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II Eastern and Southern Africa: Broad Characteristics of the Region

II Eastern and Southern Africa: Broad Characteristics of the Region »

Source: Trade and Trade Policies in Eastern and Southern Africa

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Arvind Subramanian

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 September 2000

ISBN: 9781557759429

Keywords: trade liberalization, monopoly, trade taxes, export taxes, export performance

The 22 eastern and southern African countries covered in this study vary considerably in population, size, and economic profile (Table 2.1). Population size varies from fewer than 80,000 people...

III Trade Liberalization by ESA Countries During the 1990s

III Trade Liberalization by ESA Countries During the 1990s »

Source: Trade and Trade Policies in Eastern and Southern Africa

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Arvind Subramanian

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 September 2000

ISBN: 9781557759429

Keywords: trade liberalization, monopoly, trade taxes, export taxes, export performance

Unilateral Liberalization in Goods In the early 1990s, reflecting the inward-looking development policies adopted in previous decades, the trade and exchange regimes of most countrie...

I Introduction

I Introduction »

Source: Managing the Oil Revenue Boom : The Role of Fiscal Institutions

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Mauricio Villafuerte , Rolando Ossowski , Theo Thomas , and Paulo Medas

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 April 2008

ISBN: 9781589067189

Keywords: Financial institutions, Oil revenues, oil-producing countries, fiscal policy, oil prices, fiscal rules

Oil-producing countries have benefited from rising oil prices in recent years, with important implications for their external and fiscal balances. The average price of oil tripled from US$18 a barrel in 1999...

II The Setting for Adjustment: Initial Positions and Global Environment

II The Setting for Adjustment: Initial Positions and Global Environment »

Source: IMF Conditionality : Experience Under Stand-by and Extended Arrangements, Part I: Key Issues and Findings

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Louis Dicks-Mireaux , Miguel Savastano , Adam Bennett , María Carkovic S. , Mauro Mecagni , James John , and Susan Schadler

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 September 1995

ISBN: 9781557754929

Keywords: inflation, terms of trade, capital inflows, exchange rate, real interest rates

Almost without exception, the initial positions of the countries under review were dire. Most were suffering the effects of long-standing institutional and structural weaknesses, fiscal excesses, and deficie...

I Overview

I Overview »

Source: Trade and Trade Policies in Eastern and Southern Africa

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Arvind Subramanian

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 September 2000

ISBN: 9781557759429

Keywords: trade liberalization, monopoly, trade taxes, export taxes, export performance

Since the early 1990s, many countries in sub-Saharan Africa have made significant progress in opening their economies to external competition through trade and exchange liberalization, often in...

I Introduction

I Introduction »

Source: Oil Exporters' Economic Development in an Interdependent World

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Jahangir Amuzegar

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 April 1983

ISBN: 9781557750785

Keywords: opec, oil exporting, exporting developing countries, oil exports, oil exporting countries

Not unpredictably, there is a complex energy bind as we approach the end of the twentieth century. The oil importing industrial countries have anchored their industries, their means of transportation, their...

IV Regional Integration

IV Regional Integration »

Source: Trade and Trade Policies in Eastern and Southern Africa

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Arvind Subramanian

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 September 2000

ISBN: 9781557759429

Keywords: trade liberalization, monopoly, trade taxes, export taxes, export performance

Preferential Liberalization in Goods During the 1990s, in addition to the Cross-Border Initiative, countries in eastern and southern Africa embarked on a number of bilateral and regi...

VI Macroeconomic Aspects of Trade Liberalization

VI Macroeconomic Aspects of Trade Liberalization »

Source: Trade and Trade Policies in Eastern and Southern Africa

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Arvind Subramanian

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 September 2000

ISBN: 9781557759429

Keywords: trade liberalization, monopoly, trade taxes, export taxes, export performance

This section deals with two questions: whether initial macroeconomic conditions influenced the extent of trade liberalization during the 1990s, and whether trade liberalization was associated in...

V The External Environment and Trade Developments

V The External Environment and Trade Developments »

Source: Trade and Trade Policies in Eastern and Southern Africa

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Arvind Subramanian

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 September 2000

ISBN: 9781557759429

Keywords: trade liberalization, monopoly, trade taxes, export taxes, export performance

External Environment ESA countries faced changes in their external environment in the 1990s, caused by the increasing trend toward globalization and worldwide trade liberalization, m...

II The Recent Oil Boom

II The Recent Oil Boom »

Source: Managing the Oil Revenue Boom : The Role of Fiscal Institutions

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Mauricio Villafuerte , Rolando Ossowski , Theo Thomas , and Paulo Medas

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 April 2008

ISBN: 9781589067189

Keywords: Financial institutions, Oil revenues, oil-producing countries, fiscal policy, oil prices, fiscal rules

This section provides an overview of the fiscal policy responses of oil-producing countries to the oil boom through 2005. 1 Although the analysis focuses on broad trends, the sign...