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IV Public Finances, Adjustment Programs, and Debt Dynamics

IV Public Finances, Adjustment Programs, and Debt Dynamics »

Source: Challenges to the Swedish Welfare State

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Desmond Lachman , Ramana Ramaswamy , J. Green , Robert Hagemann , and Adam Bennett

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 October 1995

ISBN: 9781557754868

Keywords: pension, export prices, unemployment, labor market, recession

Over the past few years, Sweden’s overall public finances deteriorated sharply from a large surplus as late as 1990 to an estimated deficit of 10 ½ percent of GDP in 1994. As discussed below, factors underly...

I Introduction

I Introduction »

Source: The Romanian Economic Reform Program

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Mohsin Khan , and Dimitri Demekas

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 June 1991

ISBN: 9781557751904

Keywords: banking, foreign trade, foreign exchange, price liberalization, reform program

In December 1989, with the fall of Nicolae Ceausescu, Romania reached a turning point in its history. The provisional Government that took over announced immediately a sharp and permanent break with the past...

V Social Security in Sweden

V Social Security in Sweden »

Source: Challenges to the Swedish Welfare State

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Desmond Lachman , Ramana Ramaswamy , J. Green , Robert Hagemann , and Adam Bennett

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 October 1995

ISBN: 9781557754868

Keywords: pension, export prices, unemployment, labor market, recession

After decades of expansion, reform of the social security system in Sweden has become the focus of attention as a result of the country’s overall budget crisis since the early 1990s. Although the need for pe...

IV Principal Objectives of the Romanian Reform Program

IV Principal Objectives of the Romanian Reform Program »

Source: The Romanian Economic Reform Program

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Mohsin Khan , and Dimitri Demekas

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 June 1991

ISBN: 9781557751904

Keywords: banking, foreign trade, foreign exchange, price liberalization, reform program

The main objectives of the Romanian reform program fall into three broad categories: introducing market forces into the economy, notably by liberalizing prices, trade and the exchange system, and interest ra...

III The Swedish Labor Market

III The Swedish Labor Market »

Source: Challenges to the Swedish Welfare State

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Desmond Lachman , Ramana Ramaswamy , J. Green , Robert Hagemann , and Adam Bennett

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 October 1995

ISBN: 9781557754868

Keywords: pension, export prices, unemployment, labor market, recession

This section describes the main features of the Swedish labor market. The main trends in the labor market are first outlined, focusing on developments during the 1990s. This is followed by an evaluation of t...

II The Economic System Before the Beginning of Reform

II The Economic System Before the Beginning of Reform »

Source: The Romanian Economic Reform Program

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Mohsin Khan , and Dimitri Demekas

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 June 1991

ISBN: 9781557751904

Keywords: banking, foreign trade, foreign exchange, price liberalization, reform program

To clarify what the reform program is trying to achieve and the obstacles it faces, this section describes the main aspects of the centrally planned system in Romania and its development in the 1970s and 198...

III Mapping the Transition: Design of the Reform Program

III Mapping the Transition: Design of the Reform Program »

Source: The Romanian Economic Reform Program

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Mohsin Khan , and Dimitri Demekas

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 June 1991

ISBN: 9781557751904

Keywords: banking, foreign trade, foreign exchange, price liberalization, reform program

Against a background of economic, institutional, and social crisis in Romania, a coherent reform strategy gradually emerged. This section examines the overall design of the reform program, and, in particular...

V Conclusions

V Conclusions »

Source: The Romanian Economic Reform Program

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Mohsin Khan , and Dimitri Demekas

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 June 1991

ISBN: 9781557751904

Keywords: banking, foreign trade, foreign exchange, price liberalization, reform program

The Romanian reform program is designed to bring the country out of a strict centrally planned economic system into a world where individual choice and markets play the central role. In just over a year, con...

VII External Trade and the Aftermath of the 1992 Devaluation

VII External Trade and the Aftermath of the 1992 Devaluation »

Source: Challenges to the Swedish Welfare State

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Desmond Lachman , Ramana Ramaswamy , J. Green , Robert Hagemann , and Adam Bennett

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 October 1995

ISBN: 9781557754868

Keywords: pension, export prices, unemployment, labor market, recession

The 1992 devaluation of the Swedish krona fundamentally altered the trading circumstances of the Swedish economy. It did so in much the same manner as did the devaluations of other European economies followi...

II Recession and Recovery in the 1990s

II Recession and Recovery in the 1990s »

Source: Challenges to the Swedish Welfare State

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Desmond Lachman , Ramana Ramaswamy , J. Green , Robert Hagemann , and Adam Bennett

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 October 1995

ISBN: 9781557754868

Keywords: pension, export prices, unemployment, labor market, recession

After almost a decade of expansion in the 1980s, the Swedish economy entered into a deep recession beginning in the first quarter of 1990. The cumulative decline in output during this recession, which lasted...