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Entrepreneurs and Entrepreneurship in Africa: A liberal economic climate will help promote small businesses

Entrepreneurs and Entrepreneurship in Africa: A liberal economic climate will help promote small businesses »

Source: Finance & Development, December 1988

Volume/Issue: 25/4

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 1988

ISBN: 9781616353759

Keywords: adjustment programs, structural adjustment, external shocks, aggregate demand, process of adjustment

This paper describes the effect of IMF-supported adjustment programs on the poor. The paper highlights that IMF-supported adjustment programs have often been misunderstood and have been criticized for seeking exces...

Chapter 18. The Role of Transparency and Civil Society in Managing Commodities for Inclusive Growth and Development

Chapter 18. The Role of Transparency and Civil Society in Managing Commodities for Inclusive Growth and Development »

Source: Commodity Price Volatility and Inclusive Growth in Low-Income Countries

Series: Books

Author(s): Rabah Arezki , Catherine Pattillo , Marc Quintyn , and Min Zhu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 October 2012

ISBN: 9781616353797

Keywords: hedging, fiscal policy, inflation, terms of trade, food prices

Introduction In 2008, aid flow to sub-Saharan Africa reached US$36 billion per year. Natural resource rents, by contrast, stood at US$240 billion. Over three-quarters of Africa’s sub...

XIV. Public Investment

XIV. Public Investment »

Source: Public Expenditure Handbook : A Guide to Public Policy Issues in Developing Countries

Series: Books

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1991

ISBN: 9781557752222

Keywords: expenditure, public expenditure, military, health care, fiscal policy

How should public investment projects be appraised? Are overall public investment programs consi...

Chapter 3. The Political Economy of Petroleum Wealth in Low-Income Countries: Some Policy Alternatives

Chapter 3. The Political Economy of Petroleum Wealth in Low-Income Countries: Some Policy Alternatives »

Source: Commodity Price Volatility and Inclusive Growth in Low-Income Countries

Series: Books

Author(s): Rabah Arezki , Catherine Pattillo , Marc Quintyn , and Min Zhu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 October 2012

ISBN: 9781616353797

Keywords: hedging, fiscal policy, inflation, terms of trade, food prices

Introduction The problems created by abundant mineral wealth—commonly referred to as the natural resource curse—are mostly political, not economic. If low-income countries were gover...

Chapter 10. Inequality and Unsustainable Growth: Two Sides of the Same Coin?

Chapter 10. Inequality and Unsustainable Growth: Two Sides of the Same Coin? »

Source: Commodity Price Volatility and Inclusive Growth in Low-Income Countries

Series: Books

Author(s): Rabah Arezki , Catherine Pattillo , Marc Quintyn , and Min Zhu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 October 2012

ISBN: 9781616353797

Keywords: hedging, fiscal policy, inflation, terms of trade, food prices

Introduction In the long term, sustained growth is central to poverty reduction. The rapid growth seen in much of the world over the past few decades—notably, but not only, in China...

VI. Public Sector Employment

VI. Public Sector Employment »

Source: Public Expenditure Handbook : A Guide to Public Policy Issues in Developing Countries

Series: Books

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1991

ISBN: 9781557752222

Keywords: expenditure, public expenditure, military, health care, fiscal policy

What determines the number of public sector employees? What is the relationship between the publ...

VII. Public Sector Pay

VII. Public Sector Pay »

Source: Public Expenditure Handbook : A Guide to Public Policy Issues in Developing Countries

Series: Books

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1991

ISBN: 9781557752222

Keywords: expenditure, public expenditure, military, health care, fiscal policy

What determines wages and salaries in the public sector? Is public sector pay out of line with t...

Chapter 5. How Should Emerging Market and Low-Income Country Central Banks Respond to Commodity Price Shocks?

Chapter 5. How Should Emerging Market and Low-Income Country Central Banks Respond to Commodity Price Shocks? »

Source: Commodity Price Volatility and Inclusive Growth in Low-Income Countries

Series: Books

Author(s): Rabah Arezki , Catherine Pattillo , Marc Quintyn , and Min Zhu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 October 2012

ISBN: 9781616353797

Keywords: hedging, fiscal policy, inflation, terms of trade, food prices

Introduction Over the last two decades, inflation targeting (IT)—in either an explicit or an implicit form—has become the monetary policy framework of choice for most advanced econom...

Chapter 2. The Natural Resource Curse: A Survey of Diagnoses and Some Prescriptions

Chapter 2. The Natural Resource Curse: A Survey of Diagnoses and Some Prescriptions »

Source: Commodity Price Volatility and Inclusive Growth in Low-Income Countries

Series: Books

Author(s): Rabah Arezki , Catherine Pattillo , Marc Quintyn , and Min Zhu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 October 2012

ISBN: 9781616353797

Keywords: hedging, fiscal policy, inflation, terms of trade, food prices

Oil, minerals, and agricultural resources can bring great riches to those who possess them. Yet countries that are abundantly endowed with such natural resources often encounter pitfalls that interfere with...

Chapter 6. Savings and Investment Decisions in Resource-Rich Low-Income Countries

Chapter 6. Savings and Investment Decisions in Resource-Rich Low-Income Countries »

Source: Commodity Price Volatility and Inclusive Growth in Low-Income Countries

Series: Books

Author(s): Rabah Arezki , Catherine Pattillo , Marc Quintyn , and Min Zhu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 October 2012

ISBN: 9781616353797

Keywords: hedging, fiscal policy, inflation, terms of trade, food prices

Introduction Many of the poorest countries on Earth are in the throes of a double bonanza of high prices for their natural resource exports coupled with new discoveries. Over the nex...