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Romania »

Source: Romania : Statistical Appendix

Volume/Issue: 1998/123

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 November 1998

ISBN: 9781451832693

Keywords: lead, gas, copper, iron

In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discuss...

Ten Principles of the New Environmentalism

Ten Principles of the New Environmentalism »

Source: Finance & Development, December 1996

Volume/Issue: 33/4

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1996

ISBN: 9781451951899

Keywords: environmentally sustainable development, environment, sustainable development, rural development

For the latest thinking about the international financial system, monetary policy, economic development, poverty reduction, and other critical issues, subscribe to Finance & Development (F&D). This lively quarterly...

Managed Trade: What Could be Possible Spillover Effects of a Potential Trade Agreement Between the U.S. and China?1

Managed Trade: What Could be Possible Spillover Effects of a Potential Trade Agreement Between the U.S. and China?1 »

Source: Managed Trade: What Could be Possible Spillover Effects of a Potential Trade Agreement Between the U.S. and China?

Volume/Issue: 2019/251

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Eugenio Cerutti , Shan Chen , Pragyan Deb , Albe Gjonbalaj , Swarnali Hannan , and Adil Mohommad

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 November 2019

ISBN: 9781513518312

Keywords: Bilateral trade, Balance of trade, Patterns of trade, Trading systems, Trade policy, Managed trade deal, spillover effects., WP, extra purchase, size-based

The trade discussions between the U.S. and China are on-going. Not much is known about the shape and nature of a potential agreement, but it seems possible that it would include elements of managed trade. This pape...

Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)-Energy Price Reforms in the GCC-What Can Be Learned From International Experiences?

Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)-Energy Price Reforms in the GCC-What Can Be Learned From International Experiences? »

Source: Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)-Energy Price Reforms in the GCC-What Can Be Learned From International Experiences?

Volume/Issue: 2015/064

Series: Policy Papers

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 October 2015

ISBN: 9781498343916

Keywords: Oil product prices, Demand elasticity, Energy prices, Oil prices, Pricing policy, energy price, GCC country, energy product, electricity tariff, GCC

Energy prices in the GCC countries are low by international standards. These low prices have co-existed with rapid economic development in the region over the past 50 years, but the costs of this policy have also r...

Energy Subsidy Reform - Lessons and Implications

Energy Subsidy Reform - Lessons and Implications »

Source: Energy Subsidy Reform - Lessons and Implications

Volume/Issue: 2013/004

Series: Policy Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 January 2013

ISBN: 9781498342391

Keywords: Energy sector, Energy taxes, Fiscal reforms, Subsidies, Social safety nets, Consumer subsidies, Economic growth, Government expenditures, Oil exporting countries, energy subsidy

Energy subsidies have wide-ranging economic consequences. While aimed at protecting consumers, subsidies aggravate fiscal imbalances, crowd-out priority public spending, and depress private investment, including in...

Global Fossil Fuel Subsidies Remain Large: An Update Based on Country-Level Estimates

Global Fossil Fuel Subsidies Remain Large: An Update Based on Country-Level Estimates »

Source: Global Fossil Fuel Subsidies Remain Large: An Update Based on Country-Level Estimates

Volume/Issue: 2019/89

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): David Coady , Ian Parry , Nghia-Piotr Le , and Baoping Shang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 May 2019

ISBN: 9781484393178

Keywords: Gasoline prices, Consumer subsidies, Sustainable development, Energy prices, Fossil fuels, energy subsidies, efficient taxation, revenue, environment, deadweight loss

This paper updates estimates of fossil fuel subsidies, defined as fuel consumption times the gap between existing and efficient prices (i.e., prices warranted by supply costs, environmental costs, and revenue consi...

1 Macroeconomics and the Environment: Summary and Conclusions

1 Macroeconomics and the Environment: Summary and Conclusions »

Source: Macroeconomics and the Environment

Series: Books

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 June 1996

ISBN: 9781557755360

Keywords: environment, environmental policies, environmental degradation, natural resources, national accounts

Two themes dominated the discussions at the seminar. How do macroeconomic policies and the environment interact? How important is it that the Fund staff become aware of this interac...

9 Economy-Wide Policies and the Environment: Developing Countries

9 Economy-Wide Policies and the Environment: Developing Countries »

Source: Macroeconomics and the Environment

Series: Books

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 June 1996

ISBN: 9781557755360

Keywords: environment, environmental policies, environmental degradation, natural resources, national accounts

During the 1980s, economic crises in many developing countries resulted in economic hardship, characterized by severe internal and external imbalances. Stabilization and adjustment...