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Tonga
			: Technical Assistance Report-Climate Change Policy Assessment

Tonga : Technical Assistance Report-Climate Change Policy Assessment »

Volume/Issue: 192020/212

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 June 2020

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513548791.002

ISBN: 9781513548791

Keywords: Economic reforms, Economic growth, Financial management, Public financial management, Poverty, ISCR, CR, NIIP, development partner, disaster risk

Tonga is one of the world's most exposed countries to climate change and natural disasters. It suffered the highest loss from natural disasters in the world (as a ratio to GDP) in 2018 and is among the top five ove...

Enhancing Macroeconomic Resilience to Natural Disasters and Climate Change in the Small States of the Pacific

Enhancing Macroeconomic Resilience to Natural Disasters and Climate Change in the Small States of the Pacific »

Source: Enhancing Macroeconomic Resilience to Natural Disasters and Climate Change in the Small States of the Pacific

Volume/Issue: 2015/125

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ezequiel Cabezon , Leni Hunter , Patrizia Tumbarello , Kazuaki Washimi , and Yiqun Wu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 June 2015

ISBN: 9781513525792

Keywords: natural disasters, climate change, panel VAR, disaster risk management, disasters, disaster, natural disaster, damage, Environment and Growth, International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions,

Natural disasters and climate change are interrelated macro-critical issues affecting all Pacific small states to varying degrees. In addition to their devastating human costs, these events damage growth prospects...

Fiscal Buffers for Natural Disasters in Pacific Island Countries1

Fiscal Buffers for Natural Disasters in Pacific Island Countries1 »

Source: Fiscal Buffers for Natural Disasters in Pacific Island Countries

Volume/Issue: 2019/152

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Hidetaka Nishizawa , Scott Roger , and Huan Zhang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 July 2019

ISBN: 9781498320801

Keywords: Access to foreign markets, Accounting, Accounting standards, Agriculture, Aid flows, Balance of payments, Bank deposits, Bank financing, Banks, Bonds

Pacific island countries (PICs) are vulnerable severe natural disasters, especially cyclones, inflicting large losses on their economies. In the aftermath of disasters, PIC governments face revenue losses and spend...

A Possible Approach to Fiscal Rules in Small Islands - Incorporating Natural Disasters and Climate Change

A Possible Approach to Fiscal Rules in Small Islands - Incorporating Natural Disasters and Climate Change »

Source: A Possible Approach to Fiscal Rules in Small Islands - Incorporating Natural Disasters and Climate Change

Volume/Issue: 2019/186

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ryota Nakatani

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 September 2019

ISBN: 9781513511047

Keywords: Economic stabilization, Public financial management, Fiscal policy, Economic growth, Business cycles, Fiscal Rule, Expenditure Rule, Recurrent Expenditure, Natural Disaster, Climate Change

A big challenge for the economic development of small island countries is dealing with external shocks. The Pacific Islands are vulnerable to natural disasters, climate change, commodity price changes, and uncertai...

Small States Resilience to Natural Disasters and Climate Change - Role for the IMF

Small States Resilience to Natural Disasters and Climate Change - Role for the IMF »

Source: Small States Resilience to Natural Disasters and Climate Change - Role for the IMF

Volume/Issue: 2016/038

Series: Policy Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 July 2016

ISBN: 9781498345095

Keywords: Climatic changes, Debt sustainability, Developing countries, Emergency assistance, External shocks, Financial sector, Fiscal policy, Fund role, Monetary policy, Small states

Small developing states are disproportionately vulnerable to natural disasters. On average, the annual cost of disasters for small states is nearly 2 percent of GDP-more than four times that for larger countries. T...

Energy Subsidy Reform - Lessons and Implications

Energy Subsidy Reform - Lessons and Implications »

Source: Energy Subsidy Reform - Lessons and Implications

Volume/Issue: 2013/004

Series: Policy Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 January 2013

ISBN: 9781498342391

Keywords: Energy sector, Energy taxes, Fiscal reforms, Subsidies, Social safety nets, Consumer subsidies, Economic growth, Government expenditures, Oil exporting countries, energy subsidy

Energy subsidies have wide-ranging economic consequences. While aimed at protecting consumers, subsidies aggravate fiscal imbalances, crowd-out priority public spending, and depress private investment, including in...

Sixth Review of the Fund's Data Standards Initiatives

Sixth Review of the Fund's Data Standards Initiatives »

Source: Sixth Review of the Fund's Data Standards Initiatives

Volume/Issue: 2005/010

Series: Policy Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 January 2005

ISBN: 9781498331456

Keywords: General Data Dissemination System, Special Data Dissemination Standard, Financial statistics, External debt statistics, Oil producing countries, Government finance statistics, Financial crises, SDDS, data category, PRSP

The Data Standards Initiatives, the SDDS and the GDDS, have achieved the goals the Executive Board set in its Fifth Review of July 2003. The staff sees the next three years as a period of consolidating these gains...

Biennial Review of the Implementation of the Fund's Surveillance and of the 1977 Surveillance Decision - Surveillance in a Program Environment

Biennial Review of the Implementation of the Fund's Surveillance and of the 1977 Surveillance Decision - Surveillance in a Program Environment »

Source: Biennial Review of the Implementation of the Fund's Surveillance and of the 1977 Surveillance Decision - Surveillance in a Program Environment

Volume/Issue: 2002/008

Series: Policy Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 2002

ISBN: 9781498328838

Keywords: Article IV consultation procedure reviews, Exchange rate policy, Exchange rate policy surveillance, Multilateral surveillance, Staff-monitored programs, External sector, Economic conditions, International investment position, Economic integration, Regional economics

...

Taxation of Petroleum Products

Taxation of Petroleum Products »

Source: Taxation of Petroleum Products : Theory and Empirical Evidence

Volume/Issue: 1994/32

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Poonam Gupta , and Walter Mahler

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 1994

ISBN: 9781451979756

Keywords: petroleum products, fuel oil, automotive diesel, heavy fuel oil, petroleum prices

The domestic taxation of petroleum products is an important source of revenue in most countries. However, there is a wide variation of tax rates on petroleum products across countries, which cannot be explained by...

Global Fossil Fuel Subsidies Remain Large: An Update Based on Country-Level Estimates

Global Fossil Fuel Subsidies Remain Large: An Update Based on Country-Level Estimates »

Source: Global Fossil Fuel Subsidies Remain Large: An Update Based on Country-Level Estimates

Volume/Issue: 2019/89

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): David Coady , Ian Parry , Nghia-Piotr Le , and Baoping Shang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 May 2019

ISBN: 9781484393178

Keywords: Gasoline prices, Consumer subsidies, Sustainable development, Energy prices, Fossil fuels, energy subsidies, efficient taxation, revenue, environment, deadweight loss

This paper updates estimates of fossil fuel subsidies, defined as fuel consumption times the gap between existing and efficient prices (i.e., prices warranted by supply costs, environmental costs, and revenue consi...