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The Energy Sector Reform and Macroeconomic Adjustment in a Transition Economy

The Energy Sector Reform and Macroeconomic Adjustment in a Transition Economy »

Source: The Energy Sector Reform and Macroeconomic Adjustment in a Transition Economy : The Case of Romania

Volume/Issue: 2003/2

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Stéphane Cossé

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2003

ISBN: 9781451974546

Keywords: Europe, European Economic and Monetary Union, Social security, Romania, energy sector, quasi-fiscal activities, macroeconomic stabilization, transition, energy, natural gas

This paper assesses the main issues faced by the energy sector in a transition economy such as Romania and their macroeconomic dimension. It examines how the size of quasi-fiscal subsidies, owing mainly to inapprop...

Economic Diversification in the GCC

Economic Diversification in the GCC »

Source: Economic Diversification in the GCC : Past, Present, and Future

Volume/Issue: 2014/12

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Tim Callen , Reda Cherif , Fuad Hasanov , Amgad Hegazy , and Padamja Khandelwal

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 December 2014

ISBN: 9781498303231

Keywords: Export diversification, Exports, Bahrain, Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf, Cross country analysis, Economic growth, Oil revenues, Oman, Private sector, Saudi Arabia

Abstract: The economies of the six Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries are heavily reliant on oil. Greater economic diversification would reduce their exposure to volatility and uncertainty in the global oil m...

II External Environment: Politics, Oil, and Debt

II External Environment: Politics, Oil, and Debt »

Source: Yemen in the 1990s : From Unification to Economic Reform

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Nada Choueiri , Klaus-Stefan Enders , Yuri Sobolev , Jan Walliser , and Sherwyn Williams

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 May 2002

ISBN: 9781589060425

Keywords: foreign exchange, exchange rate, crude oil, oil prices, petroleum products

Economic developments in Yemen in the 1990s were driven largely by dramatic changes in the political sphere—in particular, by unification and civil war—and by external events, chief among which...

Chapter 6. Fiscal Developments and Challenges

Chapter 6. Fiscal Developments and Challenges »

Source: Cambodia : Rebuilding for a Challenging Future

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Sumio Ishikawa , Sibel Beadle , Damien Eastman , Srobona Mitra , Alejandro Lopez Mejia , Wafa Abdelati , Koji Nakamura , Il Lee , Sònia Muñoz , Robert Hagemann , David Coe , and Nadia Rendak

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 February 2006

ISBN: 9781589064447

Keywords: Development, court, law, exchange rate, dollarization, judicial reform

Fiscal reform has been the cornerstone of Cambodia’s macroeconomic program since the restoration of political and economic stability in the late 1990s. Fiscal revenue improved, social spending was increased...

VII Privatization and State Enterprise Reform

VII Privatization and State Enterprise Reform »

Source: The Lao People's Democratic Republic : Systemic Transformation and Adjustment

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Ichiro Otani , and Chi Pham

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 May 1996

ISBN: 9781557755605

Keywords: banking, exchange rate, foreign exchange, privatization, foreign investment

In the late 1980s, the Government, responding to increasing concerns about the weak performance of the state-owned enterprises, began to formulate a strategy for privatization and state enterprise reform. At...

VII Experience with the Use of Extensive Controls During Financial Crises

VII Experience with the Use of Extensive Controls During Financial Crises »

Source: Capital Controls : Country Experiences with Their Use and Liberalization

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Akira Ariyoshi , Andrei Kirilenko , Inci Ötker , Bernard Laurens , Jorge Canales Kriljenko , and Karl Habermeier

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 May 2000

ISBN: 9781557758743

Keywords: capital inflows, exchange rate, capital controls, capital flows, foreign exchange

Romania (1996–97) The Romanian authorities imposed exchange controls in March 1996 in the context of heavy foreign exchange market pressures. These pressures stemmed from a relaxatio...

10 The Integration of Low-Income CIS-7 Countries into the World Trading System

10 The Integration of Low-Income CIS-7 Countries into the World Trading System »

Source: The Low-Income Countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States : Progress and Challenges in Transition

Series: Seminar Volumes

Author(s): Sarosh Sattar , and Clinton Shiells

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 April 2004

ISBN: 9781589063211

Keywords: debt, external debt, expenditures, current account, transition economies

More effective integration into the world trading system is part of the transition from central planning to markets. Based on market forces, international trade promotes more effici...

6 Inequality and Poverty in the CIS-7 Countries, 1989–2002

6 Inequality and Poverty in the CIS-7 Countries, 1989–2002 »

Source: The Low-Income Countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States : Progress and Challenges in Transition

Series: Seminar Volumes

Author(s): Sarosh Sattar , and Clinton Shiells

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 April 2004

ISBN: 9781589063211

Keywords: debt, external debt, expenditures, current account, transition economies

This chapter examines the evolution and current status of living standards and welfare following a decade of transition in seven of the poorest countries of the former Soviet Union...

Chapter 2. Country Overview

Chapter 2. Country Overview »

Source: Lifting the Oil Curse : Improving Petroleum Revenue Management in Sub-Saharan Africa

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Harinder Malothra , Milan Cuc , Ulrich Bartsch , and Menachem Katz

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 January 2004

ISBN: 9781589063174

Keywords: fiscal policy, oil sector, oil companies, exchange rate, oil prices

The seven countries in the group of oil-producing African countries together produced an average of 3.8 million barrels of oil per day in 2001, equivalent to 5 percent of world oil production. Their total pr...

Chapter 2. The Riddle of Diversification

Chapter 2. The Riddle of Diversification »

Source: Breaking the Oil Spell : The Gulf Falcons' Path to Diversification

Series: Books

Author(s): Reda Cherif , Fuad Hasanov , and Min Zhu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 April 2016

ISBN: 9781513537863

Keywords: Export diversification, Nonoil sector, Oil exporting countries, Economic development, environment, development, oil, capital, industry, Gulf Falcons,

As Reda Cherif and Fuad Hasanov conclude in Chapter 1, petro-states face daunting challenges—really a riddle for policymakers—to assure sustainable and diversified economies. Late-late developers...