Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 4 of 4 items :

  • Iran, Islamic Republic of x
  • Environmental - Pollution Control x
Clear All
Turkmenistan

Turkmenistan »

Source: Turkmenistan : Recent Economic Developments

Volume/Issue: 1996/30

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 May 1996

ISBN: 9781451837216

Keywords: gas, minimum wage, interest rates, benefits, pollution

This paper reviews economic developments in Turkmenistan during 1992-96. There was a general strengthening of centralized controls during 1993-95 to protect international reserves. Monetary and exchange rate polici...

Turkmenistan

Turkmenistan »

Source: Turkmenistan : Recent Economic Developments

Volume/Issue: 1998/81

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 September 1998

ISBN: 9781451837230

Keywords: gas, foreign exchange, banking, banking system, interest rates

This paper reviews economic developments in Turkmenistan during 1994-98. Turkmenistan reduced gas exports and suffered a decline in real GDP of close to 40 percent during 1993-95. At the same time, it stepped up fo...

Ukraine

Ukraine »

Source: Ukraine : Recent Economic Developments

Volume/Issue: 1996/21

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 March 1996

ISBN: 9781451838916

Keywords: gas, wages, wage, benefits, payroll

This paper reviews economic developments in Ukraine during 1991-95. In October 1994, Ukraine finally embarked upon a comprehensive program of economic reform and stabilization. Although the efforts made in late 199...

Energy Sector Quasi-Fiscal Activities in the Countries of the Former Soviet Union

Energy Sector Quasi-Fiscal Activities in the Countries of the Former Soviet Union »

Source: Energy Sector Quasi-Fiscal Activities in the Countries of the Former Soviet Union

Volume/Issue: 2002/60

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Aleh Tsyvinski , Martin Petri , and Günther Taube

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2002

ISBN: 9781451848069

Keywords: transition countries, quasi-fiscal activities, implicit subsidies, implicit taxation, payment arrears, gas, fiscal activities, coal, fiscal deficit, Structure

A decade into the transition, many of the successor states of the former Soviet Union (FSU) continue to use energy sector quasi-fiscal activities (QFAs), especially low energy prices and the toleration of payment a...