Social Spending »

Source: Energy Subsidies and Public Social Spending : Theory and Evidence

Volume/Issue: 2015/101

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Christian Ebeke , and Constant Lonkeng Ngouana

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 May 2015

ISBN: 9781475580747

Keywords: Energy subsidies, Public social spending, Causality, subsidy, tax, energy subsidy, Cross-Sectional Models, Single Equation Models: Single Variables: Instrumental Variables (IV) Estimation, Causality.,

This paper shows that high energy subsidies and low public social spending can emerge as an equilibrium outcome of a political game between the elite and the middle-class when the provision of public goods is subje...