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III Social Security, Medicare, and U.S. Fiscal Prospects

III Social Security, Medicare, and U.S. Fiscal Prospects »

Source: U.S. Fiscal Policies and Priorities for Long-Run Sustainability

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Martin Mühleisen , and Christopher Towe

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 January 2004

ISBN: 9781589062955

Keywords: Economic growth, medicare, tax cuts, health care, public debt, fiscal policy

The reemergence of large U.S. budget deficits in recent years has heightened concern about the implications of demographic trends for the longer-term fiscal position. 1 In particu...

I Overview: Returning Deficits and the Need for Fiscal Reform

I Overview: Returning Deficits and the Need for Fiscal Reform »

Source: U.S. Fiscal Policies and Priorities for Long-Run Sustainability

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Martin Mühleisen , and Christopher Towe

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 January 2004

ISBN: 9781589062955

Keywords: Economic growth, medicare, tax cuts, health care, public debt, fiscal policy

U.S. government finances have experienced a remarkable turnaround in recent years. Within only a few years, hard-won gains of the previous decade have been lost and, instead of budget surpluses, deficits are...

Appendix I Real Exchange Rate Movements and External Competitiveness

Appendix I Real Exchange Rate Movements and External Competitiveness »

Source: The Lao People's Democratic Republic : Systemic Transformation and Adjustment

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Ichiro Otani , and Chi Pham

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 May 1996

ISBN: 9781557755605

Keywords: banking, exchange rate, foreign exchange, privatization, foreign investment

Movements in the real exchange rate are summarized in Charts 6 and 7, which show the path of the real effective exchange rate (that is, the trade-weighted exchange rate adjusted for...

III Budget Structure and Implications for Fiscal Policy

III Budget Structure and Implications for Fiscal Policy »

Source: Kuwait : From Reconstruction to Accumulation for Future Generations

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): John Wilson , Susan Fennell , Nigel Chalk , Mohamed El-Erian , and Alexei Kireyev

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 April 1997

ISBN: 9781557756237

Keywords: central bank, expenditure, debt, capital expenditure, interest

In the years since the Iraqi occupation, Kuwait has recorded budget deficits as well as lower investment income. The budget deficits reflected the high spending associated with liberation, reconstruction, an...

I Theoretical Considerations

I Theoretical Considerations »

Source: Islamic Banking

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Abbas Mirakhor , and Zubair Iqbal

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 March 1987

ISBN: 9780939934829

Keywords: banking, banking system, islamic banking, law, state bank

Increasing interest has recently been shown in the functioning of an Islamic banking system, particularly the implications of the absence of the interest rate mechanism for the economy and the operation of t...

IV Summary and Conclusions

IV Summary and Conclusions »

Source: Islamic Banking

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Abbas Mirakhor , and Zubair Iqbal

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 March 1987

ISBN: 9780939934829

Keywords: banking, banking system, islamic banking, law, state bank

No attempt has been made in this paper to analyze an overall economic system based on Islamic principles. Instead, the paper has focused on the implications of the most salient features of an Islamic financi...

I Introduction

I Introduction »

Source: Mexico : The Strategy to Achieve Sustained Economic Growth

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Claudio Loser , and Eliot Kalter

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 February 1992

ISBN: 9781557753120

Keywords: inflation, bonds, bond, real interest rates, inflation rate

In recent years, Mexico has made a major transformation in its economic structure and a significant improvement in its financial performance. In response, inflation has fallen markedly, output and employment...

IV Public Finances, Adjustment Programs, and Debt Dynamics

IV Public Finances, Adjustment Programs, and Debt Dynamics »

Source: Challenges to the Swedish Welfare State

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Desmond Lachman , Ramana Ramaswamy , J. Green , Robert Hagemann , and Adam Bennett

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 October 1995

ISBN: 9781557754868

Keywords: pension, export prices, unemployment, labor market, recession

Over the past few years, Sweden’s overall public finances deteriorated sharply from a large surplus as late as 1990 to an estimated deficit of 10 ½ percent of GDP in 1994. As discussed below, factors underly...

I Introduction

I Introduction »

Source: The Romanian Economic Reform Program

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Mohsin Khan , and Dimitri Demekas

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 June 1991

ISBN: 9781557751904

Keywords: banking, foreign trade, foreign exchange, price liberalization, reform program

In December 1989, with the fall of Nicolae Ceausescu, Romania reached a turning point in its history. The provisional Government that took over announced immediately a sharp and permanent break with the past...

V Social Security in Sweden

V Social Security in Sweden »

Source: Challenges to the Swedish Welfare State

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Desmond Lachman , Ramana Ramaswamy , J. Green , Robert Hagemann , and Adam Bennett

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 October 1995

ISBN: 9781557754868

Keywords: pension, export prices, unemployment, labor market, recession

After decades of expansion, reform of the social security system in Sweden has become the focus of attention as a result of the country’s overall budget crisis since the early 1990s. Although the need for pe...