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Uganda

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International Monetary Fund
Published Date:
May 2010
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PART 1: OVERVIEW

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND

1. This National Development Plan (NDP) covers the fiscal period 2010/11 to 2014/15. It stipulates the Country’s medium term strategic direction, development priorities and implementation strategies. In addition, it details Uganda’s current development status, challenges and opportunities. In line with the National Vision Framework, six (6) five-year NDPs will be implemented of which this is the first. The theme of this NDP is “Growth, Employment and Socio-Economic Transformation for Prosperity.” The thrust is to accelerate socio-economic transformation to achieve the National Vision of a transformed Ugandan society from a peasant to a modern and prosperous country within 30 years. This will be supported by the environment necessary for sustainable development which will entail making continuous improvements to the political, social and economic conditions.

2. The contribution of this NDP to the socio-economic transformation will be demonstrated by improved employment levels, higher per capita income, improved labour force distribution in line with sectoral GDP shares, substantially improved human development and gender equality indicators, and the country’s competitiveness position, among others. These improvements will reflect the structural and socio-economic transformation that is the basis of this NDP.

3. Over the years, Uganda’s economy has experienced varying growth rates. From independence in 1962 up to 1971, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) grew by an average of 5.2 per cent per annum. However, between 1971 and 1979, GDP declined by 25 per cent due to the unstable political situation and economic mismanagement. From 1981 to 1983, Uganda experienced GDP growth rate of 5.5 per cent but recorded negative growth rates in 1984 and 1986. Between 1987 and 1996, GDP grew at an average of 6.5 per cent translating into 3.4 per cent growth in per capita terms. The decline in monetary growth, together with growth in agriculture, especially food crop production, contributed to a reduction in inflation, from 200 per cent in 1987 to about 7.1 per cent in 1996. There was impressive growth over the Poverty Eradication Action Plan (PEAP) period, with an average rate of growth in GDP of 7.2 per cent per annum between 1997/98 and 2000/01. The growth rate slowed to 6.8 per cent between 2000/01 and 2003/04, and increased to 8 per cent over the period 2004/05 to 2007/08.

4. The impressive GDP growth performance in recent years has contributed to a significant reduction in poverty levels. The percentage of the population living below the poverty line declined from 56 per cent in 1992/93 to 44 per cent in 1997/98, and further to 31 per cent in 2005/06.

5. However, in spite of this commendable economic performance, the country continues to face some challenges which have undermined achieving much faster economic growth and socio-economic transformation. The country has not achieved significant productivity growth in agriculture and thus not releasing the excess labour. There are structural features in the economy that Government will address in order to accelerate and sustain high growth. These include:

  • Dominance of primary commodities over industrial products implying that the rapidly growing new sectors are not contributing significantly to value added exports and are therefore, not outwardly oriented;
  • Slower than desirable growth in the agricultural and industrial sectors;
  • New sectors that are not absorbing the rapidly growing labour; and
  • Capital markets that are not effectively mediating capital.

6. The challenges in the next phase of our economic transformation are quite different from the challenges that have been overcome. To attain a relatively higher per-capita income level in the face of a rapidly rising population requires a massive increase in skilled labour and its redeployment in the production of value added export-oriented goods and services. Thus, the development strategies for the medium term will encourage growth in export-oriented industries which will require scaling up the role of government in key strategic areas to complement the private sector. In spite of the potential direct and indirect positive impact of the discovery of oil, including easing future fiscal constraints and other multiplier effects in the economy, there are still considerable barriers to growth that will be addressed in the Plan period and beyond, complemented by policies to reduce poverty and therefore, raise the quality of life.

7. A combination of a high dependency level in the population and a large share of the labour force being in subsistence agriculture or in the informal sector, presents considerable challenges to the achievement of development goals, such as, the reduction of poverty and improvements in health, education, housing, productive employment, gender equality and conservation of the environment. While there have been gains made in this respect, there are opportunities to further improve services and outcomes. Particular emphasis will be given in the promotion of gender equality, peace building, post-conflict rehabilitation and addressing gender based violence. The NDP, while focusing on removing physical barriers to sustain high rates of growth, does not lose sight of the necessary changes required to achieve gains in these areas of social development, as well as strategies to mitigate the consequences of emerging pressures on the environment. It also places strong emphasis on removing institutional barriers to economic growth through improving the performance of the Government in its policy, planning, monitoring, regulatory and service delivery functions.

1.2 CONTEXT OF THE PLAN

8. A review of the development progress of many economies in the world over the past few decades reveals that countries that have achieved growth did so through diverse policies and institutional arrangements. The routine application of “best practices” is being replaced with the recognition of the need to focus on reform paths suited to each country’s conditions and the removal of binding constraints to economic growth. A key observation of the Barcelona Development Agenda 2004 was that there is no single set of policies that can be guaranteed to ignite sustained growth. Nations that have succeeded at this tremendously important task have faced different sets of obstacles and have adopted varying policies regarding regulation, export and industrial promotion, technological innovation, and knowledge acquisition. Countries should be free to adopt policies suited to their specific circumstances. The priority is to identify the most binding constraints to growth and to address them through microeconomic and macroeconomic policies. Thus, the NDP will target those constraints that are most binding, as their removal would potentially have a significant positive socio-economic impact.

9. Countries have different mix of economic issues in relation to both government and market failure which need to be addressed through various interventions. The experience of East and South Asian countries points to the need to address market failures where private sector-led growth is supported by appropriate Government interventions targeted at removing barriers to growth.

10. The history of development planning in Uganda is characterised by different approaches. The mixed economy approach to development was a key feature of Uganda’s economic development from 1962 to 1971. This was interrupted in the 1970s by the almost adhoc economic war plan, which was followed by the Structural Adjustment Program (SAP) in the early 1980s and the Economic Recovery Programme (ERP) of 1987. Between 1997 and 2008, the Poverty Eradication Action Plans (PEAP) was the overarching planning framework for the country.

11. In order to prepare the current development plan, it was necessary to learn from the experiences of the PEAP, for which purpose an evaluation was undertaken. The results of the evaluation indicate that the PEAP had good features though there were aspects that could have been better implemented. Consequently, the NDP has incorporated the PEAP lessons with the following differences in approach:

  • i) While the PEAP stressed poverty eradication and prioritized social services, the NDP maintains the poverty eradication vision, but with an additional emphasis on economic transformation and wealth creation thereby intertwining sustainable economic growth with poverty eradication.
  • ii) As a key lesson from the PEAP, the NDP will first and foremost be an instrument of evidence- based political commitment used to capture the public imagination and commitment for the next phase of nation building. The NDP has been designed to be the key plan shaping all the processes that capture all political thinking as well as the existing and emerging Government initiatives such as the current Government development programs for poverty reduction, growth, prosperity for all, and reconstruction in post-conflict areas. However, it is also well grounded in terms of technical imperatives and their inter-linkages. Thus, coordination of the political aspirations and the implementation of key interventions will be a critical defining factor in the successful implementation of the NDP.
  • iii) Finally, the NDP is designed to be the primary Government national strategic plan, the anchor for Government fiscal strategy, and lower level or sectoral plans. It will provide a guide for the allocation of resources through the Medium Term Expenditure Framework. Over the next five years, the NDP will guide decision making and implementation of government programmes including the annual budget process, and the prioritization and direction of Government actions. It will therefore, be a tool for prioritizing government interventions and mobilizing external resources.

1.3 THE THRUST OF THE NDP

12. In line with its theme, this Plan seeks to significantly improve specific socioeconomic development indicators associated with transformation. These include raising average per capita income levels, improving the labour force distribution in line with sectoral GDP shares, raising the country’s human development indicators, and improving the country’s competitiveness to levels comparable to middle income countries.

13. After considering the extensive contributions and analysis emerging from the process of formulating this NDP, as well as identifying the most binding constraints on economic and social development, Government adopted specific principles and objectives to guide the implementation of this plan.

Figure 1.1VISION, KEY BINDING CONSTRAINTS, THEME AND OBJECTIVES OF THE PLAN

14. Realizing the objectives set in the NDP and implementing the strategies for unlocking the most binding constraints will require shifts in the spending mix of the national budget.

15. Taking into account past macroeconomic trends and available information, the nominal GDP growth rate over the NDP period is projected at an average of 7.2 per cent per annum. At this GDP growth rate, nominal per capita income is projected to increase from USD 506 in 2008/09 to around USD 900 by 2014/2015. During the same period, the proportion of people living below the poverty line is expected to decline from the level of 31 per cent in 2005/06 to around 24.5 per cent in 2014/15, an achievement surpassing the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target of 28 per cent.

16. These improvements will rely on many changes to the economy and in the efficient use of public funds, including higher public and private investment levels, changes in public expenditure allocations in favour of growth enhancing activities, and a considerable improvement in the performance of the public sector. The projected growth is also based on the assumption that global and regional economies will recover and result in an increased demand for exports from Uganda.

17. To ensure ownership of the plan and to support the realization of its objectives, the preparation of this NDP took an iterative, consultative, and participatory process. It involved bottom-up and top-down approaches to ensure adequate participation at the Central and Local Government levels, civil society groups and the private sector. The process of implementing the NDP will entail monitoring progress to provide a comprehensive assessment of the country’s socio-economic performance. The NDP will be reviewed after two and half years of implementation.

1.4 STRUCTURE OF THE NDP

18. For conceptual purposes, this plan is organised around four sector clusters: primary growth sectors, complementary sectors, social sectors and enabling sectors. Primary growth sectors constitute sectors and sub-sectors that directly produce goods and services. Complementary sectors comprise sectors and sub-sectors that provide institutional and infrastructural support to primary growth and other sectors. Social sectors comprise those sectors and sub-sectors that provide services required to maintain a healthy and quality population, and human resources for effective engagement in rewarding economic activities. Enabling sectors encompass all sectors and sub-sectors that provide a conducive environment and framework for efficient performance of all sectors of the economy. This conceptual framework known as the “egg concept” is aimed at harnessing inter-sectoral linkages, functional relationships and synergies among economic sectors which have in the past received insufficient attention (annex 1).

19. The Plan is structured in four parts: Part I provides an overview of the Plan. It contains the background to the Plan, its context, thrust and structure. It also covers the situation analysis at macro-level, examining the overall performance of the economy, including an analysis of the binding constraints to economic growth and development. Part II presents the strategic direction of the plan, national development objectives and strategies for achieving them. As part of the strategies to unlock the binding constraints, flagship projects have been proposed in Part II. Part III presents sectoral situational analyses, objectives, strategies and interventions. Part IV deals with the implementation strategy and institutional arrangements, including the approach to monitoring and evaluation.

CHAPTER 2 SITUATION ANALYSIS

20. Post-independent Uganda has gone through periods of political stability and turmoil. It has also witnessed relatively satisfactory economic progress and economic decline. Regardless of economic trends, the post independence period has been hampered by common binding constraints. This chapter provides a review of Uganda’s economic performance since independence in 1962. It is structured into two subsections: macroeconomic performance and national binding constraints. The subsection on macroeconomic performance examines performance in seven specific areas namely; the overall macro economy, primary growth sectors, complementary sectors, social sectors, enabling sectors, private sector and civil society perspectives.

2.1 MACROECONOMIC PERFORMANCE

2.1.1 Overall Macro economy

21. As earlier noted in section 1.1, Uganda’s economy performed remarkably well from independence to 1970 when the country experienced relative political stability. Inflation was maintained at an average of 3 per cent per annum, real GDP grew by 5.21 per cent per annum and fiscal deficits rarely exceeded 2.5 per cent of GDP. Real interest rates were positive for most of the period, the current account balance was in surplus, and domestic savings averaged 15 per cent of GDP. In the same period, the growth in exports averaged 5 per cent per annum while that of imports was 6.2 per cent.

22. From 1971 to 1979, Uganda’s economy was seriously damaged by economic mismanagement and civil conflicts that negatively impacted on the gains made during the previous periods. The rate of inflation averaged 30 per cent per annum between 1970 and 1980, as the Government financed public expenditure through bank borrowing. During the same period, GDP declined at 1.6 per cent per annum, exports by 8.5 per cent and imports by 9.8 per cent. This led to a decline in export revenue which subsequently impacted negatively on the balance of payment and external debt positions.

23. Growth in GDP was temporarily restored between 1981 and 1983, when an average annual growth rate of 5.6 per cent was registered. Inflation declined from 111 per cent to 25 per cent. The overall budget deficit reduced from 2.8 per cent of GDP in 1981 to 0.6 per cent in 1983 but rose to 11.9 per cent of GDP in 1984. Thereafter, the civil strife and political instability that ensued especially in the central part of the country negated the achievements made. As a result, negative GDP growth rates were recorded during the period between 1984 and 1986.

24. In 1987, Government launched a minimum Economic Recovery Programme (ERP) followed by a series of other reforms aimed at restoring macroeconomic stability to provide a favourable environment for economic growth and private sector development. The key reforms included a currency reform, changes in tax and fiscal policy geared towards improving revenues and restraining expansion in Government expenditures, while maintaining a strong focus on economic recovery and growth. Between 1987 and 1996, GDP grew at an average annual rate of 6.5 per cent, translating into 3.4 per cent growth in per capita terms. The decline in monetary growth led to substantial reduction in inflation.

25. Over the period 1997/98 to 2000/01, GDP growth averaged 7.2 per cent per annum. Between 2000/01 and 2003/04 it averaged 6.8 per cent and between 2004/05 and 2007/08, it was 8 per cent. As a result of the global recession which reduced the demand for Uganda’s exports to Europe and America, GDP growth declined slightly in 2008/09 to 6.2 per cent at basic prices but is projected to increase to 6.4 per cent at basic prices in 2009/10. The fiscal deficit stood at 10.2 per cent and 7.9 per cent of GDP on average during 2000/01 to 2003/04 and 2004/05 to 2007/2008, respectively. Inflation rate was kept at single digit for most of these periods; foreign reserves covered at least five months of imports; and the exchange rates were competitive.

26. There has been a significant increase in both foreign and local investment flows into the economy. As a percentage of GDP, private investment rose from 12.2 per cent in 2000/01 to 20.6 per cent in 2006/07. Public investment averaged 5.1 per cent of GDP over the same period but was more or less stagnant over the last decade. Furthermore, the investment pattern of recent years shows rising private construction especially of residential buildings, modestly increasing machinery and equipment investment, and low public construction. This indicates issues with low capital investment in industries, services and labour productivity.

27. The global downturn is expected to negatively influence investments through reduced private remittances, foreign direct investment, and loans, although recent global economic trends coupled with the resilience of our economy have subdued the initially perceived risks. Foreigh Direct Investment (FDI) has dropped from 5.3 per cent of GDP in 2007/08 to 4.6 per cent GDP in 2008/09 and it is further projected to remain slow in 2009/10. However, the anticipated negative effects on aid have, at worst, been marginal as most development partners have continued to meet their obligations.

28. Uganda’s trade deficit has been widening despite improvements in the composition and value of exports. The trade deficit as a percentage of GDP declined from an annual average of 12.9 per cent for the period 2000/01 to 2003/04 to 13.5 per cent for the period 2004/05 to 2007/08. The balance of payments has also been unfavourable with a deteriorating trend in recent years. These results could partly be due to lower demand for Uganda’s exports in advanced economies, although this is partly being compensated for by increased regional exports. Table 2.1 indicates that regional trade is taking an increasing share of Uganda’s exports, while the Middle East is also emerging as a major export destination. The European Union which in the past was the leading destination for Uganda’s exports now accounts for about one quarter of total exports.

Table 2.1.PERCENTAGE SHARE IN TOTAL EXPORTS BY REGION OF DESTINATION
Region20032004200520062007
COMESA27.726.830.729.537.9
Other Africa8.65.74.83.96.6
European Union26.327.331.127.424.3
Other Europe14.817.110.15.16.8
North America2.72.92.31.71.8
Middle East3.55.610.820.614.3
Asia9.38.97.57.85.4
South America0.10.10.10.10.2
Rest of the World0.40.00.10.00.0
Unknown6.65.72.53.82.8
Source: UBOS Statistical Abstract (various)

29. Whereas imports are becoming more technically advanced, exports are still dominated by primary commodities, indicating that the country’s consumption patterns are changing faster than transformation of its techniques of production. This contrasts with some East Asian economies where exports were dominated by manufactured products. This means, therefore, that the future growth of the service and manufacturing sectors will have to undergo transformation to include new technologies in order to be more competitive in the export market.

30. Growth in GDP has been accompanied by changes in its broad sectoral composition. These changes reflect structural transformation in the economy. Figure 2.1 indicates the trend in the changing shares of GDP for agriculture, industry and services. Between 2000/01 and 2008/09, the share of agriculture to GDP fell rapidly while that of industry registered notable growth between 2004/05 and 2007/08 before converging with the share of agriculture in 2008/09 at about 23 per cent.

Figure 2.1SECTORAL CONTRIBUTION TO GDP (PERCENT) 2000/01 - 2008/09, AT MARKET PRICES

Source: Uganda Bureau of Statistics Database

31. While there have been changes in the sectoral composition of GDP, there has not been a commensurate change in the distribution pattern of the labour force. The GDP share of the emerging modern sectors is increasing but their share of the labour force is falling. The share of the labour force employed in manufacturing and services sectors decreased from 6.8 and 26.8 per cent to 4.2 and 20.7 per cent respectively despite the rise in the GDP shares of these sectors. However, the share of labour force engaged in the agriculture sector increased from 66.4 per cent in 2002/03 to 75.1 per cent in 2005/06 while the share of agriculture GDP declined over the same period. This may be attributed to a variety of factors including: a mismatch between skills acquired and the requirements of employers; the development of low skilled services and industries; the high rate of growth in the labour force and the inability to absorb it in the growing sectors. These trends contribute to low productivity in agriculture which undermines the growth potential of the economy and contributes to issues related to food insecurity.

32. As the GDP growth rate increased with the return to peace in most parts of the country in 1986, per capita GDP also increased. Figure 2.2 shows real per capita GDP between 1970 and 2008. It depicts a declining trend in per capita income until 1988 after which the real per capita GDP began rising, reaching its 1970 level in 2003.

Figure 2.2GDP PER CAPITAL AND POPULATION

Population figures (‘000s) are on the left axis while the real GDP per capita are on the right axis.

Source: Uganda Bureau of Statistics Database

33. In spite of Uganda’s economic recovery from the downturn of the 1970s and 80s, its size and the country’s per capita income is still very low compared to other economies in Africa and Asia. While Uganda’s economic performance was at par with that of countries such as Kenya, Ghana and Malaysia in the early 1970s, these economies have since improved significantly over Uganda’s economy (Figures 2.3 and 2.4). For example, Malaysia is now only a role model to Uganda as opposed to being a peer as it was in the 1970s.

Figure 2.3COMPARISON OF PER CAPITA INCOME (USD) OF UGANDA, MALAYSIA AND KOREA 1970-2008

Source: World Development Indicators Database

Figure 2.4COMPARISON OF UGANDA’S PER CAPITA INCOME WITH ITS REGIONAL PEERS

Source: World Development Indicators Database

34. The relatively high economic growth which has been sustained since the early 1990 has contributed to a reduction in the levels of poverty. In 1992/93, 56 per cent of the population was below the national poverty line; this dropped to 44 per cent in 1997/98 and to 31 per cent in 2005/06. A greater proportion of the population living under the poverty line is located in the northern part of Uganda (see Figure 2.5). This is largely attributed to the insecurity experienced in the region for over the past 20 years.

Figure 2.5POVERTY AT SUB-COUNTRY LEVEL

Source: Uganda Bureau of Statistics 2008

35. Inequality in consumption is high in Uganda by African standards. In addition to regional disparities (Table 2.2), there is also a disparity between rural and urban income levels with the mean consumption of the richest area (Kampala) being 2.5 times that of the poorest area (northern region). The data from 1992 to 2006 indicates that whereas rural inequality is declining after a period of an increase, urban inequality is yet to revert to its level of 1992/93.

TABLE 2.2.INEQUALITY GINI FOR UGANDA
Region/Year1992/931999/00*2002/032005/06
National0.370.400.430.41
Urban0.330.330.360.43
Rural0.400.430.480.36
Central0.400.420.460.42
Eastern0.330.350.360.35
Northern0.340.340.350.33
Western0.320.320.360.34
Source: Comprehensive UNHS 2005/06 and World Bank calculations. 1999/00 data exclude four districts

2.1.2 Primary Growth Sectors

36. The primary growth sectors consist of sectors and sub-sectors that directly produce goods and services. These include: agriculture, forestry, manufacturing, tourism, mining, oil and gas, ICT and housing development. The performance of these sectors has been varying (Table 2.3)2. Table 2.3 presents the share of primary growth sectors in GDP at current prices. Added value in agriculture and industry need to become engines of growth but the agriculture sector has been declining in its growth rate and share of GDP, and the industry sector has not been expanding at a notable rate. While there has been growth in hotels, restaurants (tourism), and communications, these are not yet significant sectors in terms of GDP.

TABLE 2.3.SHARE OF SELECTED PRIMARY GROWTH SECTORS IN GDP AND GROWTH PERFORMANCE
Primary Growth SectorsPercentage share in GDP (Current prices)Growth performance (per cent)
198819972004200720081988-19971998-20022004-200820072008
Agriculture51.133.117.314.515.43.95.41.11.72.2
Forestry2.21.73.33.53.44.773.92.24.2
Manufacturing5.98.47.06.97.213.27.26.37.66.7
Hotels and restaurant (Tourism)1.11.94.04.14.113.13.89.69.212.5
Mining0.10,60.30.30.434.6813510.4
Post and Telecommunications (ICT)0.20.62.03.03.410.122.826.216.139.6
Construction4.16.511.912.212.26.56.36.34.85.8
Source: UBOS Statistical Abstract (various years)

37. The share of agriculture3 in GDP was 51.1 per cent in 1988 and 33.1 per cent in 1997, declining further to 15.4 per cent in 2008 as shown in Table 2.3. The sharp decline in the share of agriculture in GDP represents significant structural transformation in the economy. Whereas this is a positive development, the challenge is to ensure that this shift is at the same time accompanied by productivity in the agricultural sector, and value addition in the industry and service sectors in order to absorb excess labour from agriculture. Also, there is a compelling need to ensure that productivity growth in agriculture supports the high population growth in addition to reversing the continued dominance of production and export of primary commodities.

38. Between 1988 and 1997, agriculture grew at an average rate of 3.9 per cent and 5.4 per cent between 1998 and 2002. However, from 2004 to 2008, the growth of the sector slowed markedly to average 1.1 per cent, with a growth of -1.8 per cent recorded in 2006. This performance raises issues of productivity in the agricultural sector and the need for radical strategies to improve the productivity levels and modernize the sector. The employment pattern has also been changing but not in a way that reflects transformation in the structure of the economy. The share of the labour force in agriculture increased from 66.4 per cent in 2002/03 to 75.1 per cent in 2005/06.

39. The share of the forestry sub sector in GDP was 2.2 per cent in 1988 and 1.7 per cent in 1997, rising to 3.4 per cent in 2008. The increasing share of forestry in GDP is a positive development. However, the improvement in the contribution of forestry has been characterized by recent declining performance. Between 1988 and 1997, forestry grew at an average rate of 4.7 per cent per year and between 1998 and 2002 at an average rate of 7 per cent. From 2004 to 2008, the sector grew by 3.9 per cent per annum, a trend that needs to be accelerated. This trend is partly due to declining forest cover which decreased from 4,933,746 hectares in 1990 to 3,604,176 hectares in 2005, representing a 27 per cent reduction.

40. The share of the manufacturing sector in GDP was 5.9 per cent in 1988 and 8.4 per cent in 1997, peaking in 2002 and declining to 7.2 per cent in 2008. Between 1988 and 1997, the manufacturing sector grew at 13.2 per cent per year, recording the highest growth of 18.3 per cent in 1995. The sector grew by 7.2 per cent, on average, between 1998 and 2002 and by 6.3 per cent between 2004 and 2008. The share of the labour force employed in manufacturing sector decreased from 0.29 per cent to 0.14 per cent between 2002/03 and 2005/06.

41. The share of tourism in GDP measured by the share of hotels and restaurants4 in GDP was 1.1 per cent in 1988 and 1.9 per cent in 1997, rising to about 4 per cent in 2008. This represents a shift in the economic structure of the economy in terms of its GDP. Between 1988 and 1997, tourism grew by 13.1 per cent per annum on average and 3.8 per cent between 1998 and 2002, increasing to 12.5 per cent between 2004 and 2008.

42. The share of mining in GDP was 0.1 per cent in 1988 and 0.6 per cent in 1997, declining to 0.3 per cent in 2008. Between 1988 and 1997, mining grew at 34.6 per cent per annum on average and 8 per cent between 1998 and 2002. From 2004 to 2008, the sector on average grew by 13 per cent per annum. The share of the labour force employed in the mining sub-sector remained almost constant over the period 2002/03 to 2005/06, increasing from 0.93 to 1.0 per cent respectively.

43. The share of ICT in GDP measured by the share of posts and telecommunications was 0.2 per cent in 1988 and 0.6 per cent in 1997, increasing to 3.8 per cent in 2008. Between 1988 and 1997, ICT grew at 10.1 per cent and 22.8 per cent between 1998 and 2002. From 2004 to 2008, the performance of the sector was 26.2 per cent. There has been a rapid rate of telephone penetration with the number of fixed and mobile lines per 100 people rising from 0.24 and 0.02, in 1996 to 0.56 and 27.68 in 2008 respectively. Internet usage has been slow to pick up partly because of very limited internet support infrastructure available in the country and the low computer literacy rates amongst Ugandans.

44. The share of construction in GDP, which is used as a proxy to measure housing performance, was 4.1 per cent in 1988 and 6.5 per cent in 1997, rising to 11.9 per cent in 2008. Between 1988 and 1997 the housing sub-sector grew at 6.5 per cent and 6.3 per cent between 1998 and 2002. From 2004 to 2008, the performance of the sector was 6.3 per cent. The share of the labour force employed in construction remained nearly the same between 2002/03 (0.08 per cent) and 2005/06 (0.07 per cent).

45. The oil and gas sector is relatively new but with huge potential. The oil and gas reserves in the country are estimated at 2 billion Barrels of Oil Equivalent (BOE)5. To exploit these resources, large investments will be required for further exploration, development and extraction. In addition, government will invest in the necessary physical infrastructure.

2.1.3 Complementary Sectors

46. Complementary sectors consist of sectors and sub-sectors that provide institutional and infrastructural support to primary growth and other sectors, namely: transport, energy, land management and administration, physical planning, urban development, trade development, cooperatives, science and technology and water for production. Table 2.4 shows the share of some of the complementary sectors in GDP and growth performance.

TABLE 2.4.SHARE OF SELECTED COMPLEMENTARY SECTORS IN GDP AND GROWTH PERFORMANCE
Complementary SectorsPercentage Share in GDP (Current prices)Growth Performance (per cent)
198819972004200720081988 -1997*1998 -20022004 -200820072008
Transport3.03.93.23.33.49.35.36.89.66.9
Energy and Water0.61.33.54.54.17.66.22.05.34.0
Trade14.710.012.714.114.37.66.510.313.013.6
Financial Services-2.32.82.93.2-5.511.2-3.911.1
Source: UBOS Statistical Abstract (various years)

(Figures adjusted to 2002 prices)

Source: UBOS Statistical Abstract (various years)

(Figures adjusted to 2002 prices)

47. The share of the transport sector in GDP has been without a clear growth pattern. While the performance of the sector improved between 2004 and 2008 compared to 1998 and 2002, its share in GDP has been about 3 per cent (Table 2.4). The share of the labour force employed in transport sector decreased from 2.84 per cent to 1.61 per cent between 2002/03 and 2005/06. The moderate performance in the transport sector is evident from the low share of the paved road network (4 per cent); limited flights, and limited functionality of the rail system (26 per cent).

48. The share of energy and water in GDP progressively increased between 1988 and 2007 before marginally declining in 2008 (Table 2.4). The growth performance of the sector between 2004 and 2008 was about 2 per cent, reflecting a significant decline. The share of the labour force employed in the energy and water sectors declined from 6.5 per cent to 4.2 per cent between 2002/03 and 2005/06. Uganda’s electricity consumption remains at 60kWh per capita which is low compared to South Africa at 4200kWh, Egypt at 1200kWh and Malaysia at 3200kWh.

49. The share of trade sector in GDP declined between 1988 and 1997 but has since progressively risen to nearly its 1988 levels. Growth performance of the sector averaged 10.3 per cent between 2004 and 2008. The share of the labour force employed in trade increased marginally from 1.35 per cent in 2002/03 to 1.39 per cent in 2005/06

50. Until 1997, the contribution of financial Services in GDP was not reflected in the national GDP series. However, with the growing role played by the sector in the economy’s development, its contribution has reached significant proportions accounting for 3.2 per cent of GDP in 2008. With exception of 2007, where growth performance in the sector declined by 3.9 per cent, overall growth performance of the sector has been impressive. However, the share of the labour force employed in the financial services sector decreased from 2.11 per cent to 1.98 per cent between 2002/03 and 2005/06.

51. Achieving socio-economic transformation requires continuous improvement in the way goods and services are produced within an economy. Measured in terms of percentage exports with high technology content to the total manufacturing exports, the Science, Technology and Innovation sector is still underdeveloped. The expenditure share in R&D as a percentage of GDP is 0.1 per cent; Total Achievement Index (TAI)6 was 0.24 in 2005 compared to the minimum required of 0.35 per cent. The ratio of arts to science graduates is 5:1 and the country has one researcher to 1,000 employees.

52. While Land Management and Administration, Physical Planning and Urban Development are not directly reflected in GDP computations, they play an important role in GDP generation and growth as well as employment and prosperity for all. In the recent years, the level of urbanization in Uganda has been rising rapidly. In 1991, the population living in urban areas was 11.3 per cent, increasing to 12 per cent in 2002 and it’s estimated at 15 per cent in 20097. The urban population growth rate currently stands at 5.9 per cent per annum. The increasing levels of urbanization in Uganda and congestion in Kampala city creates considerable pressures on housing, transport, water, health, education, social welfare, and employment8 which need to be addressed through systematic physical and infrastructural planning.

2.1.4 Social Sectors

53. Social sectors consist of sectors and sub-sectors that provide services required for maintaining a healthy and quality population, and developing the required human resource for effective engagement in profitable economic activities. These sectors include: education, health, water and sanitation, social development and gender, and population.

54. The national population size and its growth have a powerful impact on the achievement of socio-economic goals. Uganda has a fast growing population which has expanded from 9.5 million in 1969 to 24.2 million in 2002 and estimated at 30.7 million in 2009. At 3.2 per cent growth rate per annum (1991-2002), Uganda’s population is projected to reach 38 million in 2015.

55. The high fertility rate coupled with the young population means that the population will continue rising even if fertility declined (Figure 2.6). Nearly half of the population is below the age of 15 years and the population structure is expected to remain youthful for the next fifteen years. The population trend described above represents several challenges to future growth and structural transformation unless serious measures are taken to convert it into a population dividend. Already, Uganda has one of the highest dependency ratios in the world (above 1.5) which is expected to rise under the current growth trends. The causes of high fertility include low levels of education, poor access to family planning services with unmet demand estimated at 41 per cent, a low contraceptive prevalence rate of 24 per cent and early child-bearing with 25 per cent of adolescents being pregnant before the age of 199. Other causes include the prevailing cultural and religious beliefs and preferences for large families as a source of social security at old age.

Figure 2.6POPULATION DISTRIBUTION BY AGE

Source: UBOS Statistical Abstract 2009

56. There is a high growth rate of 3.7 per cent per annum in the unskilled labour force but what the economy requires is skilled labour hence contributing to high levels of unemployment and under-employment. Public sector employment has not grown significantly and can only absorb a few people leaving agriculture to absorb the bulk of the labour force (which was estimated at 75.1 per cent of the labour force in 2005/06).

57. Table 2.5 gives the share of education and health services in GDP between 1988 and 2008 and their performance over the same period. The share of education services in GDP significantly increased between 1988 and 2004 where it peaked at 7 per cent but declined thereafter. Health services on the other hand have maintained an almost constant share for the most part of the period 1988 to 2008 with exception of 1997 where their share peaked at 1.9 per cent of GDP. The growth performance of both sectors has significantly declined with contractions in 2007 and 2008. The share of the labour force employed in the health sector moderately decreased from 2.79 to 2.66 per cent between 2002/03 and 2005/06 respectively while that in education decreased from 0.8 to 0.68 percent.

Table 2.5.SHARE OF SELECTED SOCIAL SECTORS IN GDP AND GROWTH PERFORMANCE
Social SectorsPercentage Share in GDP (Current prices)Growth Performance (per cent)
198819972004200720081988 -19971998 -20022004 -200820072008
Education2.84.77.06.35.55.77.54.51.5-2.4
Health0.91.91.61.31.14.55.43.8-1.30.2
Source: UBOS Statistical Abstract (various years)

58. Uganda has made notable progress in increasing literacy and access to education at all levels. Access to Universal Primary Education (UPE) increased from 2.5 million students in 1997 to 7.5 million in 2008, reaching a level of 82 per cent of eligible pupils enrolled. The introduction of Universal Secondary Education (USE) and Universal Post Primary Education Training (UPPET) in 2007 increased secondary school enrolment by 25 per cent from 814,087 in 2006 to 1,088,744 in 2008, with girls constituting 46 per cent. In the same period, enrolment in BTVET increased by 46 per cent from 25,682 to 47,298. The adult literacy rate has improved from 69 per cent in 2005/06 (UBOS, UDHS 2005/06) to 73.6 per cent in 2009 (HDR 2009).

59. In spite of improved performance, Uganda’s progress towards reaching the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015 in respect of educational and health status is not as fast as desired. Table 2.6 sets out the results from the UBOS Statistical Abstract 2008. The MDG target for net enrolment ratio in primary education is 100 per cent by 2015 while the outturn in 2005/06 was 84 per cent.

Table 2.6.PROGRESS ON HEALTH AND EDUCATION RELATED MDGS BY 2005/06
Goal/ IndicatorProgress (2005/06)Target (2015)
Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education
Net enrolment ratio in primary Education84100
Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality Rate
Infant Mortality Rate (per 1000 live births)7641
Under-Five Mortality (per 1000 live births)13760
Proportion of I year old children immunized against measles68.190.0
Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health
Maternal Mortality ratio (per 100,000 live births)435131
Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel41.190
Total Fertility Rate5.06.0
Contraceptive prevalence rate among women 15-49 years23.9
Goal 6: Combat HIV/ AIDS, malaria and other diseases
Condom use among higher risk sex group 15-24 year olds52.9
Source: UBOS Statistical Abstract, 2009

60. Technical, vocational and university education is not yet adequately supporting the development of a workforce with appropriate skills. In 2006, student enrolment in science and technology at both private and public universities was less than 27 per cent of total registered students. This is below the minimum requirement of 40 per cent recommended for rapid and accelerated economic growth and effective contribution in the global knowledge based economy.

61. The current state of Uganda’s health outcomes is mixed as measured by four core indicators set out in Table 2.6. While the trend in all the four outcome indicators was positive, the country fell short of all its defined national targets as articulated in the PEAP and risks missing the international targets. Generally, Ugandan health standards remain poor, even by Sub-Saharan Africa standards. Although there has been a decline in the maternal mortality ratio from 505/100,000 live births in 2001to 435/100,000 in 2006 (UDHS, 2006), it is unlikely that Uganda will meet the MDG target of 131/100,000 live births by 2015. Access to maternal and reproductive health services for girls and women is still low.

62. Uganda’s Human Development Index (HDI) score, which among others, considers life expectancy, literacy, and education enrolment rates, improved from 0.272 in 1995 to 0.58110 in 2006 before reducing to 0.514 in 2009. This is lower than the score of Kenya (0.541) and Tanzania (0.530) in 2009 but within the range of the medium human development category of countries. Uganda’s 2009 HDI score translates into a rank of 157th out of 182 countries with data.

63. Uganda’s development progress however, continues to be constrained by gender inequalities and social vulnerabilities. In the case of gender, Uganda’s constitution guarantees equality between women and men, and has a number of affirmative action measures. Uganda is a signatory to various international commitments11 and has a Gender Policy which provides for a framework for gender responsive development. Affirmative action has led to an increase in the percentage of female Members of Parliament from 18 per cent in 1995 to 29 per cent in 2009. Despite the presence of these measures, gender disparities still persist.

64. Gender based violence is estimated at 68 per cent for females against 20 per cent for males (UDHS 2009). Retention in primary education on the whole is low and exhibits gender disparity with 53 per cent of boys and 42 per cent of girls completing primary school in 2006. Enrolment figures for secondary level education also show gender disparities with only one third of girls who enrolled in primary education continuing in school to the age of 18 years, compared to half in the case of boys (UDHS 2006). HIV prevalence rate is also higher among women (7.5 per cent) than it is among men (5 per cent) (UHSBS 2004/05).

65. Furthermore, though it is estimated that women comprise 70 per cent of the work force in agriculture, they experience unequal access and control over important productive resources like land. This limits their ability to move beyond subsistence agriculture. In wage employment, women are concentrated in the lowest paying sectors, which is linked to their lower education levels; 50 per cent of employed women work in the three lowest paying sectors, compared to 33 per cent of men (2002/02 and 2005/06 UNHS). At the household level, women’s participation in decision making is also limited; only 51 per cent of women reported participating in making major household purchases, and overall men believed that a husband should play the major role in making most household decisions (UDHS 2006). The social vulnerabilities are generally associated with demographic characteristics such as age, disability, unemployment, ethnic minorities and other characteristics such as poverty and disasters. The UNHS 2005/06 report reveals that more than 2.1 million vulnerable children, representing 13.7 per cent of young people below 18 years were under the care of older persons, putting a lot of stress and further impoverishing them. About 1.9 million people (7 per cent of the population), live with disabilities and about 7.1 per cent of older persons have access to pension, of whom 60 per cent are male. Analysis of household survey data (2005/06) reveals that over 80 per cent of the poor, or about 7 million people are still trapped in chronic poverty.

2.1.5 Enabling Sectors

66. Enabling sectors encompass all sectors and sub-sectors that provide a conducive environment and framework for efficient performance of all sectors of the economy. They include defence and security, justice, law and order, legislature, environment management, climate change, water resource management, public sector management, public administration, disaster management, accountability, statistics, meteorology, and EAC integration.

67. For a long time, after independence, the defence and security sector was characterized by weak strategic leadership, unethical code of conduct, and ineffective organs and structures to regulate it. This created problems for the country resulting in animosity between the forces and the civilians, political instabilities and coups. Since 1986, efforts have been directed at addressing these issues. Statutes which guided the forces’ ethical and operational code of conduct were established and restructuring has been carried out. The security forces are subject to parliamentary oversight, making them accountable and properly regulated.

68. Uganda’s relations with her neighbours have greatly improved, which limits the possibility of the re-occurrence of inter-state conflicts, reduces the likelihood of further disagreements over border points as well as eliminating the chances of dissidents using the neighbouring areas to destabilize the country. Peace and stability has been restored throughout the country, including in Northern Uganda where armed conflict had persisted for over 20 years.

69. A number of democratic institutions have been put in place in line with the 1995 Constitution. The three arms of Government namely the Legislature, the Executive and the Judiciary are now in place and functioning, albeit with varying degrees of respect for each other’s constitutional mandate. Parliament continues to exercise its constitutional mandate and has strengthened a number of institutions for promoting democracy and good governance including the Electoral Commission (EC), Inspectorate of Government (IGG), the Auditor General (with enhanced powers), and the Uganda Human Rights Commission (UHRC), among others.

70. However, the country’s culture of constitutionalism is not improving fast enough. Many of the institutions established in the Legislative, Executive and Judicial branches of Government are still struggling to fully embrace the ideals, principles and practices of democracy. The media has been liberalized and is relatively free with both the print and electronic media providing citizens with ample opportunity to express their views on a wide range of issues that affect their lives. At the same time, Uganda has seen a dramatic emergence of non-governmental and civil society organisations able and willing to engage the arms of Government in policy debate and advocacy on democracy and good political governance issues, albeit with challenges in the policy and regulatory framework. However, the citizenry in general is not yet empowered to engage effectively in demanding their rights and insisting that institutions meet their obligations.

71. The country has established a number of institutions to enable effective public sector management. These institutions are responsible for policy formulation and implementation and public service delivery. However, there are opportunities to improve the structure of the public sector. There are issues with the allocation of roles and responsibilities which sometimes affects service delivery. Most of public institutions were formed in the early 1960s before the liberalization policies of the 1990s. The organization of some public institutions is not suitable and impedes the delivery of policy, regulation and public services. Other issues include: overlaps and duplication of mandates, weak oversight of institutions, poor corporate governance and weak regulatory frameworks. The civil servants are still poorly remunerated and this limits their productivity. Furthermore, the coordination of the public sector institutions is still a challenge.

72. The progress made both in public administration and public sector management is being hampered by corruption at various levels of Government. Government recognises the devastating socio-economic effects of corruption and is committed to taking corrective and deterrent measures in order to fully realize the potential for improving social and economic conditions. Uganda ranks 130th out of 180 countries on the Transparency International’s 2009 Corruption Perception Index, while many African countries rank better (Tanzania 126, Zambia 99, Swaziland 79, South Africa 56, and Botswana 37).

73. In order to enhance accountability in Government, the accountability sector was established in 2007 with the goal of promoting, supervising and implementing accountability systems. The sector comprises of the Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic Development; the Inspectorate of Government; Office of the Auditor General; Directorate of Ethics and Integrity; Ministry of Public Service-Inspection; Ministry of Local Government; Public Procurement and Disposal of Public Assets Authority; Uganda Bureau of Statistics; Uganda Revenue Authority; and Development Partners. There is also a Stakeholders Forum in which civil society views are presented and addressed. Civil Society includes private business, media, anti-corruption NGOs, and community groups which play a vital role in representing views and experiences of public service beneficiaries and holding public officials accountable.

74. The legal, policy and regulatory framework that guides the accountability sector include the Budget Act, 2001, Public Finance and Accountability Act, 2003, the National Audit Act, 2008, the Leadership Code Act, 2002, the National Records & Archives Act, 2001, Public Procurement and Disposal of Public Assets Act, 2003, and the Access to Information Act, 2005. Other laws pending legislation include: the Anti-Money Laundering Bill, the Anti-Corruption Bill, 2008, and the Whistle Blowers’ Bill. A special court has also been established to try corruption cases.

75. There is a need to ensure that there is sustainable management of the environment and natural resources. The environment is characterized by a geographical variance in rainfall levels. The amount of rainfall ranges from 400mm in Karamoja to 2200mm on Ssese Islands in Lake Victoria. The total renewable water resources are estimated at 66Km3 per year corresponding to 2200m3 per capita per year. While this meets the current needs of the country, it is estimated that by 2017, Uganda will be a water stressed country.

76. There are serious challenges in reversing the reduction in the habitant cover which decreased from 95 per cent in 1980 to 85 per cent in 2000. Associated with this, the native species have been declining with the population index decreasing from about 60 per cent in 1980 to 40 per cent in 2005. There has been reduction in total fish production from 434,000 tonnes in 2004 to 374,000 tonnes in 2007. The biodiversity has also been decreasing as reflected in the change in the biodiversity index from 0.8 in 1980 to 0.7 in 2005 and the reduction in the species richness index from 95 per cent in 1980 to about 85 per cent in 2005. The ecological footprint has decreased from 2 in 1980 to 1.6 in 2005 and the bio-capacity has decreased from 2 in 1980 to 1.2 in 200512.

2.1.6 Private Sector Performance

77. The private sector in Uganda largely comprises of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) and these cut across sectors of the economy, contributing 20 per cent of the GDP.13 The number of registered businesses in Uganda was 25,000 in 2007 with the majority (11,003) located in the central region of the country. Of the firms across sectors, those in the industry constituted 17.7 per cent, and were mainly engaged in beverages, sugar, textiles, building materials, foot wear, packaging, and food processing.

78. Although the private sector has grown rapidly between 2001 and 2007, growth in the number of Arms has been concentrated in small firms with low value addition, whereas larger Arms with high value added per employee did not increase as fast. The service sector is the fastest growing in Uganda (13 per cent per annum), with 32 per cent of these investments owned by Ugandans. Predominant in the service sector are telecommunications, hospitality and trade sub-sectors.

79. MSMEs employ over 1.5 million people of the total non-farm workforce. These include; retail trade, education and restaurants accounting for the bulk of total employment in new firms. With the exception of education, it was found that the rapid growth in enterprises is focused on low-value services and is, therefore, unlikely to be a platform for significantly transforming the economy.

80. The economic conditions and the business climate have significant impediments, as indicated by various studies. The World Economic Forum’s Country Competitiveness Index 2009 ranks Uganda 108 out of 133 countries. Many other African countries rank better (Tanzania 100, Kenya 98, Namibia 74, Botswana 66, South Africa 45) indicating better investment and business environments in those countries. In this study, Uganda deviates negatively compared to a peer group of factor economies with regard to health, primary education, higher education and training, infrastructure, institutions and technological readiness.14 These are key sectors that need to perform well to support the primary growth sectors. As shown in Figure 2.7, there is a positive deviation from this group with regard to Uganda’s macroeconomic stability, financial market sophistication and labour market efficiency.15

Figure 2.7COMPARISON OF UGANDA’S COMPETITIVE POSITION TO PEER GROUP

Source: World Economic Forum: World Competitiveness Index 2009

81. The international “Doing Business Survey 2010” report ranks Uganda 112th out of 183 countries on a wide range of business indicators. Problems are identified in particular for registering property, trading across borders, protecting investors, starting a business, enforcing contracts, and getting credit. As Figure 2.8 shows, these impediments, among others, are affecting the competitiveness of the economy, with the main issues being access to finance, corruption, infrastructure, tax administration, work ethics, and Government bureaucracy.

Figure 2.8SIGNIFICANT PROBLEMS IMPEDING COMPETITIVENESS 2009

Source: World Economic Forum: World Competitiveness Index 2009

82. The Government has been implementing measures to address the barriers to investment through the Competitiveness and Investment Climate Strategy. However, actions have been slow and often uncoordinated. The Third National Competitiveness Forum noted similar issues to the ones identified in Figure 2.8, as well as a broader range of issues that included: high transport costs; lack of a policy framework for private-public partnerships; poor urban planning; and limited market size16. Other issues that were noted include: the potential effects of the financial crisis in many countries and the world economic downturn reducing FDI and remittances. Similar problems were identified in a survey of small and medium enterprises.17

2.1.7 Civil Society

83. As acknowledged in past Government policy frameworks, ‘it is essential for the concept of civil society that their actions are not planned or dictated by the Government’18. Civil Society in Uganda is as diverse as the concept itself, making it quite challenging to work with the sector. However, the emergence and growing importance of broadly inclusive non-governmental platforms presents an opportunity to engage with civil society in a more strategic and sustained manner. These platforms currently include non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and other non-profit entities including faith based organizations, trade unions, community based organizations, professional associations and interest groups.

84. When examining the structure of Uganda’s civil society, a mixed picture emerges. The participation of the citizens in CSOs appears to be very extensive. To a great extent, this is because rural life, in this largely agrarian country is often characterised by membership in various forms of community and other mutual help groups, which are socially inclusive, and to which faith-linked organizations can be added. Most of these CSOs are donor-dependent. The sector is fragmented across many facets of development and tends to favour accountability towards donors over accountability to the local population.

85. Following the Paris Declaration, CSOs are increasingly seeing advocacy work as a legitimate undertaking. It is also an area of work that donors support and where the Government is opening avenues, especially at the district level where some of the CSOs are being contracted for service delivery.

86. Despite the important role that civil society has and can play in the development process, a number of factors directly and indirectly work against their full effectiveness. The NDP has identified a weakness in the lack of a comprehensive and consistent framework to institutionalize the interface between NGOs and various Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs) at national and district level. The current NGO law also constrains the engagement between NGOs and Government, thus fuelling mutual suspicion and sometimes hostility, rather than cooperation and partnership.

87. Several agencies of Government have little understanding of what conceptually NGOs are and or ought to be partly due to lack of comprehensive information on the nature, precise contribution and value of NGOs work to Uganda’s development. Several agencies thus view NGOs as appendages of the Government whose programmes and financing should be integrated in Government plans. Furthermore, there is little empirical information available or known about what NGOs do, where they do it and the impact of their activities. Thus, the outcome of their work is not meaningfully captured in development statistics.

2.2 MOST BINDING CONSTRAINTS

88. As observed in the Barcelona Agenda 2004, Government will adopt a range of policies and interventions in its development strategy in the NDP in order to address the most binding constraints to economic growth. This will entail implementing a mix of microeconomic and macroeconomic policies and interventions, with the Government playing a more significant role. These actions will stimulate growth and productivity in the private sector and will improve performance in the public sector. In this context, a systematic methodology for undertaking country diagnosis and identifying the most binding constraints to growth was used in the course of the NDP preparation process. These constraints are presented below:

2.2.1 Constraint 1: Weak Public Sector Management and Administration

89. Analysis of the binding constraints to growth in Uganda reveals that public sector management and administration is characterized by weak policy, legal and regulatory frameworks; weak institutional structures and systems; weak civil society and civic participation; inadequate data and information; inadequate standards and weak quality infrastructure; limited social protection and support systems; and weak management of environment and climate change. Over 70 per cent of the Government sectors have obsolete, absent or weak policy frameworks. The weak institutions, structures and systems take the form of inappropriate organizational structures, inadequate systems, understaffing, limited strategic oversight, overlapping and duplication of roles, protracted institutional infancy, weak client responsiveness and inefficient bureaucracy. This weak public sector management has led to low absorption of public funds and poor delivery of services.

90. Although considerable efforts have been made to reduce corruption, including putting in place an appropriate legal and institutional framework, it still significantly affects public service delivery in the country. Corruption is most rife in procurement, administration of public expenditure and management of revenue. The citizenry is not yet fully empowered to engage effectively in demanding better performance from Government institutions in meeting their obligations and providing services. Corruption has remained high at various levels of Government, with Uganda’s ranking moving down from 126 to 130 out of 180 countries on Transparency International’s Corruption Perception Indices for 2008 and 2009.

91. While Uganda has signed some international standards and codes, it has not yet ratified and domesticated many of them. These are relevant not only for benchmarking good practices for promoting good governance and sustainable development, but also enhancing the country’s competitiveness through participation in key economic organisations. There is also a limited range of formal international standards related to the quality of goods and services that have been implemented in Uganda. There are 1,204 Ugandan standards which is an extremely low number compared to Kenya which has up to 8,000 standards. Out of the registered 25,000 firms, only 86 are certified by ISO. Only 203 firms are certified by UNBS.

92. There are many areas where citizens are pressing Government for better performance given that the poverty level was at 31 per cent in 2005/06 and inequity is evident in the relatively high Gini-coefficient data. Progress towards the MDG goals is not as fast as desirable, with poor outcomes for health in particular. There are also gaps in social protection. As of March 2007, the pension scheme covered only 44,000 public servants while the NSSF protected 1,282,994 workers between 1967 and 2003. Orphans and vulnerable children are estimated at 7.5 million of whom, only 23 per cent are adequately cared for.

93. The management and administration of land in Uganda is still a major challenge and will require additional input to implement the Land Act as amended in 2009. The complex and multiple land tenure systems have severely limited land use planning and utilization. Presently approximately 10 per cent of the total land area is titled. In addition, there are problems of alteration of land titles to the extent that it has caused a number of land disputes.

94. The management of the environment is not effective and remains relegated to few institutions that face significant challenges in enforcement. Over 7 per cent of the original wetland area had been reclaimed as of 2005. The forest cover declined from 24 per cent in 1990 to 18 per cent in 2005. Similarly, the habitat cover had reduced from 95 per cent in 1980 to 85 per cent in 2000. Given this trend, the country will experience significant adverse environment and economic effects in the near future.

2.2.2 Constraint 2: Inadequate Financing and Financial Services

95. In the public sector, despite concern about inefficiencies in the use of public funds, the majority of Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs) usually cited funding as a key constraint to delivery of public goods and services. The financing constraint in the public sector is manifested mainly in under-funding of priorities of public sector programmes and projects, thereby impeding the quantity and quality of service delivery. In 2008, the Government domestic revenue, as a ratio of GDP was about 13 percent, which is low compared to about 25 per cent and 17 per cent for Kenya and Tanzania respectively. While this ratio is projected to grow over the NDP period, the Government has to rely on external financing for much of the budget expenditures, especially in the category of capital development. In this situation, it will be constrained to some extent, in its ability to match expenditure to priorities in a timely way.

96. In the private sector, availability of and access to financial services is also one of the major constraints. Non-availability of financial services is manifested in form of a lack of sufficient financial services infrastructure required to deliver appropriate financial services across the country. For instance, only 23 districts in Uganda have commercial banks. The situation is worse in most of the rural areas as most banks are situated in urban centres. The number of bank accounts in the country is about five (5) million, representing a 16 per cent penetration. This low financial penetration limits access to safe and sound financial services and therefore, access to high quality and low-cost finance. The capital market for long term funds is still under developed. There are currently six local equities and five cross border listings with Government and corporate bonds traded on stock exchange in Uganda, which compares poorly with Nairobi stock exchange in Kenya with 46 listed firms.

97. The nominal lending interest rates of banks range from 17 per cent to 23 per cent which is high and, except for very few areas where the rates of return on investments are higher, such interest rates are bound to continue discouraging investments. In the formal micro finance sector, nominal lending interest rates are even higher, ranging from 24 per cent to 36 per cent per annum, and the situation is worse in the informal microfinance systems. Coupled with the low savings culture in the country, raising relatively cheap domestic capital for investment is expensive and will require boosting the mobilization of domestic resources for intermediation through promoting rural savings, and further development of pension and insurance systems.

2.2.3 Constraint 3: Inadequate Quantity and Quality of Human Resource

98. The quality of human resource is important to organizational success. Despite the large and fast growing youthful labour force and the Government’s efforts to provide education and training at various levels, the country continues to experience deficits in the supply of skilled human resources. This is evident in the limited availability of skilled labour as partly shown by wide wage differentials, and the high number of vacant posts in technical areas. The lack of skilled human resources is associated with quality issues in the education system, including low school completion rates, limited capacity in the vocational and technical training institutions, and the brain drain from the country. This is exacerbated by inadequate manpower planning in key areas of the economy.

99. The health sector, for example, continues to experience considerable workforce challenges arising from numbers, skills and motivational factors. The ratio of doctors to the patients in Uganda was 1:24,725 which is significantly lower compared to Kenya at 1:7,100, Cuba at 1:169 in 2002, and Malaysia at 1: 1,430 in 2000. The ratio of nurses to the population in Uganda is 1:1,634, compared with 1:877 in Kenya, 1:740 in Malaysia in 2000 and 1:134 in Cuba in 2002. The low number of health professionals in Uganda adversely affects the delivery of health services. The situation is similar with regard to the low levels of qualified people in other professions.

100. Human resource development is further encumbered by low service delivery standards in health and education sectors. For national referral hospitals the ratio is 1:30,000,000 whereas the standard should be 1:10,000,000. At the level of Health Centre IV (HC IV), the ratio is 1:187,500 whereas the desired ratio should be 1:100,000. For Health Centre III, the ratio is 1:84,507 whereas the optimum should be 1:20,000. For the education sector, at primary level, the class room pupil ratio is 1:68 compared to the target of 1:53. For secondary school level, the student classroom ratio is 1:60 whereas the target is 1:35. In addition, the curriculum and methods of training employed in the National education system do not adequately prepare graduates to standards that are globally competitive, thus rendering the country to continually depend on foreign experts in specialised fields.

2.2.4 Constraint 4: Inadequate Physical Infrastructure

101. Physical infrastructure plays a major role in the movement of final goods and services as well as factor inputs from places of supply to places of demand. Thus, inadequate physical infrastructure constrains production in many sectors of the economy. In the transport sector, the road sector, which carries 96.4 per cent of the total cargo freight, only 4 per cent of it is paved. The rail network carries only 3.5 per cent of the freight cargo and only 26 per cent of it is functional. This contrasts with China and India where over 90 per cent of the cargo is transported by rail. The cost of cargo freight by road is 3 times more than the cost of using rail. There are no functional wagon ferries and the country has only one entry-exit airport. Transport costs remain a significant trade barrier, equivalent to effective protection of over 20 per cent and imposes an implicit tax on exports of over 25 per cent (and up to 50 per cent on air freight). As a result, the cost of doing business in Uganda is high, undermining economic competitiveness.

102. In the power sector, only 11 per cent of the population has access to electricity in comparison to 15 percent in Kenya and 98 per cent in Malaysia. The power consumption stands at 60 kWh per capita compared to Kenya at 140 kWh per capita and Malaysia at 3,200 kWh per capita. The low level of consumption of electricity is mainly explained by a low generation capacity and inadequate distribution network, followed by the high power tariffs which are the second highest in the world after Sweden. The Tanzania electricity consumer pays USD 8cents per kWh; Kenyan consumer pays 13 cents per kWh, while Uganda consumer pays 22 cents per kWh. Moreover, the supply of electricity in Uganda experiences disruptions due to load shedding and power outages, although this has improved in recent years as a result of short term but expensive interventions to mitigate the impact on the economy.

103. Communication infrastructure has improved significantly following liberalization of the sector that has attracted substantial private sector investments. However, the limited coverage, cost of access and usage as well as limited diversity of communication mediums are still major constraints. For example, the internet infrastructure is still limited with most concentration in the capital, Kampala. The price of the Internet in Uganda is still very high for everyday users at USD 14 cents per minute compared to Malaysia at USD 0.155 cents per minute. The problem of high cost and hence limited use of the internet is related to inadequate bandwidth and other related infrastructure. The situation is expected to improve following the connection of East Africa to the undersea cable and installation of the National ICT backbone in Uganda.

104. The consumptive use of water stands at 21 cubic meters per capita which is far below the world average of 599 cubic meters per capita. This means that less water is used for irrigation and industry, estimated at 28 times less than the world average. Access to safe water stands at 63 per cent for the rural and 72 per cent for the urban population. This is low compared to Malaysia with 96 per cent and 100 per cent in the rural and urban areas respectively. The available data suggests that 30 per cent of the population has no access to safe water supply for domestic use.

2.2.5 Constraint 5: Gender Issues, Negative Attitudes, Mind-set, Cultural Practices, and Perceptions

105. Certain elements in Uganda’s traditions, culture and religious norms are not supportive to modern approaches in society and have, therefore, limited economic growth and structural transformation.

106. There is discrimination against women in Uganda through traditional rules and practices that explicitly exclude them or give preference to men, and this is a key constraint on women’s empowerment and economic progress. At the governance level, these rules and practices limit political and economic participation of women. This in turn, leads to formulation and passing of policies and laws which do not protect women’s rights. At the community and household level, women are restricted from participating in important decisions such as resource use, family planning, and access to services such as health and education. Women have been marginalised in access to ownership and control over land, education, business ownership, skills development, access to financial resources; employment and inheritance rights. The culture of early marriages amongst girls increases the rate of early pregnancies and is partly responsible for the country’s high maternal mortality rate and high fertility rate. At all levels, the culture of ignoring various forms of violence against women must also be reversed in order to unlock critical barriers towards women’s empowerment.

107. In terms of culture, Uganda has lagged behind in development partly as a result of backward cultural practices, beliefs, attitudes and a lack of national ethical values in political, social and economic spheres. These are manifested in the form of; poor time management, negative attitudes towards work reflected in low human productivity and low entrepreneurial spirit, high dependency levels which stood above 1.5, large family size and rapidly growing population, female genital mutilation, property inheritance which favours mainly the male gender, the lack of ethics integrity and patriotism; and a tolerance for corruption.

108. Negative attitudes and perceptions influence the use and appreciation of natural resources, adoption of science and technology, and use of ICT. There is low utilisation of contraceptives among the population and slow behaviour change resulting in increased HIV/AIDS prevalence rate. In addition, negative attitudes towards immunization still persist, contributing to lower coverage which stands at about 46 per cent.

109. The poor business and entrepreneurial attitudes of the indigenous private sector is partly reflected in the country’s high enterprise mortality rate, the highest in Global Entrepreneurship monitor reports of 2005, 2006 and 2007. The survey reports rated Uganda in the top countries, globally, in terms of enterprise creation. The high failure rate of not only fledging businesses, but also those that accessed capital, large export markets, combined with the low number of successful joint venture investments below local entrepreneurs and foreign investors underscore the poor business attitudes of Uganda’s SME’s.

2.2.6 Constraint 6: Low Application of Science, Technology and Innovation

110. Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) play a vital role in generating growth and socio-economic transformation. The low level of total factor productivity experienced in Uganda is partly due to limited application of STI in the production processes and service delivery mechanisms. The constraint is manifested in terms of poor quality of products and services; a low technology component of exports as evidenced in the percentage of manufactured exports to primary exports which was as low as at 4.2 per cent in 2008/09; and low numbers of R&D personnel with one R&D personnel per 1000 labour force compared to OECD countries that range from 5 to 18 R&D personnel per 1,000 labour force. Technology Achievement Index (TAIf is 0.24 compared to Malaysia at 0.34. The share of expenditure on R&D as a percentage GDP is 0.3 per cent compared to Malaysia at 0.63 (2005/06). In 2001, Uganda published only 91 articles in respected journals compared to about 10,000 by Israel. In the area of innovations, only 3 patent applications are submitted per year compared to Malaysia that has over 6000 patents per year. The ratio of science graduates to Arts graduates is 1:5 whereas in Malaysia it is 1:1.5.

2.2.7 Constraint 7: Inadequate Supply and Limited Access to Critical Production Inputs

111. Value is created through a production and exchange process. Inputs are at the centre of the value chain creation. Examples of these inputs include raw materials such as fertilizers and water, human and financial resources, and physical capital. Some of these inputs are in serious short supply or are very expensive, thereby curtailing their widespread use. For example, fertilizer use in Uganda is at 1kg/hectare having increased from 0.37kg hectares in 2000 compared to 6kg/ hectare in Tanzania, 16kg/ hectare in Malawi, and 31.3 Kg/ hectare in Kenya. This is partly attributed to high cost which has almost tripled from USD 252 per ton in January 2007 to USD 752 per ton in January 2008 (IFDC 2008). Use of fertilizers can boost the yields by 50 per cent. Currently irrigation is carried out on 14,418 hectares of land against an irrigation potential of 400,000 hectares. This represents 3.6 per cent of irrigation potential exploited, explaining the low consumptive use of water for production which stands at 21 cubic meters per capita, far below the world average of 599 cubic meters per capita.

112. The cost of 50kg of cement in Uganda is about USD 15 compared to USD 3 in Malaysia and about USD 10 in Kenya. Uganda currently has four steel mills, which use scrap as their basic raw material. National demand for steel products is estimated at 60,000 to 80,000 metric tons per annum while the current production level is estimated at only 7,000 metric tons per annum which represents 9 per cent of the demand. This is very low compared to Kenya that produced over 220,000 tonnes in 2003. Lack of access to these critical production inputs severely affects development.

PART 2: STRATEGIC DIRECTION AND THE NDP STRATEGY

CHAPTER 3 THE STRATEGIC DIRECTION

3.1 VISION

113. The Vision for Uganda is “A transformed Ugandan society from a peasant to a modern and prosperous country within 30 years”. This implies changing from a predominantly peasant low income to a middle income country within 30 years. It is envisaged that the country will graduate to the middle income segment by 2017. The Vision provided the direction of the theme for this NDP. The Vision attributes are:

  • a) Independence and sovereignty: Ugandans aspire for a country that is both independent and sovereign in every aspect, a country free to govern itself and having complete power with freedom from undue political control by other countries and with the citizens determining their political destiny.
  • b) Democracy and the rule of law: Democracy and observance of the rule of law is a major pillar of a modern society. In the next 30 years, Uganda needs to consolidate and enhance the democracy so far attained to provide a solid foundation for transformation into a modern and prosperous society.
  • c) Stability and peace: An important pre-requisite for the development of any country is peace, stability and social cohesion in an environment of democracy, political and social tolerance. Ugandans aspire to live peacefully with other countries and in harmony within their social cultural and ethnic diversity.
  • d) Knowledgeable and skilled: Knowledge, information and skills are a pre-requisite for a modern society. Uganda aspires to equip the population with the relevant knowledge, information and skills to enable them improve their quality of life, respond to development challenges and compete nationally, regionally and internationally.
  • e) Able to exploit and use its resources gainfully and sustainably: Ugandans should be able to exploit and use national resources gainfully and sustainably to promote competitiveness, independence, self-sustenance and a dynamic economy, which is resilient to any external shocks; an economy which supports stability and protection of biological and physical systems.
  • f) In a strong federated East Africa with an effective African Common Market and a strong African Defence Mechanism: To realize its 30-year vision of a modern and prosperous country, Uganda aspires to become a major player in East Africa, regional and other international markets. In addition, Uganda will embrace being a member of a strong African Defence Mechanism.

114. This Vision aims to transform the Ugandan society from a predominantly peasant-based economy to a just, peaceful and prosperous middle-income country. It will be realised through the implementation of three Ten-Year National Development Plans, sub divided into six Five-Year National Development Plans, Sector Master Plans, and Annual Plans and Budgets. These will be augmented by an effective implementation and monitoring mechanisms across political, economic, social and cultural targets. The NDP will guide the revision of the MTEF and the formulation of the annual budgets.

3.2 THE NDP THEME AND OBJECTIVES

115. The theme of this NDP is “Growth, Employment and Socio-Economic Transformation for Prosperity”. Each of the elements of this theme provides an overall thrust to what Ugandans want to be achieved during the NDP period.

116. Throughout the world, the magnitude of economies is measured by the size of their wealth, commonly referred to as Gross Domestic Product (GDP). It is the goal of every economy to increase its GDP in a rapid, efficient and sustainable manner. Broad-based economic growth increases revenues, stimulates employment, generates additional goods and services and advances the standard of living of the population. Embedded in the NDP theme is the desire to balance wealth creation with sustainable poverty reduction, which calls for growth with equity. That is, increasing the GDP while improving the socio-economic indicators such as the number of people living below the poverty line and infant mortality. Employment creation is equally critical for both wealth creation and poverty reduction. During the NDP period, the size of Uganda’s economy must not only increase significantly, but it should do so in such a way that creates adequate gainful jobs that are in tandem with the growing labour force. As already noted in the analytical sections, growth in employment will require stronger socio-economic transformation which should in turn feed into additional growth, gainful employment creation and eventually the prosperity of all citizens. Additional policies for transformation and social protection need to be targeted at the welfare of people who are unable to work or lack basic resources.

117. In line with this theme, the plan seeks to significantly improve specific development indicators associated with transformation. These include raising average per capita income levels, improving the labour force distribution in line with sectoral GDP shares, raising the country’s human development indicators and improving the country’s competitiveness to levels associated with middle income countries.

118. To achieve the NDP theme, the following eight objectives were identified as being strategic:

  • a) Increasing household incomes and promoting equity. The attainment of this objective is critical for sustainable economic development. This will be assessed by measuring changes in; income per capita, income distribution, employment, skills development and agricultural production and productivity.
  • b) Enhancing the availability and quality of gainful employment. The attainment of this objective will be assessed based on; availability of employment, diversity of professional employment, the level of incomes, and increased industrial investments, production and productivity.
  • c) Improving stock and quality of economic infrastructure. This objective has two aspects: quantity and quality. Its attainment will be assessed by; increased generation, distribution, access to and consumption of electricity; quantity and quality of the road network; increased functionality of the railway network; increased access to telecommunication services; access to mass public transport; and access to affordable banking services.
  • d) Increasing access to quality social services. Ultimately, the fruits of development are; manifested in the social status of the population. Common measures of this objective include: literacy levels, life expectancy at birth, infant mortality rate, maternal mortality rate, safe water coverage, sanitation levels and incidence of communicable diseases and HIV/AIDS.
  • e) Promoting science, technology, innovation and ICT to enhance competitiveness. Assessment of this objective will be based on the share of exports with high technology content in total exports; strengthened institutional capacity and the status of science and technology; increased capacity for R&D and innovation; increased capacity, access and use of ICT; and increased number of S&T and ICT professionals.
  • f) Enhancing human capital development: This objective is a cornerstone of sustainable development and its achievement will be assessed by increased skilled manpower among nationals, increased institutional capacity for relevant skills development, and increased proportion of regional and international students trained.
  • g) Strengthening good governance, defence and security: This objective will be assessed based on the quality of socio-economic and political governance; economic and corporate governance; the quality of democracy and the level of security.
  • h) Promoting sustainable population and use of the environment and natural resources. To assess the attainment of this objective, the following will be measured: health status of the population, the quality of human settlement and urbanization, progress in restoration of degraded ecosystems, and the quality of management of environmental resources.

3.3 PRINCIPLES OF THE PLAN

3.3.1 Ownership

119. The realisation of a national vision requires the wholehearted support of all stakeholders. The same applies to a national plan derived from the vision and intended to achieve its goals and objectives. The ownership is not only for the formulation process but also for a smooth and successful implementation of programmes, projects and other initiatives that should lead to the realization of the objectives of the NDP.

3.3.2 Political Will

120. This National Development Plan requires strong backing from the political leadership at all levels just like the vision from which it is derived.

3.3.3 Good Governance

121. Good governance is the positive exercise of authority. It is characterized by citizen transformation and participation in governance, control of corruption, political stability, respect for the rule of law, Government effectiveness, regulatory quality and effective knowledge management. It is a prerequisite for achieving growth and poverty eradication. Therefore, to successfully implement the NDP, good governance is of paramount importance.

3.3.4 Resource Availability

122. It will be extremely important to ensure the availability of resources for implementing the planned programmes. This will require taking measures to eliminate wasteful spending, fighting corruption, intensifying accountability, improving the allocation of resources, increasing efficiency in the use of resources and giving more attention to effectiveness through monitoring and reviews.

3.3.5 Balanced Development

123. While recognising that the economy will reflect Uganda’s comparative advantage, implementation of the NDP will encourage the development of sectors with potential competitive advantage rather than relying only on the current sectors. In this way the country’s targeted growth will not hinge on a few sectors, as many others will have the potential to contribute to growth. With the discovery of oil and gas, the country will need to guard against getting trapped into the “Dutch disease syndrome” which could have adverse effects on the exchange rate and distort production incentives for other non-oil sectors thus undermining the country’s export potential and diversification.

124. The second dimension of balanced development is linked to ensuring that all regions of the country benefit from growth of the national economy by equitably using national resources, better infrastructure and other development projects to realise higher investments levels required to fight poverty, promote social equity and harmony.

125. The other dimension of equity is promotion of gender and human rights. The NDP follows various international conventions and resolutions that promote equal opportunities and enjoyment of human rights for both men and women. Gender, disability and human rights mainstreaming are a core part of the planning process.

3.3.6 Behaviour Change

126. Behaviour change is needed in many public and private sector groups as well as in many citizens, and is crucial for rapid economic growth and transformation. The people will need to adopt a new attitude to public property, assets, amenities and the environment and be patriotic to their country. They should demonstrate and exercise concern for other citizens, especially the elderly, the disabled, and children. This includes being committed to promoting gender equality so that men, women, boys and girls have equal opportunities and access to resources. Ugandans should start appreciating hard work, discipline and patriotism.

3.3.7 Linkage with the National Planning Processes

127. The road to transformation will require careful planning and commitment of resources. The NDP is expected to be an all encompassing plan for the next five years, which will also act as a guide to any future planning. In essence, all ministries, departments and autonomous and semi-autonomous entities will realign their development priorities with the NDP.

3.3.8 Sustainable and Equitable Development

128. Sustainable development is about using resources to meet human needs while preserving the environment. For several decades, development has concentrated on improvement and advancement of economic, social cultural and political conditions and less on preserving the environment. This has resulted into global warming and other adverse environmental conditions associated with climate change. Less focus on gender inequalities has also often promoted discrimination against the female sex. The implementation of the NDP should ensure sustainable and equitable development.

129. While balancing wealth creation with poverty reduction, the design and implementation of the NDP emphasizes sustainable development through preservation of natural resources such as forests and wetlands. Access to basic needs such as education, health services, food, housing and the equitable distribution of incomes among all citizens shall be promoted. As part of implementing sustainable development, every person shall be assured of a life of dignity, including a life in a society that respects and helps realize human rights.

3.3.9 Effective Implementation, Monitoring and Evaluation Mechanism

130. In the course of the implementation of the various NDP initiatives, it will be important to determine whether or not the country is on course towards achieving its goals and objectives, whether or not progress is being made and success being registered. An effective implementation mechanism should lead to the achievement of the goals and objectives. To this end, effective monitoring and evaluation will be undertaken to provide relevant information which will be used to fine-tune, re-orient, or otherwise alter the proposed initiatives. Effective M&E is important for measuring and reporting progress towards the planned objectives and related targets.

131. This chapter sets out the strategic approach for the achievement of the objectives of the Plan. The strategies in this Plan are presented in three categories. The first category (section 4.1) deals with elements of the broad development approach the country will pursue in the course of the Plan period. The second category (section 4.2) focuses on the specific ways for unlocking the most binding constraints identified in Chapter 2. The third category entails approaches that the Sectors will pursue to realise their respective objectives over and above the specific ways for unlocking binding constraints. These strategies are detailed in Part 3 of the Plan. The investment priorities are presented in section 4.3.

CHAPTER 4 THE NDP STRATEGY

4.1 STRATEGY CONTEXT

132. Uganda’s Vision of a transformed society from a peasant to a modern and prosperous country within 30 years provides the overall strategic planning framework for the NDP. The NDP objectives have been designed to incrementally attain this Vision.

133. The overarching policy of the NDP will intertwine economic growth and poverty eradication. Policies and strategies will be focused towards achieving accelerated and sustainable growth in the priority areas, creation of gainful employment and socio-economic transformation for prosperity. Increasing incomes beyond the subsistence level and stimulating growth requires sustained orientation of Government expenditure and interventions towards the effective resolution of the most binding constraints highlighted in Part 1. Attention to these areas will have impact on the efficiency and effectiveness of service delivery, productivity, household incomes and overall economic development.

134. A quasi-market approach, which includes a mix of government investments in strategic areas and private sector market driven actions, will be pursued. The private sector will remain the engine of growth and development, while Government, in addition to undertaking the facilitating role through the provision of a conducive policy, regulatory and institutional framework, will also actively promote and encourage public-private partnerships in a rational manner. Furthermore, the Government will continue to pursue outward-oriented policies by encouraging foreign investments and exports with high value addition, as well as pursuing sound macroeconomic policy and management.

135. In order to bring together all national development stakeholders to achieve common goals and objectives, a “business approach” will be adopted in the implementation of the NDP. The fundamental basis of this new approach is that successful national development requires the public and private sectors to adhere to the perception of the nation as a ‘corporate’ or a ‘business entity’, jointly owned by both sectors and working in tandem in pursuit of a common vision. The main postulate of this policy is the imperative to evolve a meaningful working relationship between the public and private sectors as a means to forge ahead in an increasingly competitive global marketplace.

136. To operationalise this concept, several reforms will be implemented including: deregulation of cumbersome bureaucratic rules and procedures; improving the public delivery system; deepening and strengthening the consultative machinery between the private and public sectors; and deepening the smart partnership programmes in nation building efforts.

4.2 STRATEGIES FOR UNLOCKING THE BINDING CONSTRAINTS

4.2.1 Improving Public Sector Management and Administration

137. Institutional efficiency and effectiveness is important in service delivery. For successful implementation of this plan, these strategies have to be expeditiously worked on preferably using administrative measures. Specific actions proposed to address inefficiencies and delivery issues in public sector management and administration are outlined in Table 4.1.

Table 4.1.STRATEGIC ACTIONS FOR IMPROVING PUBLIC SECTOR MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION
NOStrategic ActionsInstitution
1The NDP shall be used as the basis for policy making in government to ensure alignment of all specific sector policies to the relevant national policies. Thus, Government shall strengthen policy making and planning in the MDAs/LGs, including involving public servants in policy initiation and formulation.Parliament, Cabinet and MDAs
2Formulate and operationalise the “business approach” that will cascade and strengthen the participation of the private sector, academia and civil society together with public sector in national development to significantly improve service delivery.NPA, MoFPED
3A review shall be made of the current policy framework to provide a basis for streamlining institutional mandates and improving institutional interfacesPSM
4The current ongoing reforms shall be expedited and implemented in a manner that ensures harmony with the NDP recommendations.MDAs
5The function of policy coordination in government shall be rationalized with a view to strengthening the Cabinet Secretariat to foster and ensure coordination of the policy making process. Guidelines for policy initiation and formulation will be developed and agreed upon.Cabinet, PSM
6The process of making laws shall be reviewed to ensure consistency in legal frameworks across sectors. To this end, Government will strengthen the role of sectors by ensuring that legal counsels are stationed at sector level. The formulation of laws should be preceded by policies.PSM
7Government will further strengthen the current framework for involvement of the private sector and civil society in public policy making, planning, and implementation and ensure that policies are based on sound research, analysis and evaluation.PSM
8In order to rationalise and strengthen the regulatory function of government, the Office of Prime Minister will be strengthened to coordinate Government regulations. Furthermore, efforts will be directed to ensure separation of the role of regulation from that of planning and implementation across MDAs.PSM, MDAs
9Put in place new and strengthen the existing regulatory agencies within government to ensure proper and efficient regulation. This is urgent in sectors of Agriculture, health, education, transport and works, water and sanitation and oil and gas industry.MDAs
10Review the framework for rationalisation and oversight of the privatised institutions. Review the PERD statute and fully operationalize UDC.PSM, Cabinet
11Government shall introduce institutional performance contracts at all levelsPSM, Cabinet
12The functions of the Ministry of Public Service shall be enhanced to ensure proper handling of human resource issues, development management (HRPDM) in the public sector, PSC to regulate the HRPDM sector and MDAs/ LGs to recruit and deploy personnel on individual performance contracts.PSM, Cabinet
13Deepen the current practice of hiring on contract to ensure that senior staff and management of Public service are on contracts employment terms.Cabinet,
14During the period of this NDP, Government shall complete the review and then implement the improved pay and incentive systems of the public sector.PSM
15To ensure good governance and harmonious development, this NDP shall see the promoting of social responsibility in the public and private sector; developing and enforcing corporate governance code and standards; training and creating awareness in corporate governance and responsibility.Cabinet
16Revitalise and strengthen the coordination and implementation of government policies and programmes so as to harness inter-sectoral linkages and synergies.PSM
17Build the capacity of and help to organise the private sector for effective service delivery. Registering associations and ensuring their performance is critical.MDAs
18Strengthen decentralization and the link between central government and LG planningNPA, MoLG, LGs
19Enhancing transparency and accountabilityIGG, MoFPED, OAG, MoJCA

4.2.2 Improving Public Sector Financing and Improving Financial Services

138. The constraint related to financing has two dimensions a public sector dimension; and a private sector dimension.

Public Sector Financing

139. To raise the required public resources for funding of the NDP, proposed strategies for mobilising the resources are outlined in Table 4.2A:

Table 4.2A.STRATEGIC ACTIONS FOR INCREASING PUBLIC SECTOR FUNDING
No.Strategic ActionsInstitution
1Ensuring clear framework for determining Government prioritiesNPA
2Increasing revenues to fund the Government prioritiesMoFPED
3Developing an efficient framework for public sector functions in order to save public resourcesParliament, Cabinet, MoFPED, PSM, NPA
4Strengthening public - private sector partnershipsMoFPED
5Recapitalizing the Uganda Development Corporation (UDC) and Uganda Development Bank (UDB) and strengthening the agricultural credit facilityMoFPED

Private Sector finance

140. An efficient and effective financial sector plays a key role in providing capital to finance activities that contribute to growth. During the NDP period, emphasis will be placed on the consolidation and strategic positioning of the financial sector in a globalised and liberalised environment while also ensuring the expanded outreach of the financial sector within the economy. Strategic actions will be undertaken to enable the financial sector assume a dynamic role in supporting the economy while preserving its stability and contributing to the health of the economy. To this end, the strategic actions that will be pursued include the following (Table 4.2B)

Table 4.2B.STRATEGIC ACTIONS FOR IMPROVING FINANCIAL SERVICES
NOStrategic ActionsInstitution
1Maintaining financial and macroeconomic stability by pursuing low inflation rate and competitive exchange rates as well as continuing with the current strong and strict regulation of financial institutions.BOU
2Strengthening money markets through promotion of product development and innovations so as to put more financial instruments into the market.Financial Sector
3Strengthening capital markets and promoting product development. In addition, an appropriate framework necessary for the issuance of bonds such as sovereign infrastructure bonds will be developed.Financial Sector
4Increasing investor base by liberalizing the pension and related retirement benefits industry, encouraging retail investments, and promoting collective investment schemes.MoFPED
5Improving the financial infrastructure including, inter-alia, and promoting inter-connectivity and inter-banking.BOU
6Improving intermediation in the financial sector through putting in place measures that reduce interest rates spread and reducing fiscal interventions in monetary policy management.Financial Sector
7Enhancing the microfinance sector in rural and urban areas by supporting establishment, strengthening, expansion and consolidation of microfinance institutions, including SACCOs.MoFPED
8Improving information dissemination to enhance consumer education and promoting consumer education through financial literacy and protection.Financial Sector

4.2.3 Increasing the Quantity and Strengthening the Quality of the Human Resource

141. Investment in human capital is one of the key ingredients of sustainable economic growth and development. During the NDP period, the principal thrust of human resource development will be the creation of a strong and responsive human resource base equipped with positive values and attitudes to generate and support accelerated growth, employment creation and prosperity for socioeconomic transformation. The human resource must be competitive globally. Critical in this process will be the focus on productivity enhancement in all sectors of the economy. In this regard, the strategies presented in Table 4.3 will be pursued:

Table 4.3.STRATEGIC ACTIONS FOR INCREASING THE QUANTITY AND STRENGTHENING THE QUALITY OF HUMAN RESOURCE
No.Strategic ActionsInstitution
1Revitalize and strengthening national manpower planning and developmentNPA
2Deepening the implementation of individual performance based contracts to cover most public servantsPSM
3Redesign the curricula and methods of training to suit the demand side of human resource requirements and integrating entrepreneurship, innovation and creativity in the whole education systemMoES, PSM
4Review and strengthen the National education system to produce globally competitive human resource in terms of skills and training. Benchmarking the quality of education standards (curricula and methods of training) with first world country standards is critical in enhancing the competitiveness of the country’s goods and servicesMoES, NPA
5Establish fully functioning vocational and technical training programmes to complement the formal education. Formulate and implement a national skills programme to impact skills to the unemployed youthMoES, MGLSD, NPA
6Design and implement skills development programmes to focus on the development of middle level technicians as well as managers.MGLSD
7Strengthen and improving the quality of Universal Primary Education (UPE), Universal Secondary Education (USE) and tertiary education and inculcating good morals, ethics, patriotism and values among both teachers and students.MoES
8Implement affirmative action to promote science subjects in order to improve the ratio of science to art from 1:5 to at least 2:5 in the 5 year plan.MoES
9Establish a soft skills training centre which will provide compulsory training in specialized skills for both the public and private sector including certification.MOPS
10Strengthen professional bodies to enhance professionalism in human resources for both private and public sectors and fully involving professional bodies and the private sector in setting the curricula and quality assurance.OPM
11Promote and support accreditation and certification of the human resource.MoES

4.2.4 Increasing stock and improving quality of public physical infrastructure

142. With regard to public physical infrastructure, the strategies to increase the stock and improve the quality of public physical infrastructure will include the following (Table 4.4):

Table 4.4.STRATEGIC ACTIONS FOR INCREASING STOCK AND IMPROVING QUALITY OF PUBLIC PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE
NOStrategic ActionsInstitution
1Continue to improve the stock and quality of national roads, district roads, urban roads and community access roadsMoWT, UNRA
2Improve the stock and quality of road infrastructure, including connectivity and safety within Greater Kampala metropolitan and tourism areas.MoWT
3Improve rail transport and haulage to connect Uganda to the sea ports subsequently lowering the cost of transportation.MoWT
4Improve the water and air transport infrastructure and services.MoWT
5Establish a mechanism to certify all public and private interventions to ensure compliance with approved physical plans.MLHUD
6Promote and encourage construction of more hotels and restaurants in tourism areas.MTTI
7Facilitate the construction of basic agriculture infrastructure including silos, warehouses, and abattoirs.MAAIF, MTTI
8Expand the ICT infrastructure to cover major urban centres of the country.ICT sector
9Improve the power generation capacity.Energy Sector
10Expand the power grid and improve the transmission and distribution infrastructure.Energy Sector
11Construct an oil refinery and pipelines for evacuation of oil from the production places.Energy Sector
12Complete the construction of the oil pipeline from Eldoret through Kampala to Kigali for downstream activities.Energy Sector
15Increase and promote the provision of safe water supply and sanitation as well as good sanitation and hygiene practices.Energy Sector

4.2.5 Promoting Gender Equality and Transforming Mind-Set, Attitudes, Cultural Practices and Perceptions.

143. The broad strategy will be the development of an action plan for promoting gender equality in all spheres and transforming mind-set, negative attitudes, and negative cultural practices that slow socio-economic growth and structural transformation. This will be done through the following (Table 4.5):

Table 4.5.STRATEGIC ACTIONS FOR PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY AND TRANSFORMING MIND-SET, ATTITUDES, CULTURAL PRACTICES, AND PERCEPTIONS
NOStrategic ActionsInstitution
1Build capacity for mainstreaming gender issues in development plans at both central and local Government levels.MDAs
2Promote affirmative action in all political, economic and social spheres.MGLSD
3Promote gender equality and the empowerment of women throughout the economy sectors, particularly in the areas of: governance, education, health, employment, agriculture, trade and industry, and access to justice. Prioritised gender-responsive strategies include: improving retention and participation rates for girls in schools, improving quality and availability of maternal and reproductive health care for women and girls, targeting women in HIV prevention programmes, addressing prevention, treatment and access to justice issues around SGBV, improving access to productive resources and services for female farmers to play a larger role in commercial agriculture, improving access to resources such as credit, business skills, training and market information for female entrepreneurs.MGLSD
4Promote equal access to education and other productive, human and social capital assets.MoES
5Ratify and domesticate international protocols and principals such as the African charter on human rights of women, PWDs and Children and Eliminating gender based violence.MGLSD
6Develop, adopt and inculcate a set of national ethical values in line with the national vision while mitigating and reducing the negative cultural values and practices. Ensure respect of the national symbols and valuesMI&NG, President’s Office/ MGLSD
7Promote and institutionalise the agreed national ethical values in the education curriculum and other public trainings.MoES, Cabinet
8Promote patriotism, volunteerism and commitment to national agenda through various national service programmes.MGLSD, Police, President’s Office, PSM
9Transform the mindset of the population through various training and practical programmes. (Examples of such programmes include epi-centre strategy).MGLSD, NPA
10Carry out civic education and community mobilization to transform mindsets to appreciate productivity and development.MGLSD
11Harness and blend indigenous knowledge with scientific knowledge.MGLSD
12Promote cultural and ethnic diversity through various government and non government programmesMGLSD
13Strengthen, deepen and expand existing private enterprise development skills through structured institutional supportMoFPED

4.2.6 Promoting Science, Technology and Innovation (STI)

144. It is widely recognized that STI is the life blood of sustainable economic progress and prosperity. STI has a strategic role in accelerating economic growth process by increasing the efficiency and productivity of all sectors in the economy. Steps will be taken to design and accelerate the implementation of STI-related programmes and projects. More specifically, the strategies to increase application of STI will encompass the following (Table 4.6):

Table 4.6.STRATEGIC ACTIONS FOR PROMOTING SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION (STI)
NOStrategic ActionsInstitution
1Institutionalise STI to play an effective role in national development.NCST
2Provide incentives for pursuing science professions by designing and implementing affirmative action in schools to promote the uptake of science subjects.MOES, NHCS
3Provide an enabling environment for teaching science subjects in schools, tertiary institutions and universities by, for example, constructing laboratories and providing chemicals.MOES
4Promote value addition in production and service delivery as well as innovations through adoption and adaptation.MTTI
5Establish science parks and technology incubation centres in various parts of the country to enable effective Research and Development.MTTI
6Establish and support the research fund.NCST
7Promote research and development, commercialization and adoption of scientific research and patenting intellectual property.NHCS
8Promote and upgrade local artisans (Jua-kali).MTTI
9Redesign the curriculum to diversify science and technical courses.MOES
10Establish and foster National Innovation systemNHCS, MTTI

4.2.7 Facilitating Availability and Access to Critical Production Inputs

145. The liberalization process and advancement in STI and Information, Communication and Technology (ICT), together with dynamic consumer market, has increased competition in the global market. For firms to survive and for countries to effectively compete on a sustainable basis, businesses have to be competitive through the entire value chain. To address the constraint of the inadequate supply of inputs, the strategies will include the following (Table 4.7):

Table 4.7.STRATEGIC ACTIONS FOR FACILITATING AVAILABILITY AND ACCESS TO CRITICAL PRODUCTION INPUTS
NOStrategic ActionsInstitution
1Support the local production of phosphates fertilisers as inputs to agriculture industry.MTTI
2Support the local production of iron ore and process it to various ingots for manufacturing.Energy
3Support the reduction of dependency on rain-fed agriculture through rehabilitation and construction of large and small scale irrigation schemesAgriculture Sector, MWE
Support the provision of water for livestock and provision of bulk water supply for production activitiesMWE, MAAIF
4Using Public-Private Partnership to increased production of locally manufactured inputs like cement, lime, pesticides and herbicidesMTTI
5Increase availability and accessibility to high yielding seed varieties and promoting mechanization of agricultureAgriculture Sectors
6Provide credit guarantees to private investors to facilitate them to import high cost technology equipment for agriculture and construction.Agriculture and MTTI, MFPED
7Support the establishment and sustainability of small and medium enterprises which provide production inputs.MTTI
8Increase access to credit through means such as mortgage and other credit facilities for imported and locally manufactured goods.MLHUD/ Financial Sector

4.3 INVESTMENT PRIORITIES AND FLAGSHIP PROJECTS

146. The NDP priority areas are: strengthening human resource development; infrastructure development; promotion of science, technology and innovation; facilitating availability and access to critical production inputs. The respective intervention areas are presented in table 4.1. In addition, specific national flagship projects that are critical for catalysing transformation of the economy have been identified within these priority areas.

4.3.1 Investment Priorities

4.3.1.1 Increasing the Stock and Improving the Quality of Public Physical Infrastructure

147. During the implementation of this plan, infrastructure for the oil and gas sector will be prioritized. The priority interventions will include developing an oil refinery to commence production of processed oil products in the Albertine Graben area and constructing a pipeline for transporting oil products from the Albertine Graben area to Mombasa. The pipeline from Eldoret to Kampala will also be completed in this period. Furthermore the exploration will continue with a view to increasing the potential extractive capacity from the reserves to about 2 billion barrels of oil equivalent. The policy, legal and regulatory framework will be strengthened and sufficient regulations put in place to guide private sector operations.

148. Energy infrastructure: For industrialization and value-addition to take effect, access to power is critical and the power tariff must be affordable. During the period of this plan, the power generation potential and access to electricity will increase. In addition to completion of Bujagali (250MW), Construction of two (2) hydro-electric power dams; Karuma (550-700MW) and Isimba (100MW) will be undertaken. Feasibility studies for Ayago (550-650MW) will be completed. The rural electrification coverage is expected to increase up to 20 per cent and power losses will reduce from 40 per cent to 16 per cent.

149. Improving the transportation network: In line with the transport Master Plan and other Government commitments, the existing rail network will be rehabilitated and the construction of a standard gauge rail line will commence from Malaba to Kampala including the branch to Port-Bell. This is approximately 260 Km. Construction, reconstruction, upgrading and rehabilitation of national roads will continue. A total of 1100km will be upgraded to class I and Class II bitumen standards. A total 1200km will be reconstructed and dualling will be done for 150Km. A total of 11,067 km of district roads will be rehabilitated including 10,095 km with low cost sealing (LCS); Periodic maintenance on 4,500 km will be undertaken annually and 21,513 km placed under routine maintenance. In addition 1,000 km of Community access roads each year will be maintained at access level 2. Dual carriage ways, single carriage ways and railway crossing will be constructed to improve transport infrastructure in Greater Kampala Metropolitan Area. Kampala Rapid Bus Transport System (RBTS) will be implemented. The air transport infrastructure will be improved by increasing the entry-exit ports and the infrastructure at Entebbe Airport. Water transport on Lake Victoria will be improved by constructing the piers and landing bays.

150. ICT infrastructure: ICT infrastructure will also be improved through extension of the national fibre optic cable to cover most of the districts. Emphasis will be placed on Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) services where information technology business parks will be constructed and promoted. E-government services will be promoted and e-procurement introduced and operationalised.

151. Tourism, Trade and Agriculture Infrastructure: Specific tourism infrastructure will be promoted. This includes hotels and restaurants in tourism areas. In addition tourism roads will be prioritised in the implementation of this plan. For agriculture and trade, silos, abattoirs and warehouses will be constructed to enhance value addition.

4.3.1.2 Improving the Quantity and Strengthening the Quality of Human Resource

152. Investing in human resource development with a focus on health, education and skills development will be a key priority for the NDP. This will entail thorough diagnosis of the available skills and competencies against what is required for national, regional and international markets and changing the education curriculum to suit the demands. The human resource produced by the National education system must be globally competitive. Increased emphasis will be placed on supporting practical science education in schools and colleges, including enabling science teachers to refresh and extend their skills so that young people gain skills for work. Furthermore, a national skills programme has been planned to equip the youth who are out of school with skills. The quality of education and the moral aspect of education are emphasized in the Plan. Other specialized Human resource training will be carried out for personnel in key sectors including the Oil and Gas.

153. For soft skills aspects, national values will be agreed and promoted in all schools and in the Public Service. A soft skills school will be established to inculcate morals and values to all public and private sector employees. In addition, the education curriculum will include moral and value aspects. For the private sector, a Centre of Enterprise Excellence shall be established to provide practical business management skills in the areas of marketing, finance, operations, HR and strategy for staff of private enterprises.

154. For the health sector, emphasis will be placed on both preventive and curative health care. Synergies and linkages with other sectors like education, social development, water and sanitation and agriculture will be emphasized with the aim of cooperating to reduce preventable diseases. Efforts will also be placed on rehabilitating referral hospitals as well as extending services nearer to the people. The motivation of health staff is a priority in the Plan.

155. The NDP also envisages an improvement in the efficiency of use of resources in the Education and Health sectors. This will include addressing regional disparities and dealing with the significant management and other issues impeding the delivery of cost-effective health and education services.

4.3.1.3 Promoting Science, Technology and Innovation

156. Promoting Science and Technology: Achieving socio-economic transformation requires continuous improvement in the way we produce and deliver goods and services within the economy. This can be realized through accelerated use of applied technology, research and innovation. In this plan, regional Science Parks and Technology Incubation Centres (SPTIC) will be constructed and operationalised. The acquisition and adaptation of technology will be enhanced greatly. Research and development will be promoted in the public and private sector institutions. The target is to improve from one researcher per 1000 labour force to at least 10 researchers per 1000 labour force. Emphasis will be on affirmative action to reduce the ratio of science to arts graduates from 1:5 to 1:3 by 2015. Practical skills in the formal education area are a pre-requisite for supporting business development. Incentives will be given to the private sector to encourage research and development, and innovation. Research and development will be promoted in key areas of production including agriculture, oil and gas, minerals, industry and physical infrastructures with the aim of improving the range, cost and quality of the services and products.

4.3.1.4 Facilitating Availability and Access to Critical Production Inputs

157. Inputs to agricultural production. The NDP identifies agriculture as a key sector contributing to exports, employment, and food security. The Plan focuses on facilitating the availability of key production inputs. In this plan, the Tororo Phosphates Plant will be constructed and operationalised as a flagship project to provide fertilizers to farmers at an affordable price. Increasing the availability of high yielding seed varieties and promoting mechanization of agriculture will be priorities. Extension services will also be strengthened to support the farmers.

158. Increasing Access to Water for Production. With the effects of the climate change becoming a reality and the impact this has had on the weather patterns, the NDP focuses on allocating more resources to increase the accessibility to water for production. Some of the specific interventions include: (i) Increasing the acreage under irrigation from the current level of 14, 418 ha to 22,000 ha, (ii) Increasing the supply of water for livestock watering in the cattle corridor from the current 36 per cent to 50 per cent and those outside the cattle corridor from 21 per cent to 30 per cent19, and (iii) Increasing water supply systems for rural industries to facilitate agro-processing and other industrial activities.

159. Improved Meteorological services: In this plan, a total overhaul and automation of the meteorological instrumentation will be done. This is to enhance the predictability of the weather and climate parameters and to increase the reliability of the forecasts. This is a major input to agricultural production, air transport, the defence sector and other sectors of the economy.

160. Inputs to the Manufacturing Sector: The contribution of the manufacturing sector to the economy, although improved over the last two decades, is still below the desired level partly due to the high cost of inputs. Government efforts will, therefore, focus on the reduction of the cost of inputs mainly through investment in infrastructure, like energy and transport. Efforts will also be directed to development of the iron ore industry to provide ingots for the steel industry through a Public Private Partnership.

4.3.2 National Flagship Projects

161. Specific interventions through flagship projects will be to augment other interventions and provide impulse to unlocking the binding constraints. These flagship projects are given in Table 4.9.

Table 4.8.SUMMARY OF PRIORITY AREAS AND INTERVENTIONS
NO.Investment PrioritiesIntervention Areas
1Human Resource DevelopmentEducation
Health
Skills Development
Water & Sanitation
2Infrastructure DevelopmentEnergy
Transport Infrastructure
Oil & Gas
ICT
3Critical production inputsAgricultural inputs
Iron ore
Water for Production
Meteorology
Fertilizers
4Science, Technology & InnovationIndustry technology & inputs
Technology Incubation
Technology uptake and Commercialization
Research fund
Upgrading Jua Kali
Science laboratories
Promote value addition
Science Parks
Table 4.9.NATIONAL FLAGSHIP PROJECTS
Strategy to Unlock Binding ConstraintsFlagship ProjectCosts in UGX billionsTotal for NDP periodSector
2010/ 20112011/ 20122012/ 20132013/ 20142014/ 2015
Strengthening the quality of Human resourceNational Skills Programme (MGLSD, Employment)23.725.728.730.833.2142.1MGLSD, MTTI, MoES
Increasing stock and improving quality of public physical infrastructureConstructing a standard rail gauge system from Malaba to Kampala50.0150.0200.0200.0200.0800.0Works and Transport Sector (UNRA)
Rehabilitating the existing railway lines57.0190.0190.0434.040.0911.0
Development of Greater Metropolitan Kampala and implement the Kampala rapid transport systems66.089.088.089.088.0420.0
Improve Water Transport of Lake Victoria12.024.018.06.66.667.2
Construction of Karuma Hydropower Plant and transmission infrastructures43.57746394354762,367Energy Sector
Completion of feasibility study for Ayago235
construction of Isimba HEP and its transmission infrastructure7.07015015085462
Developing the Oil And Gas refinery--800.01,200.01,000.03,000.0
Construction of oil and gas pipeline250.0250.0500.0
Construction and development of ICT business parks2.02.02.03.03.012.0ICT Sector
Promotion of Science, Technology and Innovation (STI)Construction and development of 4 regional science park and technology incubation centres12.012.015.020.015.074.0STI sector
Facilitating availability and access to critical inputsConstruction and development of five large scale irrigation systems15.015.015.015.015.075.0MAAIF, MWE
Construction and development of phosphate industry in Tororo50.080.050.0180.0MTTI
Development and Production of Iron Ore and ingots50.070.080.080.080.0360.0MTTI
Total Costs (Bn)400.21,022.72,262.73,284.42,435.89,404.8

162. Most of the flagship projects will be done through Public Private Partnership with varying levels of Government involvement. Overall, the Government share of funding to flagships will be 55 per cent while that of the private sector will be 45 per cent. The construction of a standard rail gauge is expected to extend beyond the NDP period. For the rehabilitation of the existing railway system, the private sector will be contracted to carry out the works. For the Energy sector, the energy fund is operational and will be used to meet start up costs and to expedite implementation. The studies for all the three dams have already commenced. To quicken the process of implementation, most of the infrastructure projects will be turn-key projects, Build, Operate, Own and Transfer (BOOT) or Build, Operate and Transfer (BOT) where appropriate. This will significantly reduce the time of implementation. For energy projects, the more the private sector investment the higher the tariff, subsequently limiting use of the generated power. Therefore, a balance will be struck on what level of public investment is favourable and efficient to avoid heavy subsidies on power tariffs in future.

4.4 MACRO-ECONOMIC STRATEGY

4.4.1 Introduction

163. The NDP is framed in the context of an economy whose potential to grow is still strong and could be raised to higher levels. Going forward, the over-riding economic priority is to consolidate the gains already made, and to put in place the necessary conditions to ensure further economic progress. This would require a change of emphasis by allocating resources to priority interventions.

164. The strategy of the NDP is to maintain a balance between macroeconomic stability, sustenance/acceleration of economic growth and continued progress towards the achievement of set social development goals. Without abandoning the poverty eradication vision, the NDP re-orients the development strategy to ensure faster economic transformation and sustainable poverty eradication. To achieve this overall goal, the Government will continue to pursue sound economic policy and management while making additional public investments in strategic sectors.

165. Avoiding unsustainable public sector indebtedness and increased dependency on donor aid, while at the same time making more public investments, will require increased mobilization of domestic resources. As will be elaborated on under the financing strategy, Government will continue to depend on external resources in the short to medium term, but the plan is to maximize future revenues from the oil industry and utilize them for high return public investments in the longer term.

4.4.2 Fiscal Strategy and Macroeconomic Targets for the NDP by 2014/15

166. To achieve the NDP objectives, the Government’s fiscal strategy aims at ensuring that there is continued progress towards achieving the NDP targets by balancing wealth creation and poverty reduction for socio-economic transformation (Table 4.10). This approach will take the following steps:

  • Creation of the necessary fiscal space for investments. This will involve curtailing growth in recurrent spending in non-productive activities such as duplicated roles of monitoring and evaluation with the savings used for more investments in the NDP priority sectors; and
  • Prudent fiscal management. This entails formulation and implementation of fiscal policies that balance maintaining macroeconomic stability and growth without necessarily sacrificing goals relating to poverty reduction or income distribution.
Table 4.10.EXPENDITURE FRAMEWORK UNDER THE NDP 2010/11-2014
MTEF SectorsPercentage of Annual Budget
2010/20112011/20122012/20132013/20142014/2015Average
01 - Agriculture6.6%6.0%5.3%4.6%5.0%5.4%
09 - Water and Environment4.6%4.4%4.0%3.8%4.1%4.1%
06 - Tourism, Trade and Industry2.0%1.9%1.8%1.7%1.9%1.8%
03 - Energy and Mineral Development6.7%11..8%19.9%25.9%24.7%18.9%
05 - Information and Communication Technology0.8%0.9%0.8%0.9%1.0%0.9%
02 - Lands, Housing and Urban Development0.5%0.6%0.5%0.5%0.6%0.5%
04 - Works and Transport23.6%23.7%22.3%21.3%17.5%21.5%
14 - Accountability4.1%3.9%3.5%3.5%3.9%3.8%
10 - Social Development1.6%1.5%1.4%1.2%1.4%1.4%
08 - Health14.5%13.6%12.5%11.6%12.8%12.9%
07 - Education14.6%13.1%11.4%10.1%11.0%11.8%
11 - Security6.20%6.1%5.6%5.0%5.4%5.6%
13 - Public Sector Management7.0%6.2%5.3%4.7%5.0%5.5%
12 - Justice, Law and Order3.7%3.3%2.9%2.8%3.2%3.1%
15 - Legislature1.4%1.2%1.1%0.9%1.0%1.1%
16 - Public Administration2.1%1.8%1.6%1.4%1.5%1.7%
100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%
Total Resource envelope7,948.229,292.9310,672.9912,320.9513,986.2410,844.2

167. Government’s macroeconomic strategy will also be guided by the objective of participating in the East African Monetary Union (EAMU). Economic and financial integration, of which EAMU is a vital component, is essential for the long term prosperity and development of all the countries in East Africa in a global economy increasingly dominated by large countries and trading blocks. It will spur competition and boost productivity, allowing East African firms to reap the benefits of economies of scale and thereby becoming more competitive in global markets. To create the conditions for a successful monetary union, the individual countries of the East African Community are required to align their economies through a set of convergence criteria.

168. To generate increased budget resources, in real terms, to allocate to priority social sectors and to public infrastructure investment, it is imperative to strengthen domestic revenue mobilisation. This has been the hindrance to fiscal policy, with the revenue to GDP ratio being largely stagnant over the last decade. Government will aim to raise the revenue to GDP ratio from the current level of about 13 percent to 15 percent over the course of the plan, through a combination of broadening the tax base and improving tax administration.

169. The development strategy mainly focuses on new spending on sectors that have the greatest potential to contribute to economic growth particularly agriculture, manufacturing, energy, oil and mineral development, tourism, infrastructure, education, health, water and sanitation; and curtailing the growth in spending in non priority sectors. The required financing of the plan is projected to be UGX. 54.221 trillions. Table 4.9 provides the expenditure composition over the planning period. This will involve increasing spending to a higher level, prioritization of spending and using the available resources more efficiently. The success of this strategy will depend on the quality of public spending and service delivery, prudent macroeconomic management, as well as the rapid reduction in constraints to growth including the considerable barriers to business.

170. All sector expenditures are increasing in nominal numbers but the shares vary as they depend on the total resource envelope. The resource envelope is expected to increase every year. Significant increases are expected in the energy and transport sector. Since energy and transport have some one-off projects, the percentages will stabilise after the NDP period.

171. Public expenditure is projected to increase from 18 percent of GDP in 2009/10 to an average of 19.6 percent of GDP per year during the plan period. The NDP is targeting a fiscal deficit of 5.5 per cent of GDP on average per year over the plan period. However, this may widen within prudent macroeconomic parameters if more donor resources than currently envisaged become available to finance necessary Government expenditures. Conversely, if oil revenues come on stream within the NDP period, the fiscal deficit could turn out to be much lower than what is being projected in this Plan.

4.4.3 Economic Growth Prospects

172. The increase in public investments targeted to the core areas of intervention will have a large impact on growth of all sectors. The overall growth rate would be raised to an average of 7.2 percent during the planning period (Table 4.11). It is projected that there will be recovery in agricultural growth with the sector growing at an average of 5.6 per year over the NDP period. This will have a significant impact on raising incomes of the 70 percent of the population engaged in the sector. The recent positive growth rates in the industrial and services sector will be sustained.

Table 4.11.SELECTED MACROECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL INDICATORS, 2009/10-2014/15
Macroeconomic IndicatorsPEAP2PEAP3NDP Projections
2000/20012004/2005
2003/20042007/20082008/20092009/20102010/20112011/20122012/20132013/20142014/2015
Real Sector
Annual GDP Growth rates (factor cost)6.8%8.0%6.2%6.4%6.6%7.0%7.2%7.4%7.5%
GDP (mkt) - Shs bn29,97236,33941,39746,93453,90462,22772,094
Private investment (% GDP)14.5%17.1%17.6%16.5%16.9%17.4%18.1%18.2%18.3%
Public investment (% GDP)5.4%5.5%5.5%7.3%8.0%8.8%8.9%9.2%10.0%
Private consumption (% GDP)76.9%78.4%77.5%76.4%75.3%74.1%73.4%73.9%
Public consumption (% GDP)13.8%9.1%9.6%10.3%10.1%10.1%9.9%8.7%
Domestic savings (% GDP)7.8%8.8%12.5%12.9%13.4%14.5%15.8%16.7%17.4%
Fiscal Sector
Government domestic revenue (% GDP)11.2%13.3%12.5%12.8%13.1%13.6%14.1%14.6%15.1%
Government Expenditure (% GDP)21.4%21.2%16.9%17.8%19.2%19.8%19.8%19.8%19.4%
Fiscal deficit, excluding grants (% GDP)-10.2%-7.9%-4.4%-5.0%-6.1%-6.2%-5.7%-5.2%-4.3%
Domestic interest payments (% GDP)0.9%1.0%1.1%0.8%0.8%0.7%0.7%0.60%0.60%
Domestic borrowing (% GDP)0.2%0.8%0.1%0.7%0.60%0.60%0.60%0.60%
External Sector
Exports & NFS (% GDP)11.8%15.2%24.7%22.1%21.6%21.3%20.9%20.7%19.1%
Imports _ gds & SVs (% GDP)24.6%28.7%35.5%33.0%33.2%33.0%32.1%31.4%30.0%
Trade deficit (% GDP)-12.9%-13.5%-10.6%-10.9%-11.6%-11.7%-11.2%-10.7%-10.9%
Debt stock/GDP60.5%29.6%12.9%13.4%14.8%17.3%18.9%19.8%18.2%
Net donor aid (% GDP)11.0%8.6%4.4%5.2%5.4%5.6%5.1%4.6%3.7%
Monetary Sector
Inflation3.3%7.4%11.1%7.9%7.5%6.0%6.9%6.8%6.8%
Reserves in months of imports of gds & SVs5.95.65.05.15.15.35.55.65.7
Average Real Interest Rate on Government securities10.1%2.6%-0.1%-1.4%3.5%3.5%3.0%3.0%3.0%
Average Nominal Interest Rate on Government securities13.4%10.0%16.8%15.7%11.0%9.5%9.9%9.8%9.8%
Private sector credit (% GDP)6.4%8.3%12.1%12.0%14.3%15.2%16.0%16.8%17.3%
Private sector credit growth14.5%22.0%31.6%22.2%27.1%20.6%20.1%19.3%19.3%
Money (M3) (% GDP)17.5%17.4%20.4%17.8%18.5%19.1%19.7%20.1%20.8%
Base Money (% GDP)5.4%5.7%6.2%6.4%7.1%7.5%7.7%7.9%7.9%
Source: Musisi (2009), ‘Macroeconomic Framework, Investments and Financing Options, 2010/11—2014/15’, Background Paper for the National Development Plan, Kampala, National Planning Authority (NPA).

173. The growth in the agricultural sector will also have secondary effects on agro-processing. With the emphasis on improving the value chains, agro-processing will grow by 6.8 percent during the Plan period. By creating a better enabling environment for manufacturing, reducing the cost of energy and transport, this will have a large impact on manufacturing. As shown in Table 4.11, the manufacturing sector will be able to grow by 6 percent during the period 2010/11-2014/15. Growth in services will partly be driven by the public investments targeted at the energy, transport and tourism sectors.

174. Increasing the growth rate of sectors to a higher level would have an impact on the Balance of Payments (BOP) as well. The switch in Government expenditure toward investment which is more import-intensive is expected to maintain a high trade balance deficit due to increasing imports, to support faster growth in infrastructure investments.

4.4.4 Monetary Policy

175. The Bank of Uganda will continue to implement monetary policy with the primary goal of controlling inflation. Quantitative monetary targets will play a prominent role in the monetary policy framework. Monetary policy will also aim to support continued robust growth in financial intermediation, with private sector bank credit projected to expand as a share of GDP from 12 percent in 2009/10 to about 17 per cent by the end of the plan period. This is essential to promote the growth of private investment and business activity. As noted above, controlling inflation while at the same time creating room for continued strong growth in private sector credit is only possible if Government curbs its domestic borrowing requirement.

176. Regarding other macroeconomic implications, the assumptions made are reflected in the macroeconomic variables shown in the Table 4.10. These include policy targets of inflation of an average of 6.8 percent and 5.7 months cover of import reserves by 2014/15.

4.4.5 Exchange rate policy and the external sector

177. A flexible exchange rate policy will be maintained over the medium term, allowing the economy to adjust to real shocks emanating from the external sector, such as terms of trade shocks. The Bank of Uganda will restrict its intervention in the foreign exchange market mainly to curbing volatility in the exchange rate and building up international reserves. To deal effectively with unexpected external shocks, the Bank of Uganda will raise the level of gross international reserves towards the target of 6 months of import cover over the course of the plan period.

178. During the plan period, the trade deficit will remain at approximately 11 percent of GDP, funded by a combination of remittances from Ugandans working abroad, net donor inflows and private sector capital inflows.

179. In terms of external debt, measurement of debt sustainability during the NDP period took into account the cost of borrowing and performance of the economy particularly exports. Using the conventional debt sustainability indicators, i.e. debt stock in relation to nominal GDP, Net Present Value (NPV) of debt relative to the projected export performance, and NPV of debt to domestic revenue collections, the debt sustainability ratios show that the country’s external public debt will remain within sustainable levels throughout the NDP period. This is assessed by comparing the projected ratios with the Threshold level beyond which debt becomes unsustainable (see Table 4.12).

Table 4.12.SECTORAL GROWTH RATES UNDER THE NDP (2010/11-2014/2015)
2010/20112011/20122012/20132013/20142014/2015
Overall GDP6.77.07.27.47.5
Agriculture5.75.85.45.65.7
Of which
Cereals4.34.54.14.34.4
Root Crops5.86.05.65.85.9
Pulses4.54.74.44.64.9
Matooke5.96.15.75.96.0
Horticulture6.26.56.16.26.4
Export Crops4.85.04.54.74.8
Livestock5.45.65.25.45.5
Forestry5.76.05.75.86.0
Industry6.06.26.96.77.0
Of which
Mining6.16.39.08.18.3
Manufacturing5.95.96.15.95.9
Food Processing6.97.06.76.86.9
Meat Processing5.45.65.15.35.4
Grain Processing5.25.57.07.36.9
Feed Processing5.65.85.45.65.7
Other Food Processing6.66.76.46.46.5
Beverages and Tobacco7.07.16.97.07.1
Non-Food Processing5.74.94.75.54.9
Textiles and Clothing4.94.64.74.64.5
Wood and Paper3.73.53.63.43.2
Fertilizer5.85.87.76.86.9
Other chemicals6.87.19.58.58.7
Machinery & equipment2.72.12.81.81.1
Furniture6.46.66.46.66.7
Other manufacturing4.54.24.53.93.5
Utilities7.57.911.410.310.8
Construction5.65.85.75.96.1
Services7.67.87.57.77.8
Of which
Private9.49.59.19.29.2
Trade6.46.56.46.46.6
Hotels & catering26.524.420.119.318.4
Transport3.73.33.62.92.2
Communications6.86.96.76.87.0
Banking6.26.36.16.16.1
Real estate6.97.06.96.97.0
Community services7.07.37.17.27.3
Public2.22.22.12.22.3

180. Despite these debt sustainability indicators, it is important that the Government does not become complacent as the country could easily slide back to unsustainable debt levels. It is therefore important that strict adherence to prudent borrowing20 is maintained by ensuring that external borrowing is only for strategic productive investments which increase the country’s productive capacity and stimulates GDP growth and exports as planned in the NDP.

4.4.6 Social Development and Employment Prospects

181. Regarding the MDGs, continued progress is expected towards the achievement of key social development goals. However, compared to the existing 2015 targets (Table 4.13), only MDG 1 (poverty) and MDG 7 (access to safe water) are likely to be achieved. The head count poverty rate is projected to be 24.5 per cent by the end of the NDP period in 2014/15 compared to the MDG target of 28 per cent by 2015 while the rate of access to safe water is projected at 89.3 percent in 2014/15 compared to the MDG target of 72 percent by 2015. Other MDG indicators will marginally improve, including the net primary school completion rate and the under-five mortality rate, reflecting the fact that the growth rates for the necessary outcome determinants, which include relevant Government services, per capita consumption and necessary public infrastructure, would still be inadequate. The MDG target on HIV/AIDS has been achieved and the projections indicate that environment sustainability MDG will be achieved.

Table 4.13.SUSTAINABILITY BENCHMARKS (THRESHOLDS) COMPARED TO PROJECTED DEBT SUSTAINABILITY RATIOS
Proxy RatiosThreshold20082009201020112012201320142015
EXTERNAL DEBT
Solvency Ratios (%)
NPV/GDP (%)501819202123242526
NPV/XGS (%)1509994104110116122128134
NPV/DBR (%)300131121135142150158167176
Liquidity Ratios (%)
TDS/XGS (%)252.201.60455678
TDS/DBR (%)353.202.30566677
Source: External Debt Unit, Macroeconomic Policy Department, Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic Development

182. Unemployment has stayed high, as the number of jobs generated has not been adequate to absorb the rising labour force. Unemployment (including underemployment) rate stood at 29.1 percent in 2005/06. With the domestic economy growing by about 7.2 percent on average during 2010/11-2014/15, total jobs created will reach 2.7 million, averaging 550,000 new jobs each year.

4.5 FINANCING STRATEGY

4.5.1 Tax and Non-Tax Revenue

183. Over the NDP period, expenditure is projected to increase to 19.6 per cent of GDP, an increase of 2 per cent of GDP from the 2009/10 level. Financing this level of expenditure will require concerted efforts to improve domestic revenue collection by focusing on the three factors that usually lead to increases in tax revenues: expansion in the bases of taxation, reform of the structure of taxation; and extensive re-organization of the institutions that administer the taxes in the country for improved tax collection efficiency and compliance. Government efforts will be focused on increasing domestic revenue collections by 0.5 per cent of GDP per year over the NDP period

184. More specifically, the main focus in raising tax revenues will be to ensure continued stability of the tax system and improvement in collections from other revenue sources, especially Non-Tax Revenue (NTR) which presently contributes about 1 per cent of total domestic revenues. To raise additional revenue from NTR, all its rates will be reviewed. Government will also streamline existing exemptions and tax incentive policies. In addition, improvements will be made in tax administration to enhance the compliance rate and focus on the retail sales end of Value Added Tax (VAT).

185. Steps will also be taken to include the large subsistence and informal sector of the economy into the taxable bracket. This will require gazetting specific places for informal sector traders in urban areas and providing support to them as an incentive to encourage paying tax.

186. Furthermore, the expected revenues from Uganda’s oil deposits that are expected to materialize sometime during the NDP implementation should significantly improve Uganda’s domestic revenue base compared to the levels projected in this NDP, and this should result in a lower fiscal deficit in the medium term.

4.5.2 Efficiency gains

187. In order to achieve the twin objectives of increasing expenditures on priority areas and achieving macroeconomic stability, Government will implement both allocative and technical efficiency improvement measures. This will create the necessary fiscal space to allow increased resource allocation especially in priority areas through: strengthening the link between public spending and outputs/results; strengthening regulations and compliance; ensuring increased human resource productivity; reducing bureaucratic red tape; eradicating corruption; and reducing duplication of functions (“unproductive” activities) through institutional restructuring and coordination, among others.

188. Value for money measures will include ensuring that Government expenditures are based on credible work plans; establishment of effective monitoring systems within Government to track and evaluate expenditures vis a vis intended results; improving coordination with other monitoring and evaluation agencies and overall Government system and accountability; and strengthening empirical research to form the basis for public spending. While these measures are expected to improve efficiency and effectiveness in resource utilization, they are also expected to improve the absorptive capacity of the Government in the medium to long term.

4.5.3 Public-Private Sector Partnerships

189. International experience suggests that co-operation between the public and private sectors in form of public-private sector partnerships (PPP) can be a powerful incentive for improving the quality and efficiency of public services, and a means of public infrastructure financing. PPP describes a Government service or private business venture which is funded and operated through a partnership of Government and one or more private sector entities. It involves a contract between a Government authority and a private sector party. A policy framework to guide Public-Private Sector Partnerships will be formulated.

190. To ensure macroeconomic stability and integrate the best practices of the private sector into the public sector system, Government will promote and encourage PPP in various forms in the implementation of this NDP. The forms that PPPs usually take include joint ventures between the Government and private sector entity/ies where both may contribute financial resources, Build, Operate and Transfer (BOT), Build, Own, Operate and Transfer (BOOT), Build, Own and Operate (BOO) and Concessions. Each of these forms of PPPs has advantages and disadvantages that are unique. Careful analysis will be made in deciding the form of PPP that has the highest economic benefit to the country and most suitable for both the public and private sector before any form of PPP is recommended for implementation. In general, however, PPPs will be encouraged and promoted in the provision of infrastructure and energy, as well as huge undertakings which require substantial financial resource outlay.

4.5.4 Grants and Loans

191. Given the level of financing that the NDP needs, the Government appreciates the fact that domestic revenue is not able to finance the necessary level of desired investment required to accelerate and sustain economic growth and prosperity for socio-economic transformation in the country. In the long term, Government will seek to fund its budget from domestic revenues. In the short to medium term, however, Government will continue to seek foreign assistance to fund its budget while progressively reducing this reliance. Therefore, during the NDP period, the Government will continue attracting foreign direct investment and official development assistance in form of grants and loans.

192. The overall Government strategy in seeking foreign assistance will be guided by the Government Aid Policy presented in Section 4.7 below. To attract foreign direct investment in the private sector, Government will continue to pursue market-led policies while strategically intervening in identified areas to provide public goods and address market failures.

4.5.5 Borrowing from the Capital Markets

193. One of the proposed sources of funding for the NDP is capital markets. During the NDP period, in addition to taking steps to ensure promotion and development of the capital markets in the country as well as its effective regulation, steps will be taken to develop the appropriate framework to facilitate issuance of sovereign bonds, to raise the necessary funds for investment in the priority sectors and more specifically in the construction of physical infrastructure and energy facilities. Steps will be taken to ensure regulation and liberalization of the pension sector to protect workers’ old age savings, and improve the efficiency and soundness of the sector, but also to leverage domestic private savings in the form of pension and related funds to provide long term finance for investments in the domestic economy.

4.6 ROLES OF THE STATE, THE PRIVATE SECTOR, CIVIL SOCIETY AND DEVELOPMENT PARTNERS

4.6.1 The Role of Government General

194. The state is responsible for ensuring a basic framework of legality, rights and freedom and intervening in the economy to promote economic efficiency, effectiveness, equity and growth. Interventions may be necessary for the following main reasons:

  • Promoting the right incentives to encourage efficient private production;
  • Ensuring that public goods are supplied;
  • Correcting market failures; and
  • Reducing inequality.

195. This NDP re-emphasises the importance of public goods, such as transport and energy infrastructure while exploring the option of public funding for private sector provision of these goods in a number of areas.

196. Government is committed to serving all citizens of Uganda irrespective of ethnic background, sex, or religious beliefs. This fundamental commitment will underlie all Government policies in the NDP.

Legislative and Executive

197. Most of the actions included in the NDP are implemented by the executive arm of Government. The fundamental commitments, however, are guided by the vision of Government as reflected in the promises made to the electorate. Parliament has a fundamental role both in passing legislation that bears on the theme of the NDP, and in scrutinizing the executive for efficient and effective service delivery. This will be based on re-viewed policy, legal and regulatory frameworks.

Autonomous and Semi-autonomous Agencies

198. There are several autonomous and semi-autonomous agencies within the public sector. Some of these have essential public sector roles including policy formulation, independent monitoring, service delivery, and the procurement of services. These are expected to pursue the interests of the population as a whole in the same way as central and local Governments. Others are expected to operate on an essentially commercial basis though subject to regulation.

199. There is consensus about the efficiency of some of them, existing substantial gap between their remuneration and that of the civil servants, and the amount of revenue that is effectively hypothecated by being assigned to these agencies. There is also concern that social and commercial missions have been blurred in some cases, leading to a reduction in the efficiency of investment. Thus the roles of these agencies will be subject to review to correct these contradictions and enhancing efficiency.

4.6.2 The Private Sector

200. The private sector, including the many small-scale farming households, is responsible for the majority of the productive investment. It is Government policy that the private sector will remain the engine of growth, employment creation and prosperity for socio-economic transformation in the country during the NDP period. In general, the motivation for investment is expected to be commercial, and Government will, therefore, seek to ensure that the incentives in the economy encourage the kinds of investment that will generate balanced development, and minimise any possible crowding out of private sector investment. In some cases, the commercial private sector will support the provision of public goods for altruistic, cultural or prestige reasons. For instance, commercial sponsorship of sport is an important international phenomenon. During the preparation of this NDP, the private sector contributed significantly to the priorities identified.

4.6.3 Civil Society

201. It is essential for the development of civil society that its actions are not planned or dictated by Government. However, Government enjoys productive partnerships with civil society organizations and supports the role they play in the process of economic growth and development that include:

  • Advocacy, particularly for the interests of groups who might otherwise be neglected;
  • Voluntarily financed service delivery in sectors not covered by Government programmes;
  • Publicly financed service delivery, subcontracted by Government;
  • Support to conflict resolutions; and
  • Independent research on key policy issues.

202. In order to enhance the contribution of civil society to national transformation, the NDP commits to support the following priority undertakings that will create a more enabling operating environment for NGOs in the next 5 years:

203. Work with NGOs to realize a comprehensive cooperation framework that will lay out the partnership principles, including mutual accountability between NGOs and Government.

204. Support the ongoing effort by the Uganda Bureau of Statistics and the Uganda National NGO Forum to undertake a comprehensive NGO sector survey to establish the value of NGO work to Uganda’s economy and their contribution to national health and wellbeing.

205. Together with other stakeholders find more sustainable sources of financing the work of the NGOs in ways that will guarantee their autonomy but ensure public accountability for local and foreign resources that will be available to NGOs.

206. Ensure better coordination of NGO work to avoid unnecessary duplication and wastage of resources.

4.6.4 Development Partners

207. Development partners continue to play a major part in financing public expenditure in Uganda. In accordance with the aid policy spelt out in section 4.7 of this plan, the development partners are encouraged to support Government programmes through budget support as opposed to programmes and projects. With the introduction of sectoral ceiling for the development budget including donor projects, both sectoral ministries and development partners will appreciate that each additional project will have an opportunity cost for the sector in terms of transaction costs and flexible resources for the sector’s priorities. This is being done to ensure that project funds are subject to the same process of prioritization as more flexible resources.

208. Some development partners provide support direct to NGOs and to some districts outside the Government budget. Whereas this arrangement is not being discouraged, it will be appropriate to share information on the level of support and the activities being funded in order to have a fairly accurate assessment of the micro and macroeconomic effects.

4.7 MULTI-LATERAL AND BILATERAL PARTNERSHIPS

4.7.1 Situation Analysis21

209. The Government’s position on Official Development Assistance (ODA) has been set out in the “Partnership Principles between the Government of Uganda and its Development Partners” of 2003. Further, Uganda and its main Development Partners are signatories to the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness (2005)22 and the Accra Agenda for Action (2008).

210. ODA provided by partner governments and international organizations to Uganda has played an important role in supporting the country’s recovery, growth, and poverty eradication efforts. Over the 2003 to 2007 period, 43 different DPs disbursed aid to Uganda. This included 29 bilateral DPs and 14 multilateral DPs, of which eight were UN agencies and two were Global Program Fund targeting specific themes such as prevention of HIV/AIDS (vertical funds). The relative monetary importance of DPs in Uganda is rather uneven. Of the USD6.7 billion ODA disbursed to Uganda over the 2003-07 period, half was disbursed by just three DPs (the World Bank, U.S., U.K.), while more than 90 percent was disbursed by 12 DPs. Thus, 30 DPs disbursed less than 10 percent of ODA to Uganda over the 2003 to 2007 period.

211. This National Development Plan, and the mechanisms in place to implement it, must provide a strong basis for determining what type and quantity of aid is required, and in which areas. Government mechanisms must provide assurance of the implementation of the strategies put in place, and likewise DPs must be accountable to deliver on their commitments in responding to the specific requirements of Government.

212. The nature of partnership also reflects relationships beyond ODA, to include commitments made in the Millennium Development Goals (Goal 8) on equitable trade and financial system, market access, debt sustainability and other issues.

213. To address these issues, Government has initiated the formulation of a Partnership Policy, of which some elements are contained in the National Development Plan. The remainder of this section outlines the principal areas that the Policy will cover.

4.7.2 Scope of Partnership Policy

214. The Partnership Policy will update the “Partnership Principles between the Government of Uganda and its Development Partners” of 2003 to reflect the changes in the policy environment in the country (including the initiation of the National Development Plan as a successor to the Poverty Eradication Action Plan), the subsequent international agreements, and the policies of the increased number of partner countries and agencies.

215. The Partnership Policy will be supplemented by a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) that will be signed by Government of Uganda and all Development Partners, binding all signatories to the commitments therein. This MOU will make clear reference to existing agreements between the Government and each Development Partner, to ensure alignment.

216. The Partnership Policy will seek to address, inter alia, the following issues:

  • Alignment of aid with country priorities and systems
  • Transaction costs / burden of inefficiency
  • Coordination with development partners and other stakeholders
  • Predictability of and information on aid flows
  • Mutual accountability for development results
  • Partnerships beyond aid

217. The following objectives outline the Government’s intended actions and expectations of development partner actions that will be encapsulated in the Partnership Policy to ensure aid effectiveness in support of Uganda’s overall development goals and for the benefits of the Ugandan population.

4.7.3 Strategies to Improve the Effectiveness of Partnerships and Assistance

Ensure that all development assistance is aligned with the objectives and priorities of the National Development Plan

218. Significant assistance remains off-plan (meaning that it is not linked with the Governments’ priorities) and off-budget (meaning that it is not reflected in the Government’s budget nor disbursed through Government systems).

219. The existence of large vertical funds, whilst beneficial to development in some areas, may have distortionary effects on the Government’s effort to attain an optimal allocation of resources across sectors and sub sectors. Furthermore, technical assistance is not always effective, and in some instances is perceived to undermine local capacities rather than improving them. Therefore, development partners must ensure that technical cooperation is well-coordinated with Government (that is, demand driven and responding to Government priorities), while the Government will ensure that capacity to effectively and efficiently coordinate technical cooperation is in place.

220. Lack of alignment is sometimes a reflection of weak or non-existent strategies in some sectors. On its part, the Government, therefore, undertakes to elaborate clear sector strategies. In addition, the Government will ensure that national systems, institutions and procedures for managing aid and other development resources are effective, accountable and transparent, and where necessary will undertake or continue reforms in this respect. In turn, the Government expects, as a minimum, that all development partners will align their assistance with the National Development Plan and relevant sector strategies.

All Development Partners will follow guidelines aimed at reducing transaction costs

221. Transaction costs related to receiving development assistance are often high, and whilst it is difficult to quantify these in a meaningful manner, it is clear that high transaction costs or inefficiencies lower the real value of the assistance received. Development Partners continue to place significant demands on the Government in terms of time, reporting needs, and use of other resources through numerous missions and meetings. To reduce this burden, the following measures and guidelines will be implemented.

222. Aid modalities: The Government prefers general budget support, as this aid modality is fully aligned with the Government’s priorities and minimises transaction costs. Therefore, the Government encourages Development Partners to join the recently established Joint Budget Support Framework. The Government recognises that the provision of budget support is associated with requirements to improve accountability structures on the side of Government. The Government also recognises that some Development Partners are legally constrained to providing budget support. However, there are certain circumstances where project support brings with it particular benefits, for example, external expertise in some areas. Whichever modality is used, the Government must be satisfied that the assistance provided is delivered in an effective and efficient manner, in line with Government priorities and with the objective of reducing transaction costs.

223. Parallel implementation structures: Only in exceptional cases and only with explicit Government approval should Development Partners establish parallel implementation structures for projects or programmes. To the extent possible, Development Partners should make use of the Government’s Public Financial Management (PFM) and procurement systems. On its part, Government will continue to strengthen PFM and procurement systems in line with international best practice.

224. Aid fragmentation and division of labour: As described previously, more than forty development partners provide development assistance to Uganda. In order to ensure aid effectiveness and to avoid spreading donor assistance too thinly, Government will encourage co-financing and division of labour among donor agencies. The Government expects Development Partners to provide their assistance in line with Government priorities as outlined in the NDP and to exercise the principle of mutual accountability and respect in aid relationships.

225. Closed season: In order to facilitate the formulation of the budget process, the Government will operate a “closed season”, in which it will not engage with aid-related missions. The dates of the “closed season” will be outlined in the Partnership Policy.

Establishment of structures to strengthen dialogue with development partners and other stakeholders

226. The Government recognizes the need for a single channel of official communication between the Government and Development Partners. The Government will therefore communicate on matters relating to official development assistance primarily through the Local Development Partners’ Group (LDPG). For this reason, the Government requests that external providers of development assistance to Uganda, including non-traditional development partners, join and actively participate in the Local Development Partners’ Group or act under its umbrella.

227. The Government will utilize the national coordination mechanism, established by Cabinet in 2003, under the leadership of the Office of the Prime Minister, to consult with the LDPG on the implementation of the NDP, review development partner assistance, and review efforts to improve aid effectiveness. In particular, the Government will work with the LDPG to review the current aid architecture to ensure that the sector/technical working groups are aligned with implementation of the NDP.

228. Parliament, CSOs, the Media, the private sector and other actors, have an important role to play in generating the social, political and economic changes necessary for the development cooperation to work. Government is committed to working with these stakeholders to provide an enabling environment that maximizes their contributions to development.

Improve the predictability of and information on aid flows

229. Being able to predict aid disbursements with respect to volume and timing is essential for the management of public finances and for planning and implementation of Government programmes. Therefore, the Government commits to the implementation of a single platform for the reporting of data on planned and actual disbursements of aid. In turn, the Government will expect all Development Partners to provide reliable indicative commitments of aid disbursements (both on-and off-budget) over a multi-year framework as well as timely and accurate data on actual disbursements.

Formulate and institutionalize measures and mechanisms for assessing mutual accountability

230. The Government of Uganda accepts that official development assistance involves a contractual relationship in which the flow of funds is subject to the achievement of development results. It welcomes the agreement in the Accra Agenda for Action that the donor community will work to change the nature of conditionality to support national ownership. Therefore, conditions linked to disbursements should be results-based and made public to ensure transparency.

231. Measures of mutual accountability will be developed to assess progress on commitments. This will involve joint assessment by Government, its Development Partners, civil society and Parliament to determine the status of the Partnership and to identify actions all stakeholders need to undertake to enhance achievement of results. Consideration will be given to operating mechanisms for mutual accountability that have proved successful in other countries, such as development partner performance assessment frameworks and independent monitoring by a locally based panel of experts.

Incorporate partner commitments beyond aid within Partnership Policy

232. The 8th Millennium Development Goal commits Government and its Development Partners (as signatories to the Millennium Declaration) to specific actions and targets in establishing a global partnership for development. Many of these commitments are not captured in the Paris Declaration and Accra Agenda for Action, and go beyond the provision and management of official development assistance, yet they have profound implications for the development of Uganda. These include measures on improving access to markets through reducing tariff barriers, tackling debt sustainability, improving access to affordable essential drugs, and improving access to new technologies.

233. The Partnership Policy will seek to incorporate these commitments, where relevant and appropriate, and ensure that progress towards MDG 8 is measured.

4.7.5 Formulation of Partnership Policy

234. While this section has outlined the main challenges and associated objectives to improve the partnership between the Government and supportive countries and institutions, the Partnership Policy will guide these relationships to achieve the objectives of the National Development Plan.

235. The formulation of the Partnership Policy will be coordinated by the Office of the Prime Minister in liaison with the Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic Development, the National Planning Authority and the representatives of the Development Partner community in Uganda.

4.8 DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS AND TARGETS

236. Key development indicators have been identified for the theme of the NDP. These are per capita income, human development index, employment levels, labour force distribution in line with sectoral GDP, life expectancy, skilled manpower level, proportion of manufactured exports to total exports, share of industry in GDP, level of urbanisation, and the country’s competitive index. In addition, indicators have been selected to monitor the progress of NDP objectives. Both the indicators for the theme and objectives and the corresponding annual targets are given in Table 4.15.

Table 4.14.POVERTY AND SOCIAL SECTOR INDICATORS AND TARGETS
HistoricalNDP 2010/2011-2014/2015MDG Target
2000/20012002/20032005/20062010/20112011/20122012/20132013/20142014/2015
Headcount poverty rate, %33.838.831.12827.426.625.624.528
Primary school completion rate, %64.46973.979.7
Gross completion rate (GCR), %22.437.974.376.779.583.789.2100
Net completion rate, %43.9
Under-five mortality rate / 1000152137120.1114107.7101.495.768
Maternal Mortality ratio (per 100,000 live births)435131
Access to safe water, %5767.968.672.177.583.689.372
Source: UBOS & NPA
Table 4.15.DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS AND TARGETS
NDP ThemeNDP OBJECTIVESDevelopment IndicatorsSpecific IndicatorsBase YearTarget Values
2008/20092010/20112011/20122012/20132013/20142014/2015
Growth, Employment and Economic Transformation for Prosperity(i) Increasing household Incomes and promoting equity(a) Per Capita Income506614667718775837
(b) Proportion of people living below poverty line
(c) Inequality Glnl-CoefficlentLevel of Urban Income Inequality0.432
Level of Rural Income Inequality0.363
Level of Regional Income Inequality
  • - Central
0.417
  • - Eastern
0.354
  • - Northern
0.331
  • - Western
0.342
(d) GenderGender Inequalities Index (Gil)0.590
Global Gender Gap Ranking43/130
(ii) Enhancing the availability and quality of gainful employment(a) Employment level%age share of total national labour force employed (Including under-employed)70.9
(iii) Enhancing human capital development(a) Human Development Index
(b) Sector shares In GDP and Share of labour force distribution by sector% Share of Agricultural Sector In GDP23.022.522.221.921.621.4
% of labour force In Agricultural Sector73.372.071.470.770.069.3
% Share of Industrial Sector In GDP24.624.324.324.224.224.0
% of labour force In Industrial Sector4.24.54.74.95.15.4
% Share of Services Sector In GDP52.453.253.553.954.254.6
% of labour force In Services Sector22.523.423.924.424.825.3
(c) Skilled manpower levelsRatio of Doctors to Population1:12,500
Ratio of Nurses to Population1:7700
Ratio of Engineers to Population
Ratio of Technicians to Population
Ratio of Scientists to Population
Ratio of Researchers to Population
(iv) Improving stock and quality of economic infrastructure(a) Level of development of the industrial sectorProportion of manufactured exports to total exports4.2%
Proportion of employees in industrial sector to total employed persons7.3%
(b) Transport IndicatorsProportion of paved roads to the total road network4.0%
Proportion of freight cargo by rail0.0%
Proportion of Passenger Traffic by rail3.5%
(c) Energy IndicatorsProportion of households accessing power from national grid11.0%
Power Consumption Per Capita60Kwh
(d) Water Consumption IndexWater Consumption Per Capita2lm3
(e) Level of UrbanizationProportion of population living in urban centres13.0%
(f) Country competitiveness positioning in the worldRanking on world economic forum’s competitiveness index108/130105/130100/13095/13090/13085/130
Ranking based on international “doing business survey”112/183108/183104/183100/18392/18382/183
(v) Increasing access to quality social services(a) Level of access to quality social servicesHealth
Life expectancy53
Infant Mortality Rate76.071.667.563.660.056.5
Child mortality rate128.7121.3114.3107.7101.595.7
Marternal Mortality Rate435.0412.9391.8371.9353.0335.0
Total Fertility Rate6.76.66.56.46.36.2
Education
Literacy Levels66.8
Net Enrolment rate in Primary School93.3%
Net Completion rate in Primary School49.0%
Net Enrolment rate in Secondary School23.5%
Net Completion rate in Secondary School (O’Level)35.0%
Pupil-Teacher Ratio56:1
Pupil-Classroom ratio78:1
Student-Teacher Ratio19:1
Student-Classroom ratio38:1
International Education Competitiveness Index (University Ranking, Technical Education, Secondary, Primary and Pre-Primary Education)
Water
Rural water coverage65%
Urban water Coverage66%
(vi) Promoting science, technology, Innovation (STI) and ICT to enhance competitiveness(a) Proportion of budget dedicated for promoting STI and ICTRatio of national budget allocated STI (R&D) and ICT0.3%
Ratio of S&T to Arts Graduates1:5
Level of ICT deepening
(vii) Strengthening good governance, defence and security(a) Extent of improvement in good governanceLevel of representation and participation of marginalized groups in development processes
Level of transparency in public institutions
Level of implementation of regional and international protocols and standards
(b) Level of mordernization of defence and securityLevel of R&D developed
Level of core sector capabilities
Level of capacity built for infrastructure development
(viii)Promoting sustainable population and use of the environment and natural resources(a) Proportion of ecosystems restoredNumber of wetlands gazetted and restored
Level of forestation and re-a forestation
Forest cover13%
(b) Level of management of environmental resourcesProportion of protected wetlands
Level of water pollution
Level of industrial pollution
Level of pollution in protected areas

PART 3: SECTORAL SITUATION ANALYSES, OBJECTIVES AND INTERVENTIONS

CHAPTER 5 PRIMARY GROWTH SECTORS

5.1 AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT

5.1.1 Situational Analysis

237. Agriculture has for a long time been a core sector of Uganda’s economy in terms of its contribution to GDP and employment. By 2005 it employed 73 per cent23 of the labour force (UBOS, 2005)24. In 2008/09, the sector accounted for 23.7 per cent of total GDP. Agricultural exports accounted for 47 per cent of total exports in 2007. Much of the industrial activity in the country is agro-based. Even though its share in total GDP has been declining, agriculture remains important because it provides the basis for growth in other sectors such as manufacturing and services. Being the largest employer, the majority of women (83 per cent) are employed in agriculture as primary producers and contribute 70-75 per cent of agricultural production. In the face of the global financial crisis, agriculture is contributing a lot of foreign exchange revenue from regional trade and therefore improving the country’s balance of payments position, and in the process helps to stabilise depreciation of the shilling.

238. Agriculture has the potential to significantly increase its contribution to economic growth and poverty reduction. In 2008/09, agriculture grew by 2.6 percent, twice the rate of growth experienced in 2007/08. It has been demonstrated that if agriculture in Uganda grew at the average rate of 2.8 per cent per year, as experienced in the last 8 years, the poverty rate would be reduced to 26.5 per cent by 2015 (Benin et al, 2007)25. However, if greater investments were made in agriculture and the sector grew at 5.9 percent per year to 2015, the national poverty rate would be reduced by an additional 8.6 percentage points thereby reducing head count poverty to 17.9 percent of the population and the absolute number of poor people to 6.9 million. Therefore, investing more in agriculture to achieve higher sector growth rates is the surest way of effectively reducing poverty. It is for these reasons that agriculture is being given a lot of attention in national development.

239. Despite the importance of agriculture in the economy, the sector’s performance has not been impressive in recent years. Real growth rate in agricultural output declined from 7.9 percent in 2000/01 to 0.1 per cent in 2006/07 (UBOS, 2008)26. However, the sector recovered and grew at 1.3 per cent and 2.6 per cent in 2007/08 and 2008/09 respectively (Table 5.1). This growth of the agricultural sector is much below the NDP annual growth target of 5.6 per cent and the 5.9 per cent growth rate that is required for effective poverty reduction. It is also below the 6 per cent annual growth target of the African Union’s Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program (CAADP)27.

TABLE 5.1.SECTORAL GDP (2002 PRICES) GROWTH RATES AND SHARES IN GDP
Sector2003/ 20042004/ 20052005/ 20062006/ 20072007/ 20082008/ 2009
Sector and sub-sector Growth Rates
Agriculture/*1.620.50.11.32.6
Cash crops7.3-5.5-10.65.49.01.7
Food crops-1.5-0.2-0.1-0.92.42.9
Livestock4.73.01.63.03.03.0
Fisheries9.613.55.6-3.0-11.8-0.4
Industry811.614.79.69.13.8
Services7.96.212.28.010.29.4
Sector Shares in Total GDP at Current Prices
Agriculture/*23.825.124.122.321.223.7
Industry22.923.522.825.125.624.2
Services47.445.447.247.047.346.4
Source: UBOS Statistical Abstracts, 2008 and 2009.

Including forestry

Source: UBOS Statistical Abstracts, 2008 and 2009.

Including forestry

240. The Food Security situation has been unsatisfactory since 1992. The country’s average caloric intake per person per day improved from 1,494 in 1992 to 2,193 in 1999 but declined to 2,066 in 2002 and to 1,971 in 2005. Although the decline is marginal, the average intake is still less than the WHO recommended daily intake of 2,300 per adult per day.

241. Crop sub-sector: An analysis of the UNHS crop production data for 1999/2000 and 2005/06 done by the External Monitoring Unit of Makerere University Department of Agricultural Economics, (EMU, 2007) shows a mixed picture in overall agricultural production (in physical terms). In some of the crops, production increased while in others it dropped. Increase in production of some crops came through area expansion as well as through improvement in yields during the same period28. In some crops, however, there were noticeable decreases in production. It shows that current yields on farm are far less than the research station yields. There is, therefore, still room for increasing agricultural output through increasing factor productivity and through area expansion. Increase in crop production through area expansion, however, cannot continue for a long period because land is a fixed factor and Uganda has a fast growing population (World Bank, 2007)29

242. The EMU (2007) study further indicates that the decline in production patterns and land productivity were attributed to weather changes (mainly drought); crop pests and poor soil management; disease epidemics and changes in domestic and international commodity prices. Other reasons for the decrease in crop production include limited extension services. The National Service Delivery 2008 established that overall, only about 14 per cent of households had been visited by an extension worker within 12 months before the survey. The visits were even lower for female headed households with 6.8 per cent. The main constraints identified by extension workers in reaching farmers were lack of transport/equipment, inadequate funding and negative attitudes of farmers towards change in farming practices. The observed increases in crop production and yield were attributed to land saving technologies (seeds, fertilizers and better agronomic practices) and area expansion.

243. Table 5.2 indicates that of the estimated 5,130,000 hectares of land owned, 4,420,000 hectares were cultivable land, which represents about 86 per cent of the total. However, only about 58 per cent of the total cultivable land was actually under crops during the first season. This suggests that it is possible to bring more land under cultivation in an effort to increase production which can be through promotion of technologies like animal traction and tractorisation.

Table 5.2.CULTIVATED LAND BY REGION
RegionTotalFirst SeasonSecond Season
Cultivable Land (Ha)Total Cultivated Land (Ha)Percentage CultivatedTotal Cultivated land (Ha)Percentage Cultivated
Central1,116,000650,00058.2556,00049.9
Eastern1,222,00047,00061.1605,00049.5
Northern894,000401,00044.9444,00049.7
Western1,186,000764,00064.4573,00048.3
Total4,420,0002,563,000582,180,00049.3
Source: MFPED Agricultural sector investments and institutional performance, 2008

244. Livestock sub-sector: the Livestock Census (UBOS 2008) indicated that the national cattle herd is estimated at 11.4 million (an increase from 5.8 million in 1999). It also estimates 12.5 million goats, 3.4 million sheep, 3.2 million pigs and 37.4 million poultry birds. The Livestock Census indicates that livestock numbers have increased across all types: cattle, sheep, goats, poultry and others. However, current production levels in the sub-sector can only meet half the domestic and regional demand. The potential for the export market is also huge. Good potentials and opportunities for production and marketing exist in: dairy and meat; hides, skins and leather; apiculture development; and sericulture development. With regard to milk, FAO (2008) reports that, over the period 1995 to 2006, milk production increased at an annual growth rate of 4.8 per cent, resulting in an increase of average domestic milk consumption from 20.1kg per capita per year in 2001 to 25.4 kg per capita per year in 2006. Growth in the dairy sector is a result of the favourable macroeconomic environment, policy and institutional reforms including the privatisation of the Dairy Corporation Limited in August 2006, and better pasture and farm management practices. The beef industry is, however, still not well developed.

245. Table 5.3 indicates household livestock ownership by type and regional distribution. Total cattle ownership was estimated at 7.4 million heads in 2005, of which 16 per cent were exotic animals. Farmers consider the resources required in terms of pastures and veterinary costs for maintaining exotic animals to be prohibitive despite the relatively higher return on investment. The status explains why the productivity of most livestock farms has remained low and the affected farmers have not been effectively transformed. Current production levels in the sub-sector can only meet half the domestic demand (MAAIF, 2007).

Table 5.3.UGANDA HOUSEHOLD LIVESTOCK OWNERSHIP, 2008
Type of livestockUgandaCentralEasternNorthernWesternKaramoja zone
Exotic
Cattle700,030221,700141,8609,800317,8508,820
Goats151,83944,02822,0819,27351,03720,827
Sheep25,2403,9204,0903,4505,9307,840
Chicken4,609,3103,709,500282,940127,650481,5007,730
Local
Cattle10,643,6202,209,6202,345,6101,631,0302,212,2102,245,140
Goats12,278,2201,620,1282,577,2492,686,4023,380,2972,014,144
Sheep3,385,130265,680315,270565,060561,4501,677,660
Pigs3,184,3001,307,460699,680340,460778,35058,360
Chicken32,834,5806,820,93010,413,1707,516,7706,728,6201,355,090
Other poultry/*2,006,860331,530716,250541,320335,67082,080
Source: MAAIF & UBOS (2009), The National Livestock Census Report 2008

246. At regional level, Western Uganda accounts for 30 per cent of the total cattle herd as well as 73 per cent of the total exotic herd. With regard to goats, only 4 per cent of the estimated 8 million goat population is of the hybrid nature. Western Uganda accounts for 45 per cent of the goat population and 66 per cent of the hybrid type. Given that exotic goats command a premium price on the market, the limited ownership of exotic goats seriously affects household incomes. Western and Central Uganda dominate ownership of the pigs’ population, accounting for 85 per cent of the national population. At 37 per cent share, Eastern region takes the largest share of the estimated national poultry population.

247. Export of livestock products in Uganda is limited to raw and semi-processed hides and skins but there is a rapidly growing export of live animals (cattle and goats) to Southern Sudan. Inadequate disease control and the absence of the relevant quality and processing infrastructure are some of the major limiting factors for exporting beef and dairy products. Constraints to growth in livestock sector are mainly related to diseases, lack of good breeds and lack of quality pastures and feeds for livestock. The demand for crop products by the livestock and fisheries sub-sectors creates both forward and backward linkages within the entire agricultural sector, demonstrating the huge potential for overall sectoral growth.

248. Fisheries Sub-sector: Fish exports are the second largest export earner for Uganda. Exports have increased from 4,687 tonnes in 1991 to 31,681 tonnes in 2007. They peaked in 2005 when 39,201 tonnes were exported valued at USD 143 million (UBOS, 2008). The trend is, however, changing due to declining catches. A survey of the informal fish trade by UBOS and BoU (2007)30 indicate that fish worth USD 33 million were exported informally to the neighbouring countries of DRC, Sudan, Kenya and Rwanda in 2006 alone. Fish was the highest (14 percent) of all informally traded goods from Uganda in that year. The average growth rate in fish exports is an impressive 48 per cent per year. The growth potential is considered high because of the forward and backward linkages and other multiplier effects over other sectors. The number of people depending on the sector has also increased from 700,000 to over 1.2 million people. This good past performance in fisheries sector is, however, being threatened by declining catches mainly due to the use of destructive fishing methods.

249. In recent years, the fisheries sector has experienced a decline in fish catches, which affected exports. Fish production statistics indicate that catches from Lake Victoria are dwindling while those in Lakes Edward and George are almost getting extinct. Lake Kyoga catches have dropped from 150,000 tonnes in the 1980s to about 60,000 tonnes in 2007. Beyond the biological factors, the causes of this decline include use of illegal fishing gears and fishing in breeding areas. Current trends in catches are not likely to sustain the growth rates in demand. Earnings from fish exports declined to USD 124 million in 2007 from USD145.8 million in 2006. Table 5.4 shows the fish catch trends by water body.

Table 5.4.FISH CATCH BY WATER BODY (‘000 TONNES)
Year199619971998199920002001200220032004200520062007
Lake Victoria106107105104133132136175.3253.3253.3215.9223.1
Lake Albert2219192919191919.556.456.456.456.4
Lake Kyoga-------32.968.568.460.060.0
L. Edward George & Kazinga Channel56675555.99.69.68.88.8
Other waters97786668.340.624.121.121.0
Total222219217230220221222247.5434.8416.8367.2374.3
Growth Rate%4.2-1.4-0.96-4.30.50.511.775.4-4.1-121.9
Source: UBOS Statistical Abstract, 2009

250. Despite enormous benefits and potentials within the fisheries sub-sector, it faces specific problems, particularly resource depletion caused by over fishing of stocks, non-compliance with regulations and inadequate control of catches. The sub-sector is also characterized by illegal transportation of fish to some factories and to neighbouring countries. There is limited intervention to reverse the declining trend and harness the existing potentials. While Uganda can now boast of having attained high quality and safety standards for fish production and export, maintaining such standards is costly and requires effective monitoring. The European Union (which is a major importer of fish from the East African region) requires that fish exports must fully comply with strict quality and safety standards.

251. Policy Environment: In the last eight years the policy environment for the agriculture sector in Uganda has been shaped by the Plan for Modernization of Agriculture (PMA) which is a multi-sectoral policy framework for agriculture and rural development. The multi-sectoral nature of PMA gave it breadth that agriculture needs to move forward. Its scope covered seven pillars: research and technology development; national agricultural advisory services; rural finance; agro-processing and marketing; agricultural education; physical infrastructure and sustainable natural resource utilization and management. The PMA implementation mandate spread across 13 ministries and agencies, which among other factors, affected implementation.

252. In 2005, the Rural Development Strategy (RDS) was formulated with the overall objective of raising household incomes with a focus on the sub-county as a basic unit for planning. In 2006, a much broader vision of Prosperity for All (PFA) was formulated arising out of the National Resistance Movement (NRM) Election Manifesto of 2006. The goal of the PFA was to improve lives of all Ugandans in all aspects - higher incomes, improved access to services in a peaceful and democratically governed country.

253. In 2006, the first Development Strategy and Investment Plan (DSIP) was developed as a medium-term plan of the Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries (MAAIF). The DSIP was to translate the national goals and priorities contained in the PMA into a plan for Public Sector activities in the agricultural sector. The DSIP was designed to clarify the objectives and outputs for the sector and to bring out priority areas for spending between 2005/06 and 2007/08. Although no comprehensive review of its performance had been done, the internal assessment by the Ministry coupled with a comprehensive Public Expenditure Review show that it has not been effectively implemented. The main problems are sighted as weakness in internal coordination and the failure in aligning public resources to the DSIP priorities.

254. The strategy expired in June 2008 and a second DSIP for agriculture is now under preparation. This DSIP will provide a detailed and costed plan for implementation of priorities outlined in this NDP section.

5.1.2 Constraints to the Performance of the Agriculture Sector

  • i) Weak policy, legal and regulatory framework: while agricultural sector policies have been developed, implementation of programs has not been consistent with specific Government policies and strategies. This has created uncoordinated interventions which are not guided by a robust policy and legal framework and systems that have resulted into ineffective and inefficient use of resources in the sector. This is manifested by poor harmonisation of donor support and lack of coordinated implementation of interventions.
  • ii) High risks and cost of investment: transformation to commercial agricultural production requires significant capital outlays which many farmers are ill equipped to provide. Moreover, the existing banking system does not provide for facilities to support agricultural investment because of the high costs of administering these loans, coupled with the difficulty banks have in managing the risks involved. Insurance against crop failure is currently lacking, though some initial moves in this direction are now being taken.
  • iii) High cost and limited availability of improved farm inputs: these include hybrid seeds, fertilizers, pastures and veterinary costs, exotic animals, irrigation equipment, tractors, post harvest technology, herbicides, among others.
  • iv) Limited human resource capacity: most of the public and private institutions in the sector are experiencing shortages in quality technical staff especially in key areas such as research, pests and disease control, extension services, mechanisation and soil science. This manpower problem extends to key support entities such as financial institutions.
  • v) Weak institutions and structures: the many institutions in this sector do not effectively coordinate and largely lack collaborative arrangement. This constrains the ability of the sector to coherently deliver on its mandate. In addition, there are weak farmer organisations in production, processing and marketing.
  • vi) Traditional and cultural attitudes: many producers have been in peasantry production for a long time and are used to certain old practices which have become a tradition. For example; the use of a hand hoe, subsistence production, dominance of women in production and men in marketing, imbalances in land ownership between men and women, among others.
  • vii) Poor management of natural resources: this affects fisheries, water resources, forests, soils and wetlands. This has resulted in declining agricultural yields rendering farming non-profitable.
  • viii) Inadequate physical infrastructure: this includes transport (roads and railways); energy; water; and storage facilities, among others.
  • ix) Absence of data and information: there is lack of regular and reliable agricultural statistics and market information (price, buyers, type of product and quality specifications).
  • x) Land tenure and access to farmland: Uganda’s divergent system of land tenure and overlapping land rights have impacted negatively on long-term investments in agriculture. Furthermore, many landless potential farmers (especially women) cannot easily access land because of costs, cultural norms and threats imposed by the existing overlapping land rights. Uganda’s increasing population is gradually worsening the problem of land fragmentation and in so doing, negating efforts to transform agriculture from subsistence to commercial production.
  • xi) Standards, food safety and quality assurance infrastructure are still generally weak and need to be strengthened to facilitate marketing of agricultural products.
  • xii) Inadequate Meteorological services: inadequacies in providing early warning information related to changes in rainfall patterns to farmers.
  • xiii) Inadequate pest and disease control: pests and diseases have remained a big threat for increasing agricultural output and productivity. The rural economies have been severely affected and a number of farmers receded into poverty due to disease infestations such as banana wilt, coffee wilt, cassava mosaic, foot and mouth disease.
  • xiv) Inadequate production and post-harvest facilities: these include, farm level storage, cold stores, modern abattoirs, holding grounds, fish fry centres and fish handling facilities.
  • xv) Limited extension support: provision of advisory services that target increased agricultural production and productivity i.e. soil fertility, choice and application of technology, disease control, farm management, harvesting, value addition and storage.
  • xvi) Weak value chain linkages: production, processing and marketing are not closely linked. Much of the produce is sold in a raw form and where there is processing, the supply of raw materials is erratic and in most cases inadequate due to supply side constraints to sector performance. Many producers do not have access to markets due to lack of market information and/or poor infrastructure.

5.1.3 Objectives, Strategies and Interventions

255. Objective 1- Enhancing agricultural production and productivity.

  • Strategy 1: Improve agricultural technology development.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Generate technologies, practice and strategies to address stakeholders’ demands and response to market opportunities.
  • ii) Institute an efficient and effective delivery and uptake of technology and knowledge, established through the innovative system.
  • iii) Strengthen functioning of the National Agricultural Research System (NARS).
  • iv) Strengthen the linkages between agricultural research and extension services at various levels.
  • Strategy 2: Ensure effective delivery of advisory services and improved technology.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Increase farmers’ participation in technology development.
  • ii) Enhance farmers’ access to production and agro-processing technologies.
  • iii) Provide farmers with quality advisory services and information.
  • iv) Establish formal mechanisms for joint operations between NARO and NAADs at various levels.
  • v) Strengthen linkages between researchers, extension workers and farmers to enhance relevance, tracking and feed-back on generated technologies.
  • vi) Formulate an environmental and social management framework.
  • Strategy 3: Control diseases, pests and vectors.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Conduct early detection of crop pests, weeds and diseases.
  • ii) Control livestock diseases and vectors to ensure that communicable diseases are managed in order to promote animal health as a means to greater productivity and market penetration.
  • iii) Control diseases and vectors in the fisheries sub-sector.
  • iv) Develop a policy on pests and disease control.
  • v) Set and operationalise standards for diagnostics, surveillance and control of pests and diseases including weeds.
  • vi) Strengthen capacity of local governments to effectively manage pest and disease control.
  • vii) Develop infrastructure for pest and disease control (laboratories for crops, fish and livestock).
  • Strategy 4: Enhance productivity of land through sustainable land use and management of soil and water resources.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Support ongoing activities for scaling up Sustainable Land Management (SLM).
  • ii) Strengthen enabling environment for SLM coordination and advocacy.
  • iii) Support mainstreaming of SLM into sector and local governments, plans and budgets.
  • iv) Strengthen commercial and advisory services for SLM friendly products and practices.
  • v) Improve and strengthen SLM knowledge management.
  • vi) Support rewarding programmes for water and soil conservation at community level
  • Strategy 5: Increase supply for water for production.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Strengthen the legal and institutional framework and capacity for developing water for agricultural production.
  • Water for Crops
  • i) Rehabilitate five government irrigation schemes (Mobuku, Kiige, Olweny and Agoro).
  • ii) Reorganize management of irrigation schemes and transfer management to the lowest appropriate level and systems to ensure their sustainability.
  • iii) Establish new irrigation schemes (informal, small scale, commercial).
  • iv) Provide support including: promotional activities, guidelines, regulations, standards, designs and manuals, and technical assistance, to small scale and commercial private irrigation developers.
  • v) Establish demonstrations on small-scale irrigation technologies, and rain water harvesting and management to ensure transfer of irrigation knowledge and skills.
  • vi) Establish a monitoring framework for supply, utilization and management of water for crops.
  • vii) Rationalize the tax regime for irrigation equipment to make them affordable to farmers.
  • viii) Build capacity in the irrigation sub-sector.
  • Water for livestock and wildlife
  • i) Increase water storage through surface water reservoirs, gravity flow or pumped schemes, and ground water exploitation.
  • ii) Establish functional management systems in at least 80 percent of the livestock water facilities.
  • iii) Establish and train water users; associations at existing and new watering facilities.
  • iv) Prepare and disseminate a strategy and guidelines for decentralizing planning and implementation of water for livestock.
  • v) Study the human-livestock-wildlife conflicts in areas bordering protected areas and implement recommendations.
  • Water for Aquaculture
  • i) Support the increase in acreage of small-scale aquaculture from 5,000 hectares to 20,000 hectares and large-scale aquaculture from 25,000 hectares by 2015.
  • ii) Introduce and support aquaculture parks.
  • iii) Train staff and farmer groups on stocking methods, harvesting, waster control and management.
  • Strategy 6: Promote labour saving technologies and mechanisms.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Develop and promote animal traction technologies.
  • ii) Build capacity for development of appropriate farm structures as well as testing, adaptation, demonstration and promotion of appropriate farm equipment.
  • iii) Formulate and implement incentive frameworks for acquisition and financing of labour saving technologies.
  • iv) Enhance PPPs for agricultural mechanization.
  • v) Reinstate small scale mechanization support unit.
  • Strategy 7: Improve access to high quality inputs, planting and stocking materials.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Increase agricultural production and productivity to addressing the absence of productive assets and agricultural knowledge, and poor service delivery.
  • ii) Rebuild productive infrastructure in support of farming by rehabilitating rural infrastructure, like community access roads, water points, crushes, markets and others.
  • iii) Improve access to markets by supporting the agricultural input market chain, increasing understanding of markets and market opportunities, and strengthening the capacity of producer groups.
  • iv) Promote agro-processing /value addition to agriculture produce.
  • v) Build the capacity of farmers and LGs through training, providing technical and logistical support of District Production Departments and Sub-county. Production Officers, and strengthening and facilitating the LG Works Departments.
  • Strategy 8: Improve agricultural livelihoods in Northern Uganda.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Increase agricultural production and productivity by addressing the absence of productive assets and agricultural knowledge, and poor service delivery.
  • ii) Rebuild productive infrastructure in support of farming by rehabilitating rural infrastructure, like community access roads, water points, crushes, markets and others.
  • iii) Improve access to markets by supporting the agricultural input market chain, increasing understanding of markets and market opportunities and strengthening the capacity of producer groups.
  • iv) Promote agro-processing/value addition to agriculture produce.
  • v) Build the capacity of farmers and LGs through training, providing technical and logistical support to District Production Departments and Sub-county Production Officers, and strengthening and facilitating the LG Works Departments.
  • Strategy 9: Accelerate the development of selected strategic commodities. The selected commodities include: coffee, maize, fish, beef, dairy, poultry, beans, bananas and cassava.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Undertake value chain studies for commodities not yet studied to identify areas for intervention.
  • ii) Establish commodity platforms to constantly discuss issues pertaining to particular commodities.
  • iii) Establish public private partnerships in areas that need public support for private sector investment.

256. Objective 2 - Improve access to and sustainability of markets.

  • Strategy 1 : Increase PPPs in value chains in agriculture with emphasis on strategic commodities.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Strengthen higher level farmer organization to enhance farmer participation in market development activities.
  • ii) Promote farming as a business through careful enterprise selection, development and improved market linkages focusing on publicity on product standards.
  • iii) Strengthen linkages between farmers and production support services (including financial services, capacity development and marketing).
  • iv) Promote value addition and agro processing as a means to increasing earnings.
  • v) Improve farmers’ access to markets through market research and better market information.
  • vi) Review the tax regime for agro-processing and storage, formulate appropriate polices and laws to assist the agro-processing sector.
  • vii) Conduct research on post harvest food technologies, to cover food processing, storage and utilization.
  • viii) Facilitate financing and construction of appropriate storage structures.
  • ix) Support development of a well coordinated system for collecting, analyzing and disseminating agricultural statistics and information on food and nutrition security to households and communities.
  • Strategy 2: Increase the number of functioning and sustainable farmer’ organization involved in collective marketing.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Expand service provider capacity in situational analysis for guiding and supporting farmers’ planning processes.
  • ii) Train farmers’ groups and fora in visioning, enterprise selection and needs identification.
  • iii) Prepare guidelines for farmer institutional capacity development.
  • iv) Mobilize groups for delivery of agricultural extension services.

257. Objective 3 - Create an enabling environment for competitive investment in agriculture.

  • Strategy 1: Improve the capacity for quality assurance, regulation, food and safety standards for outputs and products across crops, livestock and fisheries sub-sectors.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Review and harmonize obsolete laws, rules, and legislations in the crops, livestock and fisheries sub-sectors.
  • ii) Review and develop a legal framework to ensure food and nutrition security at all levels.
  • iii) Enforce crop laws, regulations, standards and guidelines along the entire value chain.
  • iv) Enforce livestock laws, regulations, standards and guidelines along the entire value chain.
  • v) Enforce fisheries laws, regulations, standards and guidelines along the entire value chain.
  • vi) Educate farmers, traders, processors and agro exporters about quality standards.
  • vii) Train food inspectors in legislation, policy, modern inspection systems and quality management systems.
  • Strategy 2: Enhance sector policy formulation, planning and coordination.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Develop Staff capacity in skills such as poverty analysis, budgeting techniques, appraisal and analysis of investments, coordination and harmonization of strategies and priorities, ICT skills, statistics, M&E, agribusiness development, policy analysis, and entrepreneurship.
  • ii) Review and formulate policies, strategies and plans.
  • iii) Strengthen the MAAIF management information system.
  • iv) Review the current work on profits analysis, design a system for assessing farm enterprise profitability and operationalise it.
  • v) Harmonize national sector policies/strategies with regional/international polices.
  • vi) Establish an M&E framework to monitor MAAIF and LG programmes.
  • vii) Assess the food and nutrition security status by using rainfall forecasts, conducting post harvest assessment, disseminating quarterly early warning bulletins, and conducting surveillance on the nutritional status.
  • viii) Mainstream cross-cutting issues such as HIV/AIDS, gender, climate change and environment in the development of policies, strategies, programmes and projects.
  • ix) Strengthen Agriculture Sector Working Groups.
  • x) Conduct annual agriculture sector reviews.
  • Strategy 3: Enhance Intra and Inter-Sectoral Coordination.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Strengthen intra-sector policy and technical coordination to deal with internal policy and technical issues within MAAIF.
  • ii) Strengthen inter-sector policy and technical coordination to focus on creating functional policy and technical linkages between MAAIF and other Government ministries/departments/agencies, as well as between MAAIF and Local Governments.
  • iii) Participate in sector reviews of relevant sectors to provide input into sector plans and Budget Framework Papers.
  • Strategy 4: Build capacity to respond to Climate Change.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Identify climate effects, vulnerabilities and coping measures as they relate to the various agricultural production strategies pertaining across Uganda.
  • ii) Improve climate forecasts along with procedures for use in agricultural management.
  • iii) Integrate climate risk management in agricultural business strategies.
  • iv) Strengthen central and LG capacity to integrate climate change into planning.

258. Objective 4 - Enhance institutional development in the Agriculture sector.

  • Strategy 1: Strengthen MAAIF and related public agricultural agencies.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Configure and re-align MAAIF and district production department structures
  • ii) Review the functions, structures, roles and relationship of MAAIF’s semi autonomous bodies.
  • iii) Relocate MAAIF Headquarters to Kampala.
  • iv) Harness synergies and improve linkages between MAAIF and other relevant stakeholders
  • Strategy 2: Increase the human resource productivity.
  • Interventions Descriptions
  • i) Enhance the capacities of sector personnel by building on existing programs and developing a comprehensive sector capacity building program.
  • ii) Improve the communication systems by developing, implementing and reviewing an agriculture sector coordination strategy.
  • iii) Retool and equip MAAIF institutions and sector personnel through a comprehensive inventory, harmonized assessment of sector requirement and determination of financial implications.

5.2 FORESTRY SECTOR

5.2.1 Situational Analysis

259. Forestry plays a significant role in national development through its contribution to ecological balance, energy and industrial activities. The recommended level of national forest cover for Uganda to have a stable ecological system is 30 per cent. The national forest cover as of 2005 was, however, at 18 per cent, having dropped from 24 per cent in 1990. This decline which is estimated at 1.8 per cent per annum is largely attributed to increasing demand for agricultural land and fuel wood by the rapidly growing population31. Between 1990 and 2005, a total of 1,329,570 hectares (27 per cent of original forest cover) was lost. The breakdown of the forest cover affected by type is summarized in Table 5.5. The most affected districts in terms of forest cover loss include: Mayuge (100 per cent), Wakiso (86.7 per cent), Mubende (79 per cent), Mityana (59.6 per cent), Kibaale (48.9 per cent), Mukono (36.4 per cent), Mpigi (32.6 per cent), Hoima (21.6 per cent) and Masindi (12.2 per cent).

Table 5.5.PERCENTAGE CHANGE BY FOREST TYPE
Forest TypeArea 2005 (Ha.)Area 1990 (Ha.)Change (Ha)Annual change (Ha)Percentage changePercentage Annual change
Broad leaved14,78618,682(3,896)(260)(21)(1.4)
Conifer18,74116,3842,357157141.0
TMF well stocked600,957651,110(50,154)(3,344)(8)(0.5)
TMF low stocked191,694273,061(81,367)(5,424)(30)(2.0)
Woodland2,777,9983,974,508(1,196,510)(79,767)(30)(2.0)
Total Forest cover3,604,1764,933,746(1,329,570)(88,638)(27)(1.8)
Source: National Forestry Authority, National Biomass Study Report, 2009

260. In terms of forest management, there are 698 (1,266,000 hectares) gazetted forest reserves. In addition, another 730,000 hectares are located in national parks and game reserves. The majority of the reserves are less than 1,000 hectares. Of the total gazetted forest reserves, 506 are Central Forest Reserves (CFR) and 192 Local Forest Reserves (LFR). The central forest reserves, which account for 30 per cent of the national forest cover, are managed by NFA and UWA while the Local forest reserves are managed by Local Governments. A significant portion of these reserves were degraded especially those under Local Government management. As a remedy to this problem, Government adopted a Public-Private Partnership approach to re-establish these reserves. By 2002, the level of forest cover in gazetted forest reserves (Protected areas) was 1.34 million hectares (43 per cent) and this reduced to 1.3 million hectares (42 per cent) in 2008 despite efforts by NFA to plant 35,000 hectares within the Protected Areas. Most private investors in gazetted reserves are small to medium scale (up to 500 hectares) tree growers.

They have planted 15,104 hectares in CFRs since 2002, which is 69 per cent of the total planted area over the same period

261. Besides the publicly managed forest reserves, there is a growing number of privately owned commercial forests. Central Forest Reserves (CFR); this category of growers constitutes 99.8 per cent of the number of investors in commercial forest plantations. This indicates that tree growing is becoming a more attractive venture to small-medium-scale investors.

262. In terms of investment financing for forestry, donor and local private financing are the major sources. While, on average, donor financing has exceeded local private financing and played a catalytic role, private financing is steadily increasing. The local private contribution has amounted to UShs 90 billion over the period 2002 to 2008 (Figure 5.1).

Figure 5.1TRENDS IN INVESTMENTS IN FOREST MANAGEMENT, 2003/04 - 2007/08

Source: Generated From Questionnaires and Secondary Data from the National Budget Framework Paper, 2009

Biomass Energy

263. The contribution of forestry to national energy demands is mostly expressed through woody biomass use by households and institutions for heating purposes. In 1994, charcoal production utilized 6 million m3 of round wood. This increased to 11 million m3 in 200732. In addition, the national consumption of firewood was estimated at 32.8 million m3 of woody biomass energy annually33. The National Biomass Study (2003) indicates that 73 per cent of the districts in Uganda are experiencing a shortage of accessible woody biomass for fuel. On average, the distance travelled to collect firewood has increased from 0.73 km in 2000 to more than 1 km in 2007 (MWE 2007). In some districts like Kitgum, Nebbi, Gulu/Amuru, Nakasongola, Lira, Sironko and Adjumani, household members travel more than 4 km to collect firewood and this is done largely by women and children.

264. In addition to its contribution to ecological and energy concerns, forestry also supports the economy through forestry-related commercial products and services. These include timber products, ecotourism, arts & crafts, bee products, herbal medicine and rattan-cane. There is very little information to indicate trends in these products and services. However, ecotourism which is based on forest biodiversity is becoming a market niche for Uganda. The timber harvested and moved by licensed pit-sawyers increased from 51,000m3 to 90,000m3 between FY 1997/08 to FY 2004/05 (NFA Records, 2006). Round wood34 harvest increased from 215,723m3 (2003) to 258,522 m3 (2007). Despite this performance, Uganda remains a net importer of forestry products, and the gap between these imports and exports has been widening as illustrated in Figure 5.2. This has important implications for the forestry industry in Uganda.

Figure 5.2EXTERNAL TRADES IN FORESTRY PRODUCTS, 2003 TO 2007

Source: UBOS, Statistical Abstract, 2008

5.2.2 Constraints to the Performance of the Forestry Sector

  • i) Limited access to alternative sources of heating energy leading to dependence on wood fuel. Electricity supply and distribution is still very limited and tariffs remain unaffordable by the majority of the population;
  • ii) Pressure on forest resource from other economic activities like agriculture, urbanization and mining leading to deforestation. This pressure is as a result of the growing population and the inability by the industrial and services sectors to absorb labour from rural areas;
  • iii) Non implementation of the land use policy to mitigate the encroachment on forest land and inadequate physical planning has resulted in improper land usage;
  • iv) Inconsistency in the legal and policy framework, and a weak institutional arrangement for management of the entire forestry resources in the country.
  • v) Heavy investment requirement;
  • vi) Limited public financial investment in the sector. The sector is almost entirely dependent on donor and private investment leaving a huge gap for public sector support to generate a reasonable supply of tree cover in order to reduce on the current deficit;
  • vii) Limited access to inputs especially seedlings, pesticides, and herbicides. These are costly and unavailable to rural producers;
  • viii) Weak enforcement in the forestry sector due to institutional capacity;
  • ix) Limited extension services to support private sector players who are the majority in the sector.

5.2.3 Objectives, Strategies and Interventions

265. Objective 1 - Restore Forest Cover from 3,604,176 hectares to 4,933,746 hectares by 2015.

  • Strategy 1: Re-forestation and afforestation of 1,266,000 hectares in 698 forest reserves and 730,000 ha in national parks and game reserves.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Provide incentives and facilitation to leaseholders for planting trees. The intervention will involve stabilization of private sector licensing systems in forest reserves.
  • ii) Establish and maintain forest plantations. The intervention requires additional forest plantations to be established and maintained by Government institutions.
  • Strategy 2: Promote greening along and around public infrastructure and establishments.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Initiate a policy requiring inclusion of greening in all road and infrastructure design and construction. Trees will be planted at all institutions, along road reserves and public lands owned by districts, cities, municipalities, town councils, schools and sub-counties.
  • ii) Promote Urban Greenery through adoption of appropriate physical planning regulations.
  • Strategy 3: Promote commercial tree-planting on private land.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Institute a credit transfer scheme for land holding above a defined tree density. The plan is to capitalize the forest fund through a credit transfer scheme.
  • Strategy 4: Increase involvement of the population in tree planting.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Step up the supply of free and/or subsidized tree seedlings to farmers in agro-forestry systems. This will increase the tree density at household level (land boundaries, inter-cropping, windbreaks, and compounds).
  • ii) Support private initiatives in production of seedlings and other planting materials.
  • iii) Sensitize land owners to plant trees as a means to generate income. This will be measured through the proportion of household tree-based income and survival rate.
  • iv) Promote afforestation on bare hills.
  • Strategy 5: Support Research and Development to promote new high-yielding and appropriate tree varieties.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Enhance availability of funds for Research and Development targeting development of improved tree varieties. Public financing for Research and Development in key institutions will be increased using competitive grant schemes. Local private Research and Development foundations will be promoted and supported.
  • Strategy 6: Strengthen the capacity of relevant sector institutions to effectively enforce forest and environmental laws and regulations.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Establish a policing force for enforcing forestry regulation. An operational forestry para-military force needs to be recruited, trained and equipped to effectively undertake forestry protection and surveillance.

266. Objective 2 - Restore degraded natural forests in forest reserves and private forests.

  • Strategy 1: Improve low stocked natural forests using the landscape approach.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Prepare and implement a Landscape Restoration Action Plan. The area of well-stocked natural forests will be increased.
  • ii) Prepare and implement a phased approach to sustainable forest management. The coverage of natural forests under sustainable forest management regime will increase.
  • Strategy 2: Protect the Government permanent forest estate.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Strengthen the policing in National Parks and Wildlife Reserves to protect forest reserves against illegal activities.

267. Objective 3 - Reduce pressure on forest cover as a source of wood fuel and construction material.

  • Strategy1: Speed up implementation of the Rural Electrification Programme.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Extend the national power grid to at least one rural growth centre per sub-county.
  • Strategy 2: Scale-up incentives to promote investment in generation and use of alternative energy.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Provide incentives, as appropriate, on Liquid and Petroleum Gas Supplies. The relevant tax legislation requires to be adequately provided for in the Finance Bill.
  • Strategy 3: Promote the use of efficient energy saving sources.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Extend start-up capital to artisans involved in construction of fuel saving stoves in the form of a revolving fund. A mechanism for extending financial support needs to be established (e.g. an artisan fund).
  • ii) Expand training in construction and use of energy-efficient stoves at household and institutional level.
  • Strategy 4: Invest in Research and Development for alternative energy source.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Enhance availability of funds for Research and Development targeted at adoption and use of alternative energy sources through existing institutions.
  • ii) Review the Building Codes and Standards to introduce requirements for energy efficiency for new and existing buildings.
  • Strategy 5: Promote efficient use of timber in the Construction and Furniture industries.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Introduce policies and legislation to discourage unnecessary and or inefficient use of timber in construction and furniture-making. Timber use policy, legal and institutional framework to be put in place.
  • ii) Implement a scholarship scheme to fund training in use of alternative materials for the manufacture of furniture products.
  • Strategy 6: Regulate forestry activity on private land in line with the land use policy.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Develop guidelines and standards to regulate forest harvesting in fragile ecosystems.
  • ii) Develop and enforce forestry regulations to operationalize the National Forestry and Tree Planting Act, 2003.
  • iii) Support the development of a land use plan.

268. Objective 4 - Promote forestry-based industries and trade.

  • Strategy 1: Promote forest habitat-based livelihoods and products (for example Apiculture and natural medicines).
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Sensitize communities on the potential economic benefits of forest habitat-based enterprises and products. Monthly, quarterly and annual sensitization programs need to be designed and implemented.
  • i) Improve availability of input supplies to communities neighbouring forest habitats. Relevant input supplies will be incorporated into the NAADS program.
  • Strategy 2: Promote Eco-tourism.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Scale-up the profile of forest development within the Tourism Sector Development Strategy.
  • ii) Invest in and promote eco tourism (forest tourism).
  • Strategy 3: Introduce and popularize the use of timber and timber product substitutes, and processing technologies.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Facilitate fabrication of reusable scaffolding by SMEs and their acquisition by small scale contractors.
  • Strategy 4: Strengthen networks for participation of local private sector in the global carbon credit market.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Provide additional incentives in the domestic carbon credit trade mechanism.
  • ii) Establish and strengthen forest holder cooperatives and private companies.
  • iii) Sensitize the public about carbon markets and develop skills.

5.3 TOURISM

5.3.1 Situational Analysis

269. This section focuses on tourism development and conservation of wildlife resources and the cultural heritage. Current international and domestic indicators give strong justification for prioritizing tourism in Uganda’s development. The tourism sector is guided by the Uganda Wildlife Policy, 1999 and the National Tourism Policy, 2003. The legal framework that governs the development and regulation of the tourism industry includes: the Tourism Act, 2008, Uganda Wildlife Act, 2000, Game (Preservation and Control) Act, 2000 and the Historical Monuments Act, 1967. However, the Historical Monuments (Amended) Act, 1977 is weak and outdated.

270. Tourism Development: According to the World Tourism and Travel Council (WTTC), the contribution of Travel & Tourism in Uganda to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was estimated at 9.2 per cent (USD1,1610 million) in 2008 compared to 10.8 per cent (USD3,463.6 million) for Kenya. Real GDP growth for the Travel & Tourism sector was estimated at 4.0 per cent in 2008. In addition, tourism contributed 7.4 per cent of total employment (420,000 jobs). The hotels and restaurants sub-sector has shown strong growth in their contribution to employment from 13,898 jobs in 2001/02 to 32,796 jobs in 2006/07^. Wildlife based tourism and conservation programs in Uganda directly employ over 80,000 persons. However, the absence of a developed tourism management information system makes it difficult to accurately estimate employment in the sector. The number of tourist arrivals increased from 512,000 in 2004 to 844,000 in 2008, which is an increase of 65 per cent (Table 5.6). By comparison, the total international tourist arrivals in Kenya in 2007 were 1,816,800.

Table 5.6.TOURISM BASIC INDICATORS 2004 TO 2008
Indicator20042005200620072008
Visitor Arrivals by Region (‘000)
Africa407337396482624
Americas2329364254
Europe49627177106
Asia1820222534
Middle East23348
Oceania24446
Other & not stated11134812
Sub-total512468536642844
Visitor Arrivals by mode of Transport (‘000)
Air131172200234358
Road381296336408486
Sub-total512468536642844
Arrival by Purpose of Visit (‘000)
Leisure, recreation & holidays86930140144
Business & professionals813172110163
Visiting friends & relatives713589272347
Other274393345120190
Tourism expenditure in the country (USD Million)321327375449590
Source: UBOS, Statistical Abstract, 2009

271. Most tourist arrivals in 2008 were from Africa (74 per cent), followed by Europe (13 per cent) and Americas (6 per cent). This trend has remained the same over the period 2004 to 2008. The leading source markets for tourists are Kenya, UK, USA and South Africa in that order. A large number of tourists come by road (58 per cent of total arrivals in 2008), although the growth in terms of arrivals by air appears to be picking up much faster (57 per cent growth between 2007 and 2008). Tourism expenditure increased steadily from USD 321million in 2004 to USD 590 million in 2008, an average annual increase of 22 per cent. On average, the length of stay for tourists in Uganda is still very short, an aspect that must be addressed to enhance earnings from the sector.

272. Tourism Product Mix: Analysis shows that Uganda’s current tourist products are nature-based and centred on distinct geographic areas. Several of these are linked to national parks, wildlife reserves, forests reserves or specific attractions, and activities such as white water rafting at the source of the Nile in Jinja. The nature of attractions include: Eco-Tourism, Cultural Heritage, Faith-Based Tourism, Community Development Tourism and Meetings, Incentives, Conferences and Events (MICE).

273. Eco-Tourism: The greatest unique attractions in this area include: gorilla tracking; viewing chimpanzee, golden monkeys and Patas monkeys; nature guided walks, community walks, butterfly viewing, and bird watching. Uganda’s position as a plateau astride the equator has given it a niche in the variety of bird life.

274. Cultural Heritage: The desire to learn from the heritage and way of life of communities is a strong human inclination. Uganda is endowed with diverse heritage and cultural treasures that attract both foreign and domestic visitors. The archaeological treasures opening the window into the beginning of mankind, the monarchical leadership that predates the early explorers, the living culture and the history manifested in Idi Amin’s leadership are tourist products that Uganda can capitalize on. However, Uganda’s tangible cultural heritage is fast vanishing. This is partly attributed to ineffective and outdated laws. For example, Fort Lugard in Old Kampala was demolished while cultural/ historical objects are easily exported and gazetted sites are not being optimally utilized.

275. Faith-Based Tourism: Worldwide, religious capitals have developed and supported the growth of tourism notably Mecca, Jerusalem and Rome. Equally, different destinations have been shaped by religion from the Buddhist temples in Asia, apparition sites of the Virgin Mary to the current spread of Pentecost faith. In Uganda, the Namugongo Martyrs Shrine stands out as a site of pilgrimage, as well as the hills housing the important symbols of Catholic, Anglican, Bahai, Pentecost and Islamic faiths. However, the current policy and practice has not integrated tourism in the development and promotion of these sites. This potential has grown naturally and should be harnessed to fully realize the benefits of faith based tourism.

276. Community and Development Tourism: Community tourism refers to tourists who wish to experience the way of life of the communities living in the various points of interest. Development motivated tourists are those driven by the desire to improve the lives of the communities in less advantaged locations. Examples in this category include doctors conducting health clinics in a village and Rotarians supporting the construction of a village well or school. This is a growing source market that has not been specifically targeted through policy and practice. It is commonly sourced in the non-governmental organizations like churches, social groups and professional associations.

277. Meetings, Incentives, Conferences and Events (MICE): The MICE industry includes conference organizers, event managers, decorators, sound and lighting providers, video graphics, exhibitors and entertainers. All these businesses are entwined and depend on the ability of a destination to attract people to meet for various reasons and purposes. The success of this industry is dependent on the destination’s infrastructure relating to transport, communication, finance and other developed services. It is estimated that the growth of the urban hotel industry in Kampala, Entebbe and Jinja is largely attributed to this segment.

5.3.2 Constraints to the Performance of the Tourism Sector

  • i) Inadequate public and private institutional capacity to initiate meaningful tourism development. The private sector on the other hand is fragmented, small and lacks sufficient public sector support.
  • ii) Inadequate policy frameworks to conserve Uganda’s cultural heritage which is presently threatened to extinction.
  • iii) Limited funding: Tourism promotion is costly yet the sector experiences serious shortages in resource allocation to effectively compete with other tourist destinations.
  • iv) Lack of adequate skilled human resources particularly in tourism promotion, hotels and restaurants, tours and travel, leisure and hospitality.
  • v) Negative perception about Uganda’s image due to past insecurity: This has affected Uganda’s attractiveness as a secure tourist destination. In addition, the over reliance on foreign tourists makes the sector highly vulnerable to external shocks.
  • vi) Inadequate physical infrastructure support: A network of good roads and availability of affordable air charters are essential for the comfort, safety and security of tourists. Some existing tourism attraction facilities are inaccessible due to poor condition or absence of the requisite transport infrastructure. The supply of water, communication facilities and electricity are equally necessary.
  • vii) Inadequate research and development of the tangible and intangible heritage.
  • viii) Narrow product diversity: the country’s tourism activities are largely concentrated on wildlife despite the existing potential in culture, community, faith based conferences and business tourism.
  • ix) Inadequate research on emerging trends, markets and consumer surveys as well as regular statistical information required to inform decision makers, investors and tourists.

5.3.3 Objectives, Strategies and Interventions

278. Objective 1 - Develop and review the policy, legal and regulatory frameworks for the sector.

  • Strategy 1: Review the tourism policies and plans.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Review the Tourism Policy.
  • ii) Review the Tourism Master plan.
  • iii) Review the Uganda Wildlife Policy.
  • iv) Formulate a Museums and Monuments policy.
  • Strategy 2: Update relevant legal and regulatory framework.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Review the National Wildlife Act.
  • ii) Enact the Uganda Wildlife Education Centre (UWEC) Act.
  • iii) Review the Museums and Monuments Act.
  • iv) Develop and implement the Wildlife sub-sector regulations (fire arms, sport hunting, farming, ranching, ecotourism, scientific and education use and extractive utilization) for the protected areas.
  • v) Domesticate CITES.
  • vi) Review Uganda Wildlife Training Institute (UWTI) Act.
  • vii) Review Hotel and Tourism Training Institute (HTTI) Act.

279. Objective 2 - Increase the contribution of tourism to GDP and employment.

  • Strategy 1: Operationalise the Tourism Development Levy and Fund.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Develop and disseminate guidelines for collection of the levy.
  • ii) Develop and make operational a framework for the Tourism Development Fund.
  • Strategy 2: Develop marketing tools packaging Uganda as the preferred tourism destination.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Review the National Tourism Marketing Strategy.
  • ii) Enhance marketing tools.
  • Strategy 3: Develop Meetings, Incentives, Conferences and Events (MICE) strategy.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Establish a functional MICE Bureau/centre.
  • ii) Develop a MICE marketing strategy.
  • Strategy 4: Strengthen the tourism and wildlife information system, including developing the Tourism Satellite Account (TSA).
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Develop a tourism management information system.
  • ii) Develop the Uganda Tourism Satellite Accounts (TSA).
  • iii) Undertake international niche market surveys and other data collection activities
  • iv) Strengthen animal wildlife database.
  • v) Develop and implement guidelines on wildlife trade and enterprise.
  • vi) Strengthen the museums, monuments and antiquities database.
  • Strategy 5: Secure international and domestic source markets for tourism.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Strengthen presence in existing tourism source markets.
  • ii) Identify and nurture new tourism segments.
  • Strategy 6: Diversify tourism products.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Implement four (4) Zonal tourism plans and produce Zonal plans for four (4) other ecological zones.
  • ii) Habituate and avail new gorilla, chimpanzee and monkey groups for tourism.
  • iii) Re-introduce chimpanzees and rhinos into wildlife.
  • iv) Develop the souvenir art and craft industry through support of art and craft groups with necessary equipment and training.
  • v) Develop cultural centres through provision of concept and infrastructure support to cultural groups and companies.
  • vi) Develop water based tourism resources through provision of concept and infrastructure support to water based tourism resources.
  • vii) Promote other new tourism products such as butterfly viewing, caving, bird watching, canopy walk, and wilderness camping.
  • Strategy 7: Regulate tourism products development.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Develop and implement quality inspection and licensing framework.
  • ii) Undertake monitoring and evaluation of the sector activities.
  • iii) Monitor and regulate tourism in mining, hydropower, oil and gas, and wildlife conservation areas.
  • Strategy 8: Support development of tourism enterprises.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Research and package new tourism enterprise opportunities.
  • ii) Enhance capacity of tourism sector SMEs, including putting in place a seed capitalization fund and information centres for SMEs in tourism.
  • iii) Support community based tourism enterprises around wildlife protected areas.
  • Strategy 9: Develop tourism human resource.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Review the tourism and wildlife manpower training curricula, including upgrading the quality of the tourism and wildlife training tools.
  • ii) Enhance capacity of tourism and wildlife tertiary institutions through staff in-service training in areas of tourism development, wildlife, museums, and culture, arts and craft enterprises.
  • iii) Strengthen the Uganda Hotel and Tourism Training Institute.
  • Strategy 10: Develop tourism support infrastructure.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Develop and implement a framework to facilitate development of convenient tourist stop-overs along major high ways and tourist circuits.
  • ii) Construct a tourism house to accommodate tourism sector institutions.
  • iii) Identify and develop critical transport networks leading to protected areas and other tourist sites.
  • iv) Construct ranger out posts in Queen Elizabeth National Park (QENP), Murchison Falls National Park (MFCA), Bwindi and Mugahinga Conservation Area (BMCA) and Rwenzori National Park (RNP).
  • v) Upgrade/renovate campsites, signage, information/interpretation centres, gates, walk ways and game viewing tracks in key wildlife areas.
  • vi) Construct Museums at Kabale and Hoima and finalize plans for Soroti and Jinja, and support renovation of key cultural and religious sites.
  • vii) Re-design and develop the Jinja source of the Nile tourist site.
  • viii) Procure and title prime land to support construction of tourist accommodation facilities; and produce ready for implementation architectural design works for model tourism developments.
  • ix) Upgrade mountain climbing and rescue facilities in Rwenzori, Elgon, Muhabura and Kadam. This will include putting in place trails, rest points, accommodation facilities, and safety and rescue services.
  • x) Establish a tourist circuit on Lake Victoria (Botanical gardens, Lutembe beach, Ngamba Island, UWEC). This will include development of 2 landing sites, migratory birds’ observatory at Lutembe beach and UWEC floating restaurant, and acquisition of 3 boats.
  • xi) Upgrade Uganda Wildlife Education Centre (UWEC) by constructing an education and information complex; increasing the animal exhibits and recreational facilities; and stone paving the trail and road network.
  • xii) Establish satellite Wildlife Education Centres for the four (4) regions of Uganda
  • xiii) Construct a dining hall, dormitory, 10 staff houses, and museum block at Uganda Wildlife Training Institute (UWTI) and retool the Institute.
  • xiv) Construct an extension of the National Museum to expand its operations and modernize its interpretation facilities by establishing ICT/ database aided interpretation equipment and tools.
  • xv) Establish interpretation centres at 10 cultural and archaeological sites.
  • xvi) Revive the Uganda Institute of Ecology (UIE).
  • Strategy 11: Undertake research to support the development of tourism, wildlife resources and cultural heritage.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Create a wildlife resources data bank for Uganda and conduct tourism specific studies on trends, inventory and problem analysis.
  • ii) Support tourism development in local Governments.
  • Strategy 12: Develop a public-private partnership (PPP) framework for the management of tourism, wildlife and cultural heritage attractions.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Register and train private wildlife management entrepreneurs country wide.
  • ii) Establish and support tourism and wildlife associations.
  • iii) Support district commercial and environment offices to handle tourism, wildlife conservation and Museums and Monuments matters.
  • iv) Support the development of the tourism private sector apex body.
  • Strategy 13: Improve human-wildlife relationships.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Formulate national guidelines for wildlife veterinary interventions.
  • ii) Resettle and or compensate people residing in key tourism and wildlife conservation areas. These include; Majelli community in Ajai, Benet community in Elgon and Mbwa Tract in Bwindi.
  • iii) Negotiate and acquire land for migration corridors in Aswa Lolim.
  • iv) Carry out evaluations of the existing human-wildlife conflict mitigation measures with a view to improve them.
  • v) Implement problem animal deterrent and scare measures (Trenches, Walls, thunder flashes, crocodile barriers, pepper and live fence) to reduce incidents of human animal conflict.
  • vi) Carry out electric fencing of 118 km boundaries of Lake Mburo to address the problems of animals around the Park as a pilot project.
  • vii) Carry out electric fencing of 100 km part of Queen Elizabeth National park.
  • Strategy 14: Effective participation in International decision making.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Clear accumulated subscriptions to WTO and other international bodies.
  • ii) Support private sector participation and advocacy in regional and international meeting.
  • Strategy 15: Enhance security and safety for tourists and tourism resources.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Develop and implement a national safety and security plan for tourists and tourism resources.
  • ii) Strengthen law enforcement in wildlife conservation areas to guarantee security of tourists and wildlife resources.

5.4 MINING SECTOR

5.4.1 Situational Analysis

280. Uganda is endowed with a variety of mineral deposits. The map below (Figure 5.3) indicates the occurrence and distribution of minerals in Uganda.

Figure 5.3OCCURRENCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF MINERALS IN UGANDA

Source: Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development Annual Report, 2008

281. Mineral exploration, mining and processing has occurred since the colonial times. In the 1960s, mining was ranking among Uganda’s top economic activities and foreign exchange earners, contributing one-third of the total exports and up to 7 per cent of the GDP. However, the contribution of mining to Uganda’s GDP declined significantly in the 1970s largely due to political and economic instability. This trend persisted throughout the 1980s and 1990s until recently when deliberate attempts were made to rejuvenate the sector performance.

282. Over the past six years, Government has implemented a Comprehensive Mineral Sector Reform Programme with a primary goal of harmonizing the legal, policy and institutional framework within the mining sector and enhancing contribution of mining to GDP, foreign exchange and employment. This program has contributed to the following:

  • Increase in number of investors licensed in the sector from 91 in 2003 to 517 in 2008.
  • Production volumes and exports have gone up (Table 5.7 and 5.8)
Table 5.7.MINERAL PRODUCTION - VOLUME AND VALUES (2004 TO 2007)
Mineral TypeProduction Volume in Tones
2004200520062007
Limestone428,775.90540,755.60425,610.70447,462.80
Pozzolanic Materials134,643.97
138,932.70213,639.90280,522.30
Vermiculite2,688.002,574.003,512.003,269.00
Colombite/Tantalite0.380.300.100.10
Cobalt459.00637.80689.20636.30
Gold1.500.050.020.03
Gypsum181.20285.30121.20168.20
Lead (Galena)--46.0038.00
Wolfram79.9045.1094.80107.90
Kaolin537.0055.00-8,152.20
Iron ore-208.50-366.00
Syenitic aggregates-4,519.006,080.008,994.20
TOTAL567,366.784,827.66,174.817,620.3
Production Value (UGX millions)
Limestone34,302.1054,075.6051,073. 2853,695.53
Pozzolanic Materials2,827.502,917.604,486.445,891.00
Vermiculite914.00875.161,194.081,111.46
Colombite/Tantalite0.600.411.5516.00
Cobalt21,254.0030,645.6633,113.8033,377.20
Gold30,621.401,076.66787.24983.47
Gypsum18.1028.5312.1216.84
Lead (Galena)--115.00190.00
Wolfram89.5050.52106.20120.84
Kaolin53.705.500.00244.56
Iron ore-20.850.0025.62
Syenitic aggregates-0.009.1213.50
TOTAL143.276.87115.32404.52
Source: Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development Annual reports 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008
Table 5.8.MINERAL EXPORTS FROM 2004-2007
MineralValue UGX Millions
2004200520062007
Limestone2.030.801,451.84309.67
Columbite/Tantalite0.000.750.0062.85
Cobalt2.711.049,183.6321,196.94
Gold151.88164.14219.34131,566.99
Gypsum0.000.000.000.00
Lead (Galena)0.000.0076.466.06
Wolfram0.045.688.363.15
Diamond0.0056.9471.24343.5
Tourmaline0.000.003.745.02
Tin0.010.008.630.00
Sapphire0.000.000.870.00
Rubbies0.000.001.740.00
Beryl0.000.000.000.00
Copper0.120.000.0052.95
TOTAL181.49173.04218,347.00153347.1
Source: Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development 2008—Annual reports

Employment

283. In the 1970s, the minerals sector provided employment for 8,000 people. To date, more than 130,000 Ugandans work as Artisans and small scale miners and at least 700,000 more people indirectly benefit from artisan and small scale mining. Some of these are indirectly employed in transport, marketing, food vending and equipment supply. More than 100,000 of these miners are working in “industrial minerals” production including salt, clay, sand, aggregates, limestone, and slates. Almost 50 per cent of these miners are women. Mining has become the principal livelihood for many Ugandans with a bigger number dependant on these miners for their living. After the Sustainable Management of Mineral Resource Project, the number of artisan and small scale miners is likely to grow to 300,000 by 2014/15.

Productivity and Efficiency Measures

284. Most of the mining activities in Uganda are by artisan and small scale miners who use manual and labour intensive methods. Minerals produced are usually exported as concentrates without refining them. There is need for value addition. There are no facilities for the production of pure elements from mineral ores in Uganda except at Kasese Cobalt Plant.

285. Under Sustainable Management of Mineral Resource Project, about 1000 artisan and small scale miners have been trained in geology and exploration, mining methods, mineral processing, environment management, business skills, health and safety, social issues (gender, child labour, social conflicts, health and safety).

By 2014/15, after providing access to training and extension facilities, ensuring the availability of affordable and effective technology, promoting environmentally sound technologies, there will be increased mineral productivity and revenues accruing from mining.

5.4.2 Constraints to the Performance of Mineral Sector

  • i) Inadequate infrastructure in particular transport and power: The scattered nature of minerals all over the country poses challenges to power supply and provision of transport infrastructure.
  • ii) Land encumbrances in mineral prospective areas: While Uganda’s Constitution is clear that any parcel of land found to be harbouring mineral resources becomes property of Government (upon compensation of the registered owner), the same law vests ownership of land to the people. This delays exploitation of minerals deposits in privately owned parcels of land.
  • iii) Limited access to appropriate technologies: most mining activities in the country, especially those carried out by local investors and artisans, use primitive technologies. This is largely due to low availability and high cost of mining plants and equipment on the local market. Use of inappropriate technologies is responsible for low productivity of the sector and environmental degradation as evidenced in sand mining.
  • iv) Inadequate human resources: the sector suffers from inadequacy of skilled personnel such as Geoscientists.
  • v) Inadequate basic geological data for mineral exploitation and land-use planning.

5.4.3 Objectives, Strategies and Interventions

286. Objective 1 - Promote and empower artisanal and small scale miners.

  • Strategy 1: Develop and implement laws and regulations to protect and benefit miners, communities and the environment.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Institute an effective border security system to prevent illegal cross-border trade in minerals.
  • ii) Promote actions aimed at legalizing businesses of artisanal small-scale miners.
  • Strategy2: Enhance institutional collaboration and partnership in the Mining Sector.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Establish institutional mechanisms for supporting artisanal small scale miners.
  • Strategy 3: Promote the use of new proven technologies for improved mineral recovery and production.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Establish pilot model schemes for new proven technologies within mining communities.
  • ii) Facilitate linkages between high technology mining companies and mining communities.
  • Strategy 4: Promote transparency in mining.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Establish a modern mining cadastre which is adaptable, sustainable, affordable, efficient and secure.
  • Strategy 5: Provide Credit access to artisanal and small scale miners
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Provide access to formal regulated sources of money such as grants to artisanal and small scale miners.
  • ii) Encourage miners to make productive investments through demonstrations on site for efficient technologies.
  • Strategy 6: Develop infrastructure for mining activities.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Extend and improve physical infrastructure into potential and existing mining areas through construction of roads, power grid lines and substations, and piped water systems.
  • Strategy 7: Ensure market awareness within artisanal and small scale miners’ communities.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Collect and disseminate market information through workshops and seminars.

287. Objective 2 - Provide basic geo-scientific information for development of the Mining and Subsidiary sectors.

  • Strategy 1: Undertake geological, geochemical, geophysical and remote sensing surveys & mineral resource surveys.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Carry out multi-disciplinary studies to discover mineral deposits which can be extracted economically.
  • ii) Support development of the national land use plan.
  • Strategy 2: Disseminate mining information.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Disseminate mining information through publications, workshops, conference presentations and any other media.
  • ii) Procure Manuals in lay terms about mining and mineral occurrences

288. Objective 3 - Enhance human resource capacities within the mining industry.

  • Strategy 1: Build human resource capacity in geo-scientific research.
  • Intervention Description

Recruit, train and retain geo-scientists.

  • i) Train geologists, miners, mineral processors, geo-information managers & analytical chemists.
  • ii) Promote bilateral cooperation through exchange and fellowship programmes.
  • iii) Provide incentives to mining industries to employ, train and retain local manpower.
  • Strategy 2: Offer extension services.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Construct new and refurbish old zonal offices for bringing Government assistance closer to mining communities.

289. Objective 4 - Promote environmental and social responsibility in mining.

  • Strategy 1: Strengthen monitoring of mining corporations for compliance to their stated CSR and environmental management plans.
  • Interventions Description
  • i) Incorporate CSR in investment licensing compliance monitoring.
  • Strategy 2: Promote safe practices and technologies in the sector.
  • Interventions Description
  • i) Ensure adherence to mining practices to international best practice
  • ii) Strengthen the capacity of labour inspection division to monitor labour standards and practices in mining operations.
  • iii) Strengthen linkages and cooperation with CSOs to enhance monitoring of child labour and other HR abuses in mining operations.
  • Strategy 3: Ensure the institution and enforcement of OHS policies and respect of human rights in all mining operations.
  • Interventions Description
  • i) Strengthen the capacity of the labour inspection division through recruitment, training and facilitating of Labour inspectors.
  • ii) Strengthen linkages and cooperation with CSOs to enhance monitoring of child labour and other HR abuses in mining operations.
  • Strategy 4: Carry out awareness campaigns for mining communities.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Train communities on social issues like social conflict, justice, human rights, gender issues, health and safety, child labour.

290. Objective 5 - Strengthen and expand the National Seismological Network to achieve national coverage over areas prone to earthquakes.

  • Strategy 1: Locate and monitor earthquakes, map seismic risk and mitigate their impact in Uganda.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Carry out site surveys and selection in order to produce seismic risk maps.
  • ii) Conduct signal to noise studies at the selected sites and provide warning bulletins to the public.
  • iii) Acquire 40 sites with acceptable signal to noise ratio.
  • iv) Construct 40 seismic vaults and sensors for acquisition of data at the acquired sites.
  • v) Establish data transmission systems from the 40 stations to the National Data Centre (NDC) at Entebbe.
  • vi) Upgrade the NDC with state of art systems that will handle heavy traffic of data streams received from the 40 remote stations.
  • vii) Train Uganda scientists in different ways of data acquisition and processing.

291. Objective 6 - Promote and gazette the geo-sites and geo-parks.

  • Strategy 1: Identify and classify the potential sites/areas and gazette them as geo-sites and geo- parks.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Identify and document all the geologically interesting sites/areas.
  • ii) Participate in short courses and international conferences about geo-sites and geo-parks.
  • iii) Classify the identified geo-sites and geo-parks.
  • iv) Create awareness and recognition of the classified geo-sites and geo-parks.
  • V) Collaborate with UNESCO for international recognition and protection of geo-sites and geo-parks.

292. Objective 7 - Develop geothermal energy to complement hydro and other sources of power.

  • Strategy 1: Explore and develop the geothermal energy resources.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Carry out Geological and geophysical surveys.
  • ii) Collect baseline data for environmental impact assessment.
  • iii) Conduct training programmes in resource testing, project design, operation and financing.
  • iv) Drill and test 9 exploration wells.
  • v) Drill and test 10 production wells.
  • vi) Construct 3 geothermal power plants at Katwe in Bundibugyo district, Buranga in Kasese district and at Kibiro in Hoima district.

5.5 OIL AND GAS SECTOR

5.5.1 Situational Analysis

293. The oil and gas industry consists of upstream, mid-stream and downstream operations. Upstream operations include exploration and production, midstream involves transportation and refining, while downstream operations include distribution and marketing.

294. Within the national context, major developments in upstream operations are associated with the recent discovery of commercially viable oil deposits. This discovery traces back to geological mappings developed since 1925. In light of the importance of petroleum products in meeting national energy demands and on the country’s terms of trade, Government is keen to capitalize on this discovery.

295. Over the period 1997 to 2008, a total of USD 500 million private capital had been invested in these upstream operations. Government has invested in infrastructure support including upgrading of roads connecting to exploration sites and undertook various assessments to ensure compliance with international best practice in the exploration processes. These assessments included, among others, Environmental Impact Assessments, Biodiversity Conservation Assessments, and border surveys to mark national boundaries and minimize border conflicts. There have also been improvements in the institutional and policy framework for effective production and management of oil revenues with the approval of the National Oil and Gas Policy 2008. However, the complementary legislations proposed by the policy such as Petroleum Resource Law and Petroleum Revenue Management Law are yet to be enacted.

296. In terms of potential capacity, reserves are currently estimated at 2 billion Barrels of Oil Equivalent (BOE)35 as of June 200936, with most of it concentrated in the Albertine Graben region37 in an area of about 23,000km2. However, oil reserves are likely to increase since exploration is still on-going.

297. In respect to downstream operations, the average annual growth of petroleum consumption stands at about 5 per cent. Between 2005 and 2007, there was a steep growth in consumption of about 20 per cent as a result of thermal electricity generation using diesel as a temporary intervention in the power sector. Currently, the nation meets all its petroleum needs with imports now standing at 847,603 cubic meters, and estimated at USD 320 million per annum. This constitutes about 8 per cent of total national imports and represents slightly above 20 per cent of total export earnings.

5.5.2 Constraints to the Performance of Oil and Gas Sector

  • i) Inadequate human resource capacity in terms of numbers and skills; this is exacerbated by the absence of adequate specialized training institutions within the country, and the duration it takes to develop expertise.
  • ii) High staff turnover in the sector rendering it weak and ineffective in its functions.
  • iii) Limited bulk transportation means due to the dilapidated rail system, and over reliance on a single transport route.
  • iv) Insufficient legal, policy and institutional framework.

5.5.3 Objectives, Strategies and Interventions

298. Objective 1 - Scale up oil and gas exploration to increase the potential capacity of reserves from 2 billion BOE.

  • Strategy 1: Continue exploration of oil and gas in the Albertine and other basins outside the Graben.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Carry out geological and geophysical mapping to continuously update the national oil and gas database.
  • ii) License competent oil companies for exploration and development of oil and gas.
  • iii) Provide gravel roads to facilitate access to exploration areas.

299. Objective 2 - Carry out commercial production of oil and gas and put in place the necessary infrastructure to support development and production of oil and gas.

  • Strategy 1: Put in place an oil and gas refinery.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Complete feasibility studies for the oil and gas refinery, establishing the capacity, type, location and processes of the refinery.
  • ii) Construct paved roads to the refinery.
  • iii) Put in place the required equipment and technologies for the refinery with capacity to refine a number of petroleum products.
  • iv) Construct appropriate pipelines to planned destinations.
  • v) Extend the grid and construct power systems such as sub-stations for the refinery.
  • vi) Develop water supply systems for the refinery.
  • vii) Construct processing plant and treatment facilities at the refinery, including ensuring compliance of the waste to international standards.
  • viii) Health Safety Environment and Quality Standards (HSQE) in refineries, pipelines, chemical plants and gas conversion plants.

300. Objective 3 - Ensure that the oil and gas resources in the country provide maximum optimal benefits to the country and region.

  • Strategy 1: Develop the petroleum utilisation plan.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Conduct studies on the following:
    • Exportation and transportation options for the refined products.
    • Potential export options for refined products.
    • Gas requirement for the existing energy based industries e.g. Cement, Steel, fertilizer, etc.
    • Gas investments infrastructure requirement.
    • Gas conversion and processing.
    • Pricing of refined products, electricity tariff and power production from crude oil, refined products and gas.
  • ii) Develop a gas and oil monitoring and evaluation system for the midstream facilities
  • iii) Develop standards for midstream facilities.
  • iv) Develop a tariff methodology and third party access procedures for capacity utilisation of midstream facilities.
  • v) Develop a licensing framework for midstream facilities
  • vi) Regulate the development, installation and maintenance of midstream facilities.

301. Objective 4 - Build human resource capacity for oil and gas exploration, production, processing and marketing at all levels covering artisans, technicians and professionals.

  • Strategy 1: Develop and retain a pool of national expertise for oil and gas sector.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Strengthen Kigumba Technical Institution to provide training up to international standards.
  • ii) Certify the professionals in the sector to maintain quality and standards.
  • iii) Train professionals in petroleum fields at postgraduate degree level.
  • iv) Offer a competitive remuneration package.
  • v) Train staff in petroleum standards, chemistry, engineering and management.
  • vi) Facilitate and equip the petroleum downstream training department.

302. Objective 5 - Put in place refineries and other midstream infrastructure to achieve regional security of energy supply.

  • Strategy 1: Develop a regional agreement on the development of midstream infrastructure.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Put in place a regional agreement on development of infrastructure
  • ii) Develop a regional agreement on purchase and utilization of Ugandan oil and gas products by regional countries
  • iii) Develop regional supply systems for oil and gas resources, including the inter-state pipelines to distribute petroleum products, inter-state rail connections to high market areas and development of harbours along the inland lakes/ports

303. Objective 6 - Provide sufficient legal, policy and institutional framework to support private sector participation.

  • Strategy 1: Strengthen the policy, regulatory & institutional framework.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Implement the current oil and gas policy.
  • ii) Expedite the formulation of the national PPP policy to allow more private investment.
  • iii) Set up appropriate institutions for oil and gas sector.
  • iv) Put in place sufficient regulations to guide private sector operations and revenue management.
  • v) Develop standards for midstream facilities.
  • vi) Develop a tariff methodology and third party access procedures for capacity utilisation of midstream facilities.
  • vii) Develop a licensing framework for midstream facilities.
  • viii) Put in place sufficient regulations to guide private sector operations and revenue management.

304. Objective 7 - To ensure sufficient stock of petroleum products on the market all the time.

  • Strategy 1: Increase on the petroleum reserves to meet at least six months requirements.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Increase the capacity of Government reservoirs to store a buffer of six months storage.
  • ii) Regulate private players and ensure sufficient oil and gas buffer stocks
  • iii) Increase rail haulage of petroleum products. Wagon ferries will be increased to connect to Kisumu and Mwanza ports. The wagons will improve shipment of petroleum products into the country, especially in the short to medium term before completion of the construction of the pipeline.
  • iv) Rehabilitate the rail network from Malaba to Kampala.
  • Strategy 2: Diversify the mode of transportation of petroleum products to the country.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Procure wagon ferries to connect to Kisumu and Mwanza port
  • ii) Repair the rail network from Malaba to Kampala
  • iii) Extend the petroleum products pipeline from Eldoret/Kenya to Kampala
  • Strategy 3: Restock strategic reserves.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Restock the Jinja reserve.
  • ii) Complete the construction of and stock the Nakasongola reserve.
  • iii) Complete the construction of and stock the Gulu reserve

305. Objective 8 - Build capacity for oil and gas downstream transportation, marketing and storage.

  • Strategy 1: Build capacity for policy, regulation and management of the downstream petroleum sub-sector.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Train staff in downstream petroleum standards, chemistry, engineering, regulation and management.
  • ii) Facilitate and equip the downstream petroleum sub-sector.

5.6 MANUFACTURING

5.6.1 Situational Analysis

306. Manufacturing is one of the economic activities under industry. It involves turning of raw materials into goods and products on a large scale. This sector comprises: metallurgical; food processing; leather and leather products; textiles, clothing and garments; building and construction; paper, printing and packaging; and chemical and pharmaceutical products industry.

307. The share of manufacturing in GDP has been decreasing from 7.0 per cent in FY 2003/04 to 6.7 per cent in FY 2008/09. This was largely due to high power tariffs and unreliable power supply in the country38. However, the operational establishments increased from about 150 to about 209 in 2007. Most of these establishments were in the Food processing sub sector.

308. The manufacturing sector in Uganda is still small but diverse in terms of its composition. It is characterized by processing of agricultural raw materials and production of consumer goods39. Cotton ginning, tea processing, coffee hauling, or tobacco handling and processing, beverages, wheat products and dairy products are some of the examples of such processing.

309. Capital goods industries are very few and capacity utilization of manufacturing industries is low, standing at an estimated less than 50 per cent of installed capacity (UBOS, 2005). Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) account for over 90 per cent of the manufacturing sub-sector with 39 per cent of these in agro-based industries.

310. The UBOS Business Register Survey of 2007 listed 3,280 manufacturing establishments in Uganda. The survey shows that Kampala had the highest proportion of businesses in all manufacturing sub-sectors except coffee processing, grain milling and tea processing (Table 5.9)

Table 5.9.REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF MANUFACTURING BUSINESS IN UGANDA
IndustryKampalaCentralEastNorthWestTotal
Processing of Meat, Fish and Diary Products231918131992
Coffee Processing21433136185
Grain Milling190981933979599
Tea Processing28322338
Bakery and Manufacture of Other Food Products934525832203
Manufacture of Beverages and Tobacco5112106483
Manufacture of Textiles and Leather Products8033472634220
Sawmilling, Printing and Publishing27535261930385
Chemicals and Chemical Products6687-283
Manufacture of Plastics603747232178
Manufacture of Metal Products26379553255484
Manufacture of Furniture and Other Manufacturing25015113751141730
TOTAL1,3746196011991483,280
Source: UBOS Business Register 2007

311. The manufacturing sector employed nearly 72,200 persons in 2006/07 with 79 per cent being male compared to only 21 per cent female. On the whole, most employment is in the tea processing, bakery and manufacture of other food products, manufacture of metal products, processing of meat, fish and dairy products. The least employment was in coffee processing followed by chemicals and chemical products sub sector (Table 5.10).

Table 5.10.EMPLOYMENT BY SEX IN THE MANUFACTURING SECTOR
IndustryNumber of businessesMales employed%Female employed%Total
Processing of Meat, Fish and Diary Products924,65481,698116,360
Coffee Processing1851,719353132,253
Grain Milling5994,579887665,463
Tea Processing3811,211202,9711914,202
Bakery and Manufacture of Other Food2035,27891,31196,598
Products
Manufacture of Beverages and Tobacco833,42661,37994,811
Manufacture of Textiles and Leather Products2203,46962,018135,493
Sawmilling, Printing and Publishing3854,32981,812126,149
Chemicals and Chemical Products831,861374752,611
Manufacture of Plastics1781,444866345,115
Manufacture of Metal Products4846,0681171256,791
Manufacture of Furniture and Other Manufacturing7305,7631057046,343
Total3,28056,80110015,28810072,189
Source: UBOS Business Register 2007

312. In 2000, UIA commissioned a survey of projects it had licensed since inception in 1991 and existing on the ground. The survey established that on average firms operated at less than 50 per cent of installed capacity. Only 11 (or less than 5 per cent) of the 228 firms in the manufacturing sector were operating at full (100 per cent) capacity. Nearly a quarter of all the projects surveyed were idle (0 per cent capacity utilization). Only 35 per cent of projects were operating at more than half their capacity with only 37.5 per cent of these utilizing more than 75 per cent of capacity. This was largely attributed to supply constraints and power shortages.

313. Since 2000, Ugandans have on the average been the largest contributors to private investment in Uganda. Of the projects registered by UIA, it is estimated that 30 per cent originate from local investors, followed by UK, Kenya, India in that order (Figure 5.4).

Figure 5.4SOURCES OF INVESTMENTS IN UGANDA 00-06

Source: UIA report 2008

5.6.2 Constraints to the Performance of Manufacturing Sector

  • i) Poor Institutional Support Network: While a number of institutions exist to support and stimulate industrial development in Uganda, the challenge has been the capacity of these institutions to respond to the needs of their stakeholders.
  • ii) Access to Credit: One of the key constraints for many firms in Uganda is access to credit, but even where there is access, lending interest rates have been prohibitively high (25-30 per cent). Much of the lending is limited to short-term capital as the presence of UDB has not been largely felt by industry.
  • iii) Lack of Necessary Skills: Many enterprises in Uganda lack the requisite technical skill for industry. While Government has made significant efforts towards the development of Uganda’s manpower base to meet the challenges of industrialization, enterprises still suffer shortage of critical skills; financial, production, material and project management, as well as technical capability, which along with other factors, have contributed to the low productivity of the industrial sector.
  • iv) Inadequate physical infrastructure: Poor infrastructure renders the industrial sector in general and manufacturing in particular uncompetitive due to higher transaction costs and delays.
  • v) The low level of technology and lack of indigenous capability for technological mastery: Uganda is grossly deficient in technology and lacks indigenous capacity to copy, adapt and develop technology. There is also poor attention paid to R&D funding in public sector research institutions leading to failure to meet the needs of the industrial sector.
  • vi) Low Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) capabilities: Overall, STI infrastructure is inadequate to meet the needs of STI-driven development. Government expenditure on science and technology remains low although it rose from UShs.49.2 billion in 2002/03 to Shs.77.1 billion in 2005/06.
  • vii) Lack of serviced industrial Parks: Access to industrial land has been a major bottleneck and where it is accessible, investors have had to incur full expenses of transmitting three phase power supply. The process of starting a factory in Uganda is characterized with numerous delays and high transaction costs.
  • viii) Poor (unreliable) supply of Inputs: Many industrial inputs are imported. Since Uganda is landlocked, enterprises that depend on imported inputs have, therefore, to contend with high transport costs and long delays because of bureaucracy. Moreover, the agriculture sector has not effectively implemented a production programme that would help to ensure a reliable supply of industrial raw materials.

5.6.3 Objectives, Strategies and Interventions

314. Objective 1 - Promote development of value added industries especially the agro-industries

  • Strategy 1: Enhance value addition to primary products.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Support the establishment of pilot processing facilities.
  • ii) Support the establishment of model processing industries in line with agricultural zoning programme
  • iii) Develop and implement sector specific policies and or interventions with a view of addressing emerging processing and production challenges through such initiatives as the “One Village-One Product” concept.
  • Strategy 2: Build capacity in specific targeted skills needed for value addition.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Strengthen the existing network of vocational and technical training institutions to cater for the required skills
  • ii) Strengthen entrepreneurship development in the industry sector, in particular, manufacturing through collaboration with other stakeholders.

315. Objective 2 - Increase competitiveness of local industries.

  • Strategy 1: Promote and strengthen industrial development.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Strengthen technology adaptation and acquisition including availability of advisory services to support local manufacturers
  • ii) Establish capacity of mineral beneficiation and support commercial exploitation of the key minerals.
  • iii) Capitalise Uganda Development Corporation (UDC) with a view of financing value addition projects.
  • iv) Promote locally manufactured products
  • Strategy 2: Promote Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) industrial development.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Establish national and regional technology incubation centres for nurturing SMEs and start-up enterprises.
  • ii) Develop, promote and coordinate public sector-led SME clusters.
  • Strategy 2: strengthen the policy, regulatory framework.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Implement the textile Policy
  • ii) Harmonise the common external tariff on textiles
  • iii) Harmonise “TRIPS” PLUS provisions on chemical and pharmaceuticals

316. Objective 3 - Enhance the development and productivity of the informal manufacturing sub-sector

Strategy 1: Develop skills of non-formal manufacturing sector (Jua Kali artisans) to enhance their competitiveness.

  • Intervention Description
  • i) Establish informal training and common centres.
  • ii) Promote activities of the Jua-Kali artisans.

317. Objective 4 - Enhance applied research and technology development.

  • Strategy 1: Promote innovations in industrial applications.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Undertake applied research and development through product development and commercialisation; promotion and support to structured technology development, acquisition and transfer.
  • ii) Establish and foster a National Innovation System for proper and adequate exploitation of R&D outputs and promote emerging technological needs.

5.7 INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY

5.7.1 Situational Analysis

318. Uganda’s ICT sector has considerably been liberalized from a few state monopolies to several private providers. The sector is composed of the following sub-sectors: Telecommunications, Postal Services, Broadcasting Infrastructure, Information Technology and Library and Information services.

319. In Uganda, ICT services particularly telecommunications and broadcasting have traditionally been supplied by state monopolies. Liberalization of the sector started in 1994 with introduction of competition in the telecommunications industry while liberalization of broadcasting services was effected in the year 2000.

320. During the period of state monopoly, performance of the ICT sector was weak. In the case of telecommunication, telephone penetration remained very low at a tele-density of 0.5 per cent; the network coverage was also limited to places in and around the capital city, Kampala.

321. The country, however, started witnessing a surge in telephone subscription trends with the licensing of the second national operator in 1998. The fixed lines subscription grew from 45,145 lines subscribers in 1996 to over 60,000. As indicated in Figure 5.5, the subscriptions have continued to grow reaching 160,000 subscribers in 2008. The average annual growth rate for the mobile subscriber base between 2005 and 2007 was 61 per cent, with 2007 in particular realizing 2.4 million additions. This has translated into a mobile penetration of approximately 21 lines per 100 inhabitants, up from 8 lines per 100 in 2005.

Figure 5.5GROWTH TRENDS IN MOBILE AND FIXED LINE SERVICES

Source: UCC Market Review 2007/08.

322. The number of public payphones increased from 3,000 in 1996 to 37,595 in 2008 raising payphone penetration from less than 0.5 per 1,000 inhabitants in 1996 to 1 phone per 1,000 inhabitants as shown in Figure 5.6.

Figure 5.6GROWTH AND PENETRATION OF PUBLIC PAYPHONES

Source: UCC Market Review 2007/8

323. With respect to postal services, there has been a decline in the volume of letters posted. This applies to both domestic and international destined letters. The trend is the same for letter received from abroad. The decline is partly attributed to the emergence of other communication channels. Of concern is the limited presence of postal services in the rural areas. Figure 5.7 indicates the trends in the volume of letters posted and received.

Figure 5.7VOLUMES OF LETTERS POSTED AND RECEIVED (DOMESTIC AND INTERNATIONAL EXCLUDING OFFICIAL LETTERS)

Source: Ministry of ICT Annual report 2008

324. The liberalization of the national ICT sector has led to increased private investment in the sector in terms of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the upstream ICT services, as well as local investments in end user services. As indicated in Figure 5.8, between 2003 and 2008, the communications sector alone managed to raise annual average investment from USD 78 million in 2004 to USD 150 million in 2007.

Figure 5.8TRENDS IN SECTOR INVESTMENT; 2003-2007

Source: UCC Market Review 2007/8

325. The growth in investment has consequently resulted into growth in revenues and increased contribution to GDP as shown in Figure 5.9.

Figure 5.9SECTOR PERCENTAGE CONTRIBUTION TO GDP

Source: UCC Market Review 2007/8

326. The broadcasting sub sector has also recorded marked transformation. There has been a marked increase in both the number of TV and radio stations. There are presently 41 licensed TV stations up from 31 in 2004 while licensed private FM radio stations have increased from 148 in 2004 to 199 in 2008. This is a result of stringent and consistent radio spectrum management policies which involve the allocation of radio frequencies and time to time monitoring activities to ensure strict compliance to frequency regulations.

5.7.2 Constraints to Performance of the ICT Sector

Telecommunications Sub-Sector

  • i) Infrastructure gaps in the delivery of broadband.
  • ii) High dependence on satellite bandwidth for the provision of internet services.
  • iii) High costs of Internet services.
  • iv) Limited access to the electricity grid in most parts of the country.
  • v) High usage taxes in the telephony sub-sector.
  • vi) Generally low income levels especially in the rural areas.
  • vii) Low ICT integration in Government as well as business processes resulting in low demand for internet.
  • viii) A largely illiterate consumer mass unaware of its rights, benefits and opportunities.

Information Technology (IT) and Information Management Services (IMS) Sub-sector

  • i) Low levels of awareness by the public on the role IT can play in social economic transformation.
  • ii) Lack of IT skills and knowledge by the population especially in rural areas.
  • iii) High cost of IT equipment and software.
  • iv) Increase in cyber crime (electronic fraud, computer misuse) and growing insecurity in the use of IT equipment and software.
  • v) High level of digital marginalization (digital divide), especially in rural communities.
  • vi) Expensive internet connectivity costs due to limited connection to the submarine cable system.
  • vii) Lack of sufficient IT skills at managerial level.
  • viii) Insufficient local content.
  • ix) Lack of relevant IT business-driven applications.
  • x) Lack of an appropriate legal and regulatory framework for the IT sub-sector.
  • xi) Lack of standards in hardware manufacturing and software development.

Broadcasting Sub-Sector

  • i) Absence of a comprehensive national plan on migration from Analogue to Digital terrestrial broadcasting in line with internationally agreed switchover date of June 2015.
  • ii) Inadequate legal and regulatory framework within which to manage the global trends such as convergence of technologies, digitization and international best practices in merging broadcasting and communications sector.
  • iii) Limited access to broadcasting infrastructure across the country. The distribution of radios and television signals and hence quality broadcasting services are centred in and around Kampala city due to the high cost of infrastructure needed to attain nationwide coverage.
  • iv) Rapid convergence in ICT has led to utilization of a shared platform (telecommunications infrastructures) for broadcasting purpose. This has presented new challenges to the Broadcasting council, Uganda Communications Commission as well as the broadcasters in meeting consumer demand as a whole.
  • v) Lack of harmonized policies and laws in various channels of communications in order to create a single national framework under which the sub-sector can operate.
  • vi) Lack of policy guidelines on the establishment of broadcasting infrastructure in general, which innately has brought about inequitable access to broadcasting infrastructure and quality program services.
  • vii) Lack of control over fees charged and services provided by pay television stations and hence leaving such services to the wealthy minority.

Library and Information Services Sub-sector

  • i) Lack of a purpose built structure to house the National Library of Uganda which has made it difficult to fully carry out its mandate.
  • ii) Lack of policies to regulate the running of both public and school libraries
  • iii) Low levels of funding especially to public libraries managed by the LGs where only 14 out of the 23 public libraries get this funding.
  • iv) Initial exclusion of library staff from the LGs’ structure which led to declining service and in some cases closure of the libraries in the district.
  • v) Low levels of both basic and information literacy among the population about the need to seek information and make informed decisions that affect their lives.
  • vi) Uncoordinated approach to information provision in the country and poor dissemination strategies of local information which is still difficult to get.

Postal Sub-Sector

  • i) Low levels of educated consumers especially in the rural areas on the postal services available in the country.
  • ii) Slow development of a product mix of postal services to meet customer needs and make the services affordable.
  • iii) Inadequate postal services network to enable their delivery to all sub-counties;
  • iv) Lack of institutional mechanisms, including emergence of new technologies, to enhance the pace at which services are delivered.
  • v) Lack of strategic investments to enhance the postal network so that consumers, especially in the rural areas, are able to access the services they require more easily.
  • vi) Insufficient investments in key postal technology such as mail processing and tracking technology, computerized systems, procedures and equipment.
  • vii) Inadequate legal and regulatory framework to address postal specific issues.
  • viii) Inadequate institutional framework for the implementation of the postal sub-sector obligations.

5.7.3 Objectives, Strategies and Interventions

327. Objective 1 - Enhance access to quality, affordable and equitable ICT services country wide

  • Strategy 1: Develop ICT infrastructure.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Roll out the National fibre optic cables to cover all districts.
  • ii) Construct Information Technology (IT) Business Parks.
  • iii) Extend the fibre optic cable network to electrical load centres.
  • iv) Support Public Private Partnership (PPP) arrangements to extend fibre optic cable to production centres and institutions.

328. Objective 2 - Enhance the use and application of ICT services in business and service delivery.

  • Strategy 1: Promote the use of ICT in business and service operations (e-commerce and e-government).
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Enact and operationalise the Cyber Law.
  • ii) Popularize Tele-Business Information Centres and Payphone services.
  • iii) Increase the computerization of service delivery functions in Government.
  • iv) Develop relevant local internet content and translation in local language for business and science and technology.
  • v) Collect, preserve and disseminate documented information for present and future use.
  • Strategy 2: Build competent human resource capacity in the sector.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Provide requisite ICT skills.
  • ii) Accredit ICT courses and training institutions.
  • iii) Incorporate ICT into education curricula.
  • Strategy 3: Develop and implement a policy, legal and regulatory framework for systematic sector development.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Make operational cyber laws to facilitate e-commerce.
  • Strategy 4: Promotion of ICT as a business.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Support Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) Services.
  • ii) Support initial operations of the Information Technology (IT) Business Parks.
  • iii) Promote hardware assembly and software development as an investment opportunity to potential local and foreign investors.
  • iv) Postal automation.
  • v) Create a National Address Management System.

5.8 HOUSING DEVELOPMENT

5.8.1 Situational Analysis

329. Housing is essential for the well being of humankind. Government is committed to ensuring the provision of adequate housing for all. In Uganda, the majority of housing units are provided by the private sector, and therefore, the main task of Government is to put in place appropriate policy, legal and regulatory framework for the housing sector to flourish.

330. In 2005, 78 per cent of households lived in owner occupied dwellings (UNHS2005/06) while 16 per cent lived in rented units as indicated in Table 5.11. However, in Kampala 64 per cent of households occupy rented structures whereas only 28 per cent live in owner-occupied dwellings. This is attributed to the high cost of construction of housing units and the lucrative businesses associated with real estate development. As far as the dwelling type is concerned, 61 per cent of households reside in dwellings roofed with iron sheets while 38 per cent resided in grass thatched structures. Construction materials indicate the durability of a dwelling unit and denote the economic status of the household. The distribution of housing units by construction materials by region is indicated in Table 5.12 and Table 5.13.

Table 5.11.SECTOR CONTRIBUTIONS TO GDP
Type of TenureKampalaCentralEasternNorthernWesternUganda
Owner occupied27.869.486.589.385.178.3
Rented64.420.89.24.81015.3
Free7.99.74.25.756.3
Total100100100100100100
Source: UNHS 2005/06
Table 5.12.DISTRIBUTION OF HOUSEHOLDS BY TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND RESIDENCE(PERCENTAGE)
Material used2002/20032005/2006
RuralUrbanUgandaRuralUrbanUganda
Roof
Iron sheets58.686.463.355.982.760.6
thatched40.98.235.443.214.238.2
other roof0.55.51.30.93.11.3
Wall
Brick45.377.450.74879.253.4
Mud and poles51.717.345.847.217.242
Other wall3.15.33.54.83.64.6
Floor
Earth83.127.273.582.829.673.5
Cement15.266.92416.568.625.6
Others floor25.92.50.81.81
Total100100100100100100
Source: UNHS 2005/06. Includes flats, uniforms, garage and boys quarters
Table 5.13.DISTRIBUTION OF DWELLING TYPES (PERCENTAGE)
TypeKampalaCentralEasternNorthernWesternUganda
Detached31.273.857.427.884.260.5
Huts02.730.767.73.422
Tenants64.322.2102.79.215.2
Others4.51.31.91.73.22.2
Total100100100100100100
Source: UNHS 2005/06

331. Table 5.13 gives the housing tenure in Uganda by region. On the whole 22 per cent of Ugandans reside in huts. This is partly attributed to low levels of income and other socio-economic factors.

332. The Uganda National Household Survey 2005/06 indicates that more than 50 per cent of all households in Uganda occupy one roomed houses. Almost three quarters of households in Kampala have one room for sleeping. The Northern and Eastern regions have the highest average number of people (4 people) per sleeping room while other regions have about 3 people. This congestion is not recommended for health reasons (Table 5.14).

Table 5.14.DISTRIBUTION OF HOUSEHOLDS BY NUMBER OF ROOMS USED FOR SLEEPING AND AVERAGE NUMBER OF PEOPLE PER ROOM BY REGION(PERCENTAGE)
Number of RoomsKampalaCentralEasternNorthernWesternUganda
One73.650.958.180.136.556.3
Two13.024.420.713.230.122.0
More Than One13.524.721.26.833.421.8
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Average No. of People per room3.13.13.74.02.93.4
Source: UNHS 2005/06

333. Uganda’s current housing stock is estimated at 5.28 million housing units with an average household size of 4.7 persons. The national occupancy density is estimated at 1.1 households per housing unit, giving a total national backlog of 612,000 units. According to UBOS 2006, the urban areas have a total housing stock of 700,000 units with a backlog of 153,000 units compared to the rural areas with a stock of 4,580,000 units and backlog of 458,000 units. The housing status by dwellings type, occupancy, and tenure is given in the Table 5.15.

Table 5.15.BASIC INDICATORS OF SETTLEMENTS IN UGANDA(PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL DWELLINGS)
IndicatorYear 2005/06
UrbanRuralTotal
Dwelling Types
Detached house31.165.265.2
Semi-detached house/flat18.415.115.1
Tenements/ Mizigo46.912.812.8
Others3.57.07.0
Occupancy Tenure
Owned29.986.178.3
Rental57.07.914.8
Status of Dwelling
Temporary26.078.571.1
Semi-permanent14.310.911.4
Permanent59.710.617.5
Housing Backlog273130
Source: UNHS 2005/06

334. The Real Estate40 sector has been growing at an average rate of 5.6 per cent per annum between 2004 and 2008. The sector on average accounts for 7.5 per cent of Uganda’s GDP. Its growth is attributed to rapid population growth, increase in disposable income, increase in foreign direct investment, and immigrant remittances. The relationship between GDP and growth in real estate business is illustrated in Table 5.16.

Table 5.16.CONTRIBUTION OF REAL ESTATE IN GDP
Year20042005200620072008
Total GDP at Market prices (Ug. Shs. Billions)13,46714,81415,85917,15618,582
Real Estate (Ug. Shs. Billions)1,0711,1301,1931,2611,332
Real Estate share in GDP %8.07.67.57.47.2
Growth Rate %5.55.65.75.6
Source: UBOS Statistical Abstract, 2009

335. Most houses are owned by men, although family houses are by law considered matrimonial property. This is partly due to the disparity in the incomes of men and women.

336. Access to mortgage finance is still very limited on account of limited collateral to present to the lending institutions. Figure 5.10 shows the patterns of ownership of 93,146 registered land titles mortgaged during the period 1980 to 2002 in Uganda.

Figure 5.10OWNERSHIP OF MORTGAGE TITLES IN UGANDA

Source: MISR Land Records database 1980-2002

5.8.2 Constraints to the Performance of Housing Sector

  • i) Weak, outdated and uncoordinated legal and policy framework presents critical challenges to the sector.
  • ii) Lack of access to and the high cost of finance constrain the sector. The requirements for accessing long-term mortgage finance are so stringent, and therefore, unaffordable by a large section of potential borrowers. The problem of high interest rates on housing loans (currently above 15 per cent) further limits the growth in the sector.
  • iii) Shortage of skilled manpower in the areas of architecture, quantity surveying, structural engineering. The few professionals in these fields are confined in Kampala and other major towns.
  • iv) High cost of building materials (cement, steel, timber, iron sheets) limits the sector’s growth. The cost comparison for a 50 Kg bag of cement is USD15 in Uganda and USD4 in the Middle East. The situation is worsened by the country’s failure to adopt a range of low cost technologies in construction.

5.8.3 Objectives, Strategies and Interventions

337. Objective 1 - Formulate a policy and regulatory framework to enhance development of the housing sector for the period 2010 to 2020.

  • Strategy 1: Implement a comprehensive national housing policy, law and investment plan.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Finalise the development of and implement the national housing policy by end of 2010.
  • ii) Develop and operationalise the estates management policy.
  • iii) Develop and implement the Landlord and Tenants Bill to streamline impediments to the quality and quantity of housing infrastructure.
  • iv) Develop and implement the Building Control Bill to facilitate the promotion of safety
  • v) Implement the condominium property law. Key on this programme will be sensitisation of the masses.

338. Objective 2 - Enhance accessibility to housing related inputs.

  • Strategy 1: Develop information, communication and education materials for public consumption.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Support documentation and dissemination of research findings to the public, universities and other related institutions.
  • ii) Hold annual exhibitions; undertake demonstration of housing and production of annual report on housing materials.

339. Objective 3 - Deepen public knowledge about housing and human settlements development.

  • Strategy 1: Develop IEC strategy to sensitise the public.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Maintain an up to date database on all housing related issues and produce annual reports on the status of housing.
  • ii) Develop IEC materials to sensitize the public.
  • iii) Construct demonstration houses.
  • iv) Monitor private sector construction and produce quarterly/annual housing bulletins.
  • Strategy 2: Promote rural housing development schemes.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Provide and improve access to appropriate and affordable construction technologies.
  • ii) Develop and implement a rural resettlement program to promote organized settlement and free land for commercial agriculture.

340. Objective 4 - Prevent slum development and upgrade the existing ones.

  • Strategy 1: Implement the national slum upgrading strategy and action plan.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Carry out a national slum profiling.
  • ii) Support the redevelopment of slums. During the first year of the plan, implementation of Kasoli slum upgrading scheme will commence and thereafter upgrade 3 Slums each year.
  • iii) Support the establishment of land banking through purchase of land from owners.
  • iv) Support the initiation of urban fund for capital investments.
  • v) Develop physical infrastructures in slums.
  • vi) Undertake site and service schemes. For the five year period, the sector will undertake five site and service schemes in 5 new towns annually.

341. Objective 5 - Promote and ensure availability and accessibility of affordable housing finance.

  • Strategy 1: Mobilize long-term affordable housing finance.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Support initiatives of financial institutions to mobilize long term finance for housing.
  • ii) Develop initiatives towards lowering the interest rates on mortgages.
  • iii) Promote formation and development of housing cooperatives and pro-housing saving groups to avail funds for housing.
  • iv) Develop mechanisms for mobilizing pension schemes and insurance deposits to support housing financing.
  • v) Implement the Public servants’ loan scheme to facilitate acquisition or construction of houses by public servants.

342. Objective 6 - Develop a well planned and managed construction of public and private housing estates.

  • Strategy 1: Provide technical support to Government, public and private sector on housing.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Regulate the practice of professionals in the sector through monitoring and supervision in their activities.
  • ii) Supervise public buildings construction and maintenance.
  • iii) Generate fifty prototype plans in every quarter for public consumption.
  • iv) Build capacity to resolve housing related disputes. Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) committees will be set up and related guidelines produced.
  • v) Develop institutional structures at LG level to address staffing requirements
  • Strategy 2: Provide technical support to earthquake and other disaster prone areas.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Develop appropriate construction technologies to withstand different types of disasters.
  • ii) Undertake demonstration housing in disaster prone areas and disseminate research findings.
  • iii) Train trainers in disaster resistant building technologies.
  • iv) Support IDP resettlement housing scheme by designing and implementing house development programs.
  • v) Carry out demonstration of resettlement appropriate technology in construction.

CHAPTER 6 COMPLEMENTARY SECTORS

6.1 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

6.1.1 Situational Analysis

343. Achieving socio-economic transformation requires continuous improvement in the way we produce and deliver goods and services within the economy. This can be realized through accelerated use of applied technology, research and innovation. Currently, research and development is mainly confined to institutions such as universities, colleges, vocational institutes and Government research centres with limited applicability to production and delivery of services. It is also worth noting that adaptability of the little available applied science and technology is slow in both public and private sectors.

344. Globally, a country’s efforts in this direction are measured against indicators such as: researcher per workforce, R&D personnel per labour force, expenditure on STI as a percentage of GDP, number of publication in scientific journals, number of scientific patents per year, exports with high technology content to total manufactured exports and the composite index, known as the overall technology achievement index.

345. Uganda currently has only one researcher per a thousand members of the workforce compared to over five researchers per a thousand in the developed world (UNCST, 2005); one R&D personnel41 per a thousand of the labour force compared to five to eighteen R&D personnel per 1,000 of the labour force in the OECD countries. The ratio of arts to S&T graduates is 5:1 compared to 1:1.5 in Malaysia.

346. The share of expenditure on R&D as a percentage of GDP is 0.3 per cent compared to the African Union target of 1 per cent.

347. Only 91 scientific publications were produced in internationally recognized scientific journals in 2001 compared to 10,000 in Israel. However, world-class discoveries have been made in HIV/AIDS prevention and vaccine trials, cassava mosaic eradication, and development of clonal coffee. According to a UNCST survey, only 40 patents have so far been granted for local inventions and usually less than 3 patent applications were submitted in any given year by 2004. In addition, out of the total recorded applications for industrial property rights, 75 per cent were owned by foreign enterprises suggesting low local innovation (WIPO, 2005). Furthermore, according to the Technology Achievement Index (TAI42), Uganda is ranked in the dynamic adopter category with a TAI of 0.24 where the range is 0.05-0.543. However, in order to improve her competitiveness, the country should advance its technological levels to at least 0.35 in the next five years.

348. Another related indicator in this regard is the number of trademarks registered. As of 2004, a total of 26.189 trademarks were registered with only one-third being local.

349. With respect to innovation, only 57 per cent44 of the firms were found to have introduced at least a new product or service or improved on an existing one in the market in 2005. Most of the products/processes were from firms engaged in agricultural primary production and agro-processing.

350. In recognition of the strategic role of STI in national development, Government has over the years initiated efforts to promote a suitable environment for STI to thrive. These efforts have taken the form of legal, institutional and administrative reforms to facilitate research and development, technology transfer and human capital development. They also include adoption of the National Biotechnology and Bio-safety Policy in April 2008; formulation of Research Registration and Clearance Policy and Guidelines; National Guidelines for Research involving Humans and Research Participants in 2007. Others are: enactment of the Agricultural Research Policy and Act in 2003 and 2005, respectively; amendment of the Copyright Law in 2006; Patents Act in 2002; formulation of regulations for access to genetic resources and benefit sharing in 2006; and the formulation of the National Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Policy (2009) in an effort to integrate STI in the national socio-economic development process.

351. Beyond legal, institutional and administrative efforts, very little has been done regarding implementation of the national STI agenda.

6.1.2 Constraints to Performance of the Science and Technology, Innovation Sector

  • i) Inadequate focus on research and development by both private and public actors.
  • ii) Inadequate financing for research and development and STI aspects in general.
  • iii) Inappropriate formal and informal education and training which limits affinity for R&D and innovation.
  • iv) Weak collaboration mechanisms between planners, research institutions, industry, and academia.
  • v) Inadequate personnel in product innovation and services.
  • vi) Lack of venture capital to support researchers and innovators.
  • vii) Slow adoption of new technologies due to ignorance and apathy.
  • viii) Lack of incentives to promote private research and development
  • ix) Inadequate capacity to deliver requisite skills and competences necessary to produce innovative technology technicians and engineers. The training institutions lack the necessary tools, plants, machinery and equipment for meaningful practical training.

6.1.3 Objectives, Strategies and Interventions

352. Objective 1 - Promote and accelerate the use of research, innovation and applied technology.

  • Strategy 1: Scale up the adaptability of the new and available science knowledge and technologies.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Establish Science and Technology (S&T) training centres in the formal and informal sectors in low and high level technology applications. Over the NDP period, ten (10) S&T training centres will be established to equip target groups with basic and vocational S&T skills. The intervention is intended to promote technology adaptation and innovation and demystify application of S&T.
  • ii) Establish and maintain Science Park and Technology Incubation Centres (SPTIC). Four (4) SPICS centres are planned to provide controlled practical experience and further research for the best young science graduates.
  • iii) Facilitate and encourage S&T innovation through protection and use of intellectual property rights (IPR).
  • iv) Increase the applied content in science curricula at pre-primary, primary, secondary and tertiary levels. The intervention will be aimed at producing more practically oriented S&T graduates from primary to tertiary level.
  • Strategy 2: Improve the technical capacity of the research and development institutions.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Fund infrastructural development in R&D institutions. Infrastructure will be established, rehabilitated and upgraded to provide research facilities and environments in key institutions in various sectors.
  • ii) Develop and implement mechanisms for collaborative research at national, regional and international levels. Local and international collaborative frameworks/mechanisms between institutions, sectors and countries will be established / strengthened.
  • iii) Fund acquisition of input materials in R&D institutions. Resources will be provided to enable continuity and increase in R&D input materials for the research institutions.
  • iv) Increase public spending on R&D. A national science and technology fund will be put in place to support R&D.
  • Strategy 3: Enhance the STI human resource capacity in the country both in Government and the private sector.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Provide incentives and support to the private sector to make effective contribution in R& D. The support will aim at increasing the number of R & D products from the private sector.
  • ii) Improve the enrolment for science education and training in public and private schools, tertiary institutions and universities. The intervention will target to improve the ratio of arts to science graduates from 5:1 to 3:1.
  • iii) Design and implement early tailor-made STI outreach programmes for households and communities. The outreach programmes will target gender balance and different age groups.

353. Objective 2 - Enhance the level of collaboration between research institutions and the industrial sector to facilitate adaptability and use of STI.

  • Strategy 1: Strengthen collaboration between academic institutions and the general industry in research and development, innovation, financing and training.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Stimulate the evolution and growth of venture capital for R&D in the country. Commercialization of R&D products will be strengthened through venture capital.
  • ii) Support private companies to constantly upgrade their technologies and products through R&D for greater competitiveness and market penetration. The private companies will be technically and financially supported to upgrade technologies.
  • iii) Establish technology platforms involving academia/research institutions and the private sector/industry.

354. Objective 3 - Strengthen the policy, legal and institutional framework to support STI development.

  • Strategy 1: Implement the National Science, Technology and Innovation Policy.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Disseminate and implement the National Science, Technology and Innovation Policy.
  • ii) Review and harmonise policies and laws necessary for STI development. The policies and laws to be harmonised include; the National Biotechnology and Bio-safety Policy; the Research Registration and Clearance Policy; the Agricultural Research Policy and Act; the Copyright Law and Patents Act; and the National Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Policy.
  • Strategy 2: Strengthen the institutional mechanisms to support STI development.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Institutionalise a sector for Science and Technology and Innovation. In particular establish a Ministry of Science and Technology.
  • ii) Establish and effectively enforce an information system of STI codes and standards.
  • iii) Strengthen the certification and accreditation capabilities for services, products and companies.
  • iv) Establish a framework for identifying and addressing new and emerging issues in STI.
  • v) Establish the national science and technology fund.

6.2 TRANSPORT SECTOR

6.2.1 Situational Analysis

355. An efficient transport system is a prerequisite for economic and social transformation. The national transport system currently comprises of road, rail, air and water transport modes. Over 90 per cent of cargo freight and passengers in Uganda move by road. The road accounts for 96.5 per cent of the freight cargo whereas the rail accounts for only 3.5 per cent. In nominal terms, roads carry an estimated 5,500 million-tonne-km per year compared to 200 million-tonne km by rail, 0.03 million tonne-km by air and negligible freight by water transport. This is in contrast to India and China where the rail freight cargo accounts for over 90 per cent of the total freight cargo. As far as passenger traffic is concerned, roads account for an average of 95 per cent. In nominal terms, the road network carries an average of 40,000 million passenger-km per annum compared with 9 million passenger-km by air transport, 6 million passenger-km by water and none by rail.

356. Road Transport: The total national road network is estimated to be 78,100 km of which 4 per cent is paved. They are categorized as National Roads (20,800 km), District Roads (17,500 km), Urban Roads (4,800 km) and Community Access Roads (35,000 km). For national roads, 3,050km (15 per cent) were paved having increased from 2,200 km in 1996 to 2,650 km in 200345. All district and community access roads are not paved while a few urban roads are loosely paved. Dual carriageways account for only 20 km, mainly urban areas of Kampala and Jinja. It is worth noting that the community road network coverage is a proxy indicator of improvement of access to social services. Rehabilitation and maintenance of community roads has a positive impact on the poor and especially on women (MGSDS 2008).

357. The total annual flow of motorized traffic on national roads in 2003 was computed to be 3,756 million vehicles-kilometres, 78.6 per cent (2,951 million veh-kms) being motor vehicle and 21.4 per cent motor cycles traffic. A breakdown of motor vehicle traffic by vehicle type had cars accounting for 27.7 per cent of the traffic, light goods vehicles for 26.6 per cent, minibuses for 25.5 per cent, buses for only 2.0 per cent, single-unit trucks for 14.2 per cent, and multiple-unit trucks for 4.0 per cent. Approximately 48.3 per cent of total traffic is conveyed on only 8.3 per cent of the national road network and has an Annual Daily Traffic (ADT) flow of more than 2,500 which is beyond the limit for low volume traffic46. However within the 96km road network of Metropolitan Kampala, traffic flow has reached 10,000 ADT. Furthermore in four sections of Metropolitan Kampala road network totalling 22km has exceeded 20,000 ADT. This is in excess of the medium and high traffic limits for single lane as per international standards. The traffic count carried out in 2008, indicates that traffic volume in Metropolitan Kampala area has been increasing at 8 per cent per annum since 2001.

358. Another important measure of road traffic is the growth rate in vehicle population. The average annual growth rate over ten years (1997 to 2007) was 7.3 per cent for cars, 5.4 per cent for light goods vehicles, 11.4 per cent for minibuses, 4.8 per cent for buses, and 9.0 per cent for trucks. Average rate of increase for all these vehicle types was 6.3 per cent per annum from 1997 to 2002, 8.4 per cent from 2002 to 2007, and 7.3 per cent over the entire period. The annual growth of around 8 per cent is consistent with the results given by the traffic surveys. Based on the increase in the freight movements by truck on the national road network, the total annual freight movement47 increased from 3,000 to 5,500 million tonne-kms between the years 2003 to 2008.

359. An equally significant development within the roads sub-sector over the last decade is the increase in the unit cost of paved road construction. The cost of upgrading a kilo meter of gravel road to bitumen standard increased from USD 300,000 - 400,000 in 2000, to USD 700,000 - 900,000 in 2009. This represents a threefold increase within a ten year period. This is partly due to the high cost of inputs, weak private sector capacity and weaknesses in the procurement system. On the other hand, the growth rate in public financing for road construction and maintenance was more or less stagnant at USD 250 - 300 million over the period 2002 to 2007and only increased to USD 500 million between 2008 and 2009.

360. In the last five years, there have also been a number of significant reforms in the sub-sector. Most notable among these, has been the separation of roles and responsibilities with respect to policy formulation, road development and maintenance, regulation, and financing. This has resulted in the creation of the Uganda National Roads Authority (UNRA) which is responsible for development and maintenance of national roads. In addition, the Road Fund (RF), which serves as a pool for road maintenance funds, was created. Other interventions in the pipeline include the establishment of the autonomous Metropolitan Area Transport Authority (MATA) and a Multi Sectoral Transport Regulatory Authority (MTRA).

361. Rail Transport: The national total rail network by early 1990s was 1266km. This has however declined to only 321 km of functional rail network covering the main line from Malaba-Kampala route (251km), the Port Bell-Kampala link (9 km) and the Tororo-Mbale line (61km). As noted above, rail transport is not significantly exploited as compared to other modes of transport. The relatively low utilisation is largely attributed to three factors: insufficient managerial capacity, dilapidated network system and insufficient rolling stock. The major reason for the dilapidated state of the rail network has been low investment in its regular maintenance. Similarly, the insufficient rolling stock arises from the inadequate maintenance and the non replacement of the old rolling stock. Management of the rail network, which was vested under URC until November 2006, was largely characterized by weak human resource capacity coupled with political meddling. This problem emanated from failure to delineate the critical roles and responsibilities which culminated into weak regulation of both operations and infrastructure maintenance.

362. In a bid to address some of the above challenges, Government entered into a concession for operations and maintenance of the functional rail system to Rift Valley Railways (RVR) for 25 years from 2006 to 2032. It was expected that through this measure, the freight cargo conveyed on the rail network would increase and subsequently reduce the cost of doing business as well as wear and tear on the roads. Evidence however, shows that not only has this not been achieved but the situation has worsened. The volume of cargo conveyed on the rail network in 2005 was 185.6 million tonnes-kms but has since reduced to 128 million tonnes-kms in 200748.

363. Despite the above issues, the assets portfolio under URC remains strong, comprising significant chunks of prime land, mechanical workshops, goods and passenger shades as well as container terminals. With strategic renewed investment and management, these assets could catapult the rail transport to play a much more significant role within the national transport system.

364. Another critical development in the rail industry within the African context, is the recent adoption of a continental position on harmonization of the rail gauge to standard gauge of 1.435m. This is intended to increase continental connectivity; carriage capacity; and reduce the transit time of en-route goods and passengers. Accordingly, Uganda will need to upgrade and standardize its rail system from the current 1,000mm gauge to the 1,435mm gauge.

365. Air Transport: Uganda being land locked, air transport is critical for economic security and prosperity. This is because the country currently relies on the sea route to Mombasa for international trade. Besides, air transport is playing an increasing role in the promotion of tourism and in regional integration.

366. Over the period 1997 to 2007, total air passenger and cargo traffic increased by 102 per cent and 137 per cent, respectively49. Passenger traffic is overwhelmingly dominated by international passengers. In 2007, international passengers accounted for 97 per cent of total passenger traffic. The percentage is even higher for international cargo traffic which virtually accounted for all total cargo traffic in 2007. International passenger traffic stagnated between 1997 and 2002, but had a positive growth trend from 2002 to 2007 at an average of 15.9 per cent per annum. In contrast, domestic traffic had a positive trend from1997 to 2003, before steadily declining at an average annual rate of 12.5 per cent to its lowest level during the ten year period (1997 to 2007).

367. In terms of air transport infrastructure, Entebbe International Airport is currently the only functional exit point. Other five upcountry airports namely: Arua, Soroti, Pakuba, Kidepo and Kasese have been designated as exit points. There are 60 licensed airfields with 30 currently in use and 19 having regular services.

368. Water Transport: 18 per cent of Uganda’s surface area consists of lakes, rivers or swamps. The principal lake and river system includes Lake Victoria, Lake Kyoga, Lake Albert and Lake George, together with River Kagera, the Victoria Nile and the Albert Nile. Currently, both motorized and non motorized vessels ply the above lakes and rivers. Some water routes are served by wagon ferries while others are served by road bridge vehicle ferries. The wagon ferry routes are Port Bell-Mwanza and Port Bell-Kisumu which also connect to the rail network. There are seven bridge vehicles ferries including three on Lake Victoria, two on Victoria Nile, one on Lake Albert and one on Albert Nile.

369. None of the Uganda URC Wagon ferries are functional following the sinking of MV Kabalega and the grounding of two remaining Wagon ferries from service due to maintenance and insurance constraints. The wagon ferry routes of Port Bell -Mwanza and Port Bell-Kisumu have therefore remained without any national carrier on them.

370. Apart from the wagon and road bridge ferries, the only formal service is a new ferry, the MV Kalangala which plies between Nakiwogo near Entebbe and Lutoboka in the Ssese Islands. This service has been contracted out to a private operator.

371. Overall navigation of Uganda water bodies remains risky. This is largely because there have never been any hydrographical surveys to determine the navigation routes, except those conducted on Lake Victoria and the lake charted way, in 1901. The charts on Lake Victoria are also too old to be relied upon for navigation purposes and there are no navigation aids installed. The sub-sector is also characterized by disjointed and obsolete laws, regulations and standards which require immediate review and harmonization.

6.2.2 Constraints to the Performance of the Transport Sector

  • i) Inadequate supply and high cost of construction materials which increase the unit cost of construction.
  • ii) Large capital requirements limiting investment in rail, marine and air transport.
  • iii) Weak legal and regulatory framework characterised by absence of standards and codes and weak compliance resulting in shoddy work.
  • iv) Limited financing options such as infrastructure bonds.
  • v) Weak local private sector players (contractors, transporters and consultants) with inadequate technical and financial capacity which affects service delivery.
  • vi) Long gestation period from conception to commissioning of infrastructure projects leading to high cost of finance and delays in investment.
  • vii) Inadequate specialized skilled human resource including: material engineers, traffic engineers, geo-engineers and surveyors among others.
  • viii) Inappropriate institutional set-up that does not separate the roles of policy formulation, planning, implementation and regulation.
  • ix) Poor physical planning, which leads to high compensation costs, complex designs, delayed implementation of projects and high investment costs.
  • x) Lengthy and expensive procurement system which increases the cost of doing business.
  • ix) Over reliance on road transport system as opposed to rail, marine and air transport. This limits the transportation of bulk goods and subsequently increases cost of doing business.

6.2.3 Objectives, Strategies and Interventions

372. 1. Objective 1 - Improve the stock and quality of road infrastructure, transport and traffic management.

  • Strategy 1: Upgrade specific national roads from gravel to class I and II bitumen standard.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Increase the percentage level of the paved national roads from 15 per cent (3,050km) to 21 per cent (4,105km) by 2015.
  • ii) Reconstruct sections of national roads.
  • iii) Rehabilitate sections of national roads.
  • iv) Dualling of specific sections of national roads.
  • Strategy 2: Improve the condition of national roads network from the current 60 percent in fair to good condition to 85 per cent.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Maintain the 20,000km national roads in good condition
  • ii) Enforce axial load control and install an automated system
  • iii) Increase road safety through specific road improvements.
  • iv) Upgrade specific district roads to national roads.
  • v) Procure and operationalise additional road vehicle ferries.
  • Strategy 3: Develop and maintain selected strategic roads for tourism, minerals, oil and gas and industry.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Construct and maintain strategic roads leading to major tourism sites.
  • ii) Construct and maintain strategic roads leading to major mining areas.
  • iii) Construct and maintain strategic roads leading to major oil and gas exploitation areas.
  • iv) Construct and maintain strategic roads leading to major rural and urban industrial areas.
  • Strategy 4: Upgrade, rehabilitate and maintain district, urban and community access roads.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) District roads: Rehabilitate 11,067 km, including 10,095 km with low cost sealing (LCS); undertake periodic maintenance on 4,500 km each year; and Place 21,513 km under routine maintenance.
  • ii) Urban roads: Rehabilitate and apply low-cost seals to 2,550 km; undertake periodic maintenance on 300 km each year; Place 3,140 km under routine maintenance; install street lighting and construct side pavements over 486 km.
  • iii) Improve 1,000 km of community access roads each year to access level II.

373. Objective 2 - Improve the traffic flow within the Greater Kampala Metropolitan Area.

  • Strategy 1: Improve transport infrastructure, connectivity, safety, and modernize the public transport system.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Construct Dual Carriageway with Railway Viaduct (4.74 km)
  • i) Construct and maintain Other Dual Carriageways (122.85 km)
  • i) Construct and maintain Single Carriageway (572.93 km)
  • i) Improve transport safety by carrying out junction Improvements on 62 locations, constructing railway Crossings at 27 locations; and constructing Pedestrian Pavements and Crossings (1,053 km)
  • Strategy 2: Modernize the public transport system.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Implement the Kampala Rapid Bus Transport System (RBTS).

374. Objective 3 - Increase the volume of passenger and freight cargo conveyed on the rail network.

  • Strategy 1 : Rehabilitate the existing rail network and increase the haulage capacity, and undertake construction of the standard gauge rail.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Reconstruct Kampala-Kasese railway line.
  • ii) Reconstruct Tororo-Pakwach railway line (2013 to 2016).
  • iii) Procure additional passenger and cargo locomotives.
  • iv) Construct a standard gauge rail system connecting Kampala to Malaba with future connectivity to other parts of the country.
  • v) Overhaul and revitalize the operations of the national rail system to increase haulage on the existing rail system.

375. Objective 4 - Increase the volume of passenger and cargo traffic by air transport.

  • Strategy 1: Increase international, regional and domestic air flight routes.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Upgrade Entebbe airport to class A standards.
  • ii) Complete the on-going upgrade of Arua airfield and upgrade Kasese, Soroti, Pakuba and Kidepo airfields to exit ports.
  • iii) Modernize and expand the meteorological services’ infrastructure.
  • iv) Revise existing PPP arrangements to allow other players on regional flight routes to and from Entebbe besides air Uganda.
  • v) Enter into joint ventures between Government and private actors to increase the domestic flights to various parts of the country.
  • vi) Acquire land and gazette future airfields.

376. Objective 5 - Increase the volume of passenger traffic and cargo freight by marine transport.

  • Strategy 1: Increase navigable routes and improve marine transport infrastructure.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Conduct hydrographic surveys to map navigable routes on Lake Victoria.
  • ii) Rehabilitate the two Ugandan wagon ferries and replace the MV Kabalega.
  • iii) Rehabilitate port infrastructure at Port Bell, Jinja and Butiaba.

377. Objective 6 - Increase efficiency and improve effectiveness in service delivery of transport infrastructure and provision of transport services.

  • Strategy 1: Strengthen the policy, legal and regulatory framework and coordination amongst stakeholders in the sector
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Formulate and implement a National Transport Policy and Master Plan.
  • ii) Formulate and implement the axial load policy.
  • iii) Formulate and implement national transport standards.
  • iv) Review the procurement process for public works with a view to shortening the period and making the process cheaper.
  • v) Expedite the formulation of national PPP policy to allow more private investment in the sector.
  • vi) Strengthen the coordination mechanisms within the sector and establish a national transport databank.
  • vii) Mainstream cross-cutting issues in the transport sector.
  • viii) Improve transport regulation by strengthening the Transport Licensing Board
  • ix) Promote safety within the transport sector
  • Strategy 2: Strengthen the institutional and human resource capacity.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Separate the institutional roles of policy and planning, implementation, and regulation.
  • ii) Create a separate agency to manage transport infrastructure development and management for the Greater Kampala Metropolitan Area.
  • iii) Create a separate administrative unit in MoWT to handle transport management.
  • iv) Reform the rail sub sector to separate roles of commercial operations, infrastructure development and maintenance, and regulation.
  • v) Survey and acquire land titles for transport projects in future to avoid large amount of compensations.
  • vi) Improve the skills and numbers of technical staff in relevant public institutions in the transport sector.
  • vii) Initiate alternative financing options for large infrastructure projects.
  • viii) Improve coordination of institutional planning through reforming sector working groups to incorporate key sectors affected and those that contribute to the transport sector.

378. Objective 7 - Strengthen the national construction Industry

  • Strategy 1: Improve the policy, legal and regulatory framework for construction industry
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Finalize the National Construction Policy and operationalise it
  • ii) Review the national construction standards and disseminate them effectively
  • iii) Build the capacity for the national construction industry
  • iv) Expedite the formulation and enactment of the building laws
  • v) Formulate and disseminate regulation and guidelines
  • vi) Strengthen the enforcement mechanisms of approval of plans, quality assurance and inspection in the building industry
  • vii) Promote certification and adherence to building code
  • Strategy 2: Build the capacity of the national construction industry
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Initiate and support leasing mechanism for contractors.
  • ii) Ensure availability of technical data for planning, design, construction and maintenance purposes
  • iii) Undertake training for all professionals in the sector and equip them with up to date practices in planning, design, construction and maintenance
  • iv) Provide regular technical advise to the sector
  • v) Build the capacity for the national construction industry
  • vi) Expedite the formulation and enactment of the building laws
  • vii) Formulate and disseminate regulation and guidelines
  • viii) Strengthen the enforcement mechanisms of approval of plans, quality assurance and inspection in the building industry
  • ix) Promote certification and adherence to building code

6.3 ENERGY SECTOR

6.3.1 Situational Analysis

379. Limited access and use of energy significantly slows down economic and social-transformation. The current pattern of national energy exploitation and consumption reflects that the country is still in infancy stages of energy application in production processes. The exploitation pattern is such that biomass accounts for 92 per cent of total energy consumed while fossil fuels account for 7 per cent and electricity only 1 per cent. Most of the biomass is woody biomass energy, which is consumed in the form of charcoal and firewood. This exploitation pattern is not sustainable.

380. Energy consumption pattern is such that residential related activities account for 70.3 per cent of the total. The rest is accounted for by commercial use (13.6 per cent), Industrial use (10.7 per cent), transport use (5 per cent) and other uses (0.4 per cent). Most of the energy consumed for residential activities is wood biomass energy. Compared with the consumption pattern in middle income countries, these indicators remain far below the average.

381. The above exploitation pattern is not sustainable because it is heavily reliant on non-renewable sources of energy. The major renewable source of energy currently in use is hydropower. Production is both by public and private actors from large and small hydro power plants.

382. Uganda has an estimated power potential of over 5,300MW, comprising 2200 potential from hydropower, 1,650 MW from biomass, 200MW from solar power, 450MW from geothermal and 800MW from peat (MEMD 2007). The installed power generation capacity is 595.84MW. This includes hydropower, biomass and thermal power.. For hydropower, generation is from both large and mini hydropower plants. The large hydropower generation accounts for 380MW of which 180MW is from Nalubaale and 200MW from Kiira. The mini hydropower plants account for 28.84MW50. The cogeneration contributes to the grid 17MW from biomass from by Kakira sugar factory (12MW) and Kinyara sugar factory (5MW).. In addition, thermal generation which accounts for 170MW are generated from Namanve, Kiira, Tororo and Mutundwe thermal plants.

383. The current hydropower generation is between 140-180MW despite the installed capacity. Among the major factors behind the shortfall are prolonged drought and low water levels on Lake Victoria. Besides the shortfall in power generation, the sector is also faced with system losses of about 40 per cent. These are technical and commercial51 in nature with each accounting for about 50 per cent of the losses. This translates not only into a reduction in access to and use of power but also a waste of public resources.

384. Table Showing Power potential, installed capacity and actual generation of the Power connected to the National Grid

385. Installed capacity is expected to rise to about 802MW in 2011 with the full commissioning of the 3rd large hydropower plant currently under construction52 and various mini hydropower plants Accordingly, Government is undertaking a number of energy efficiency measures. These include energy audits to establish areas of improvements in energy use53, refurbishment of the grid network, installation of prepaid meters and other actions to curb illegal use of electricity. The measure is expected to reduce energy demand by 20MW.

386. Beyond hydropower generation, improving access and use also requires increasing both the geographical coverage of the grid and the number of households connected to it. As far as geographical coverage is concerned, the transmission network currently consists of 1,100 km of 132 kV and 54 Kms of 66 kV network. Domestic connections to the grid on the other hand increased from 237,830 in 2004 to 276,255 in 2008. Commercial consumers decreased from 23,231 in 2004 to 20,484 in 2008 while industrial consumers decreased from 733 in 2004 to 159 in 2008.

387. With regard to hydropower consumption, the pattern as of 2008 was as follows: 29.3 per cent for residential activities; 13.2 per cent for commercial and 57.5 per cent for industrial. Access to the grid however remains very low due to limited national power grid coverage and low generation capacity. In terms of Rural -Urban divide, only 6 per cent of the household in the rural areas have access to grid power as compared to 40 per cent of urban households. While access is higher in urban areas (40 per cent) a significant proportion of households still rely on non-renewable energy sources. This is partly due to the prevailing high power tariffs despite a Government subsidy of Ug. Shs 92 billion per year. In addition to local consumption, Uganda also exports grid power as a source of foreign exchange earnings with 10.1 MW and 6 MW destined for Tanzania and Kenya respectively.

6.3.2 Constraints to the performance of the Energy Sector

  • i) Low lake water levels, arising from poor management of the catchments and the low level of regional cooperation in the management of shared water resources.
  • ii) Limited institutional capacity of water resource institutions in terms of planning, coordination, monitoring and regulation.
  • iii) Limited skilled human resource in water resources management.
  • iv) Weak regulation and enforcement.
  • v) Short term and uncoordinated institutional planning.
  • vi) Weak private sector which is required to play an increasing role in the energy sector.
  • vii) High investment capital and limited financing options for energy projects.
  • viii) Poor regulation of public-private partnerships.
  • ix) Lack of implementation of national land use policy that has led to haphazard land utilisation including rapid destruction of tree cover.
  • x) High power losses (commercial and technical losses).
  • xi) High power tariffs.
  • xii) Limited power transmission and distribution network which limits access to power.
  • xiii) Limited generation capacity.

6.3.3 Objectives, Strategies and Interventions

388. Objective 1 - Increase power generation capacity and transmission infrastructure

  • Strategy 1: Increase power generation capacity from large hydropower plants and thermal power plants through public and private investments
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Complete Bujagali hydropower dam construction. This is expected to Increase power generation capacity by 250 MW.
  • ii) Construct Karuma hydropower plant to generate 550 - 700MW.
  • iii) Construct Isimba hydro power dam to generate approximately 100MW.
  • iv) Build a thermal power Plant (50-80MW) to utilise Uganda’s oil resources
  • v) Undertake a feasibility study of Ayago power plant and commence construction
  • Strategy 2: Develop small hydro power plants
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Construct Muzizi, Kikagati, Nshongyenzi and Waki mini hydro power projects. This will increase generation capacity by 75MW.
  • ii) Complete the construction of Mpanga, Nsheruka and Nyagak.

389. Objective 2: Build new transmission lines to evacuate new generation plants and extend to improve power service delivery to different areas of the country.

  • Strategy 1 : Expand the transmission grid from the current 1300 km to 2750 km and increase transmission voltage from the current 132KV to cover 220KV and 400KV.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Build new transmission lines to evacuate generation plants. These evacuation lines will include : Nkenda-Mputa-Hoima (132KV, 254km), Karuma-Kawanda (400KV, 264km), Karuma-olwinyo (132KV, 60km), and Karuma -Lira (132KV, 80km) and Isimba interconnection (132KV, 40km)
  • ii) Extend the transmission grid to improve power service delivery to different areas of the country: New grid extension lines to be built to improve power delivery are : Kawanda-Masaka (220KV, 142km), Opuyo-Moroto (132KV, 200km), Tororo-Opuyo-Lira upgarade (132KV, 260km), and Mbarara-Nkenda (132KV, 160km)
  • iii) Build several substations (Kawanda 400KV, Masaka 220/132kv, Hoima 132/33KV, Mputa 132/33KV, Fortportal 132/33KV, Moroto, 132/33KV and Olwinyo 132/33KV) to allow distribution and rural electrification to take off.

390. Objective 3 - Accelerate rural electrification

  • Strategy 1: Expand the grid to the rural areas.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Extend the grid to District Headquarters; maximize connection of major economic centres and social service facilities and Implement community schemes.
  • ii) Provide subsidies to independent power producers operating the mini grids.

391. Objective 4 - Promote Energy Efficiency.

  • Strategy 1: Reduce power losses from 40 per cent to 16 per cent.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Reduce commercial power losses through introduction of prepaid meters and increased monitoring among others.
  • ii) Reduce technical power losses mainly through revamping the transmission and distribution system.
  • iii) Acquire the necessary information and data to attract and facilitate private sector participation and capital inflow.
  • iv) Review policy, legal and institutional frameworks to attract more private investment into the power sector. This will among others, improve coordination of institutional planning to incorporate key sectors affected and those that contribute to the energy sector.

392. Objective 5 - Strengthen the policy, legal and institutional framework.

  • Strategy 1: Regulate and Monitor Energy Policies/Plans.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Develop policies to address gaps (atomic energy, thermal power from locally produced petroleum products, biomass, and energy efficiency).
  • ii) Review the existing policies and Acts (Energy Policy, Renewable Policy, and Electricity Act).
  • iii) Formulate a PPP framework to allow more private investment in the energy sector.

393. Objective 6 - Promote Renewable Energy.

  • Strategy 2: Promote and facilitate the use of Renewable Energy Technologies (biomass, solar, gasification technologies and stoves) at household and institutional level.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Develop an institutional framework for gasification technology.
  • ii) Install demonstration gasifiers in forest management areas.
  • iii) Provide subsidies for solar PV systems.

394. Objective 7 - Promote and regulate peaceful application of atomic energy.

  • Strategy 3: Carry out specialized training of human resource in nuclear energy.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Train technical officers in nuclear technology especially in power generation.
  • ii) Seek authorization of atomic energy practices with proper monitoring.

6.4 WATER FOR PRODUCTION

6.4.1 Situational Analysis

395. Water is one of the vital inputs in production processes. Delivery of reliable and sufficient water to production units is a key economic infrastructural support that Government has to undertake in order to stimulate production, especially in the agricultural, tourism and industrial sectors. The major uses of water for production in the country currently include crop irrigation, fish rearing, livestock farming, industrial processing and wildlife conservation.

396. In the case of crop farming which heavily depends on the amount of rainfall and its seasonal variations, increasing productivity requires steady supply of sufficient water. The same applies to livestock farming and fish rearing. Crop irrigation, livestock watering and water impounding serve to ensure the steady supply of water for these purposes. With respect to wildlife conservation, providing water reservoirs creates a suitable habitat for particular wildlife species which are an asset to the tourism industry. In the context of industry, water serves both as an ingredient and a processing agent.

397. Crop Irrigation: Currently, there are a number of public, private and public-private owned irrigation schemes covering a total of 14,418 hectares. However, this represents only 3.6 per cent of the total national irrigation potential of 400,000 hectares. Due to infrastructure deterioration and poor operation and maintenance, the service area of these schemes has decreased over the past eight years.

398. Livestock Farming: In regard to this area, emphasis has been on construction of dams and valley tanks. The initial efforts were directed to Karamoja region mainly due to the high level of nomadic pastoralism and associated problems. Seven dams were constructed in this region between 1997 and 2009 namely Kailong dam in Kotido, Kawomeri dam and Kulodwong dam in Abim, Kobebe dam and Arechet dam in Moroto, Longoromit dam in Kaabong. Dams constructed in other parts of the country include: Kakinga in Sembabule, Mabira in Mbarara, Kigabaga in Kiruhura, Leye in Apac and Kodhukul in Kumi.

399. In addition, a number of valley tanks have been constructed in various areas within districts. These dams and tanks provide water to about 1,000,000 livestock. This is approximately 68 per cent of the total number of livestock in the cattle corridor and 28 per cent in the non cattle corridor.

400. Fish Rearing: Government has provided minimal infrastructural support for fish farming which is still in its infancy.

401. Industrial Processing and Wildlife Conservation: Water infrastructure support for rural industry and tourism has not yet taken effect and will therefore, be a major area of focus in this plan period.

6.4.2 Constraints to the Performance of the Water for Production

  • i) Lack of a framework for operation and maintenance of the water for production facilities.
  • ii) High operation and maintenance costs for irrigation which are not affordable by the majority of farmers.
  • iii) Limited implementation of zoning, specialisation and large scale commercial production.
  • iv) Limited investment financing from both private and public sectors.
  • v) Lack of collaborative and coordination mechanisms in planning, infrastructural development and financing between public and private sector institutions.
  • vi) Lack of knowledge and experience in adaptation of water harvesting techniques.
  • vii) Weak capacity for provision of critical expansion services for crop production, irrigation techniques and practices as well as marketing.
  • viii) Inadequate planning and coordination between water supply and water usage.
  • ix) Lack of a national irrigation strategy.
  • x) Lack of coordination among stakeholders (MWE, MAAIF, LGs, and MFPED, among others).

6.4.3 Objectives, Strategies and Interventions

402. Objective 1 - Increase acreage under irrigation from the current level of 14,418 hectares to 22,000 hectares.

  • Strategy 1: Develop public irrigation schemes.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Establish five new large irrigation schemes and ensure that they are functional through regular maintenance.
  • ii) Put in place and operationalise a management and maintenance system for the irrigation schemes.
  • Strategy 2: Promote micro-level irrigation.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Establish model micro-level irrigation schemes at Sub-county level. During the plan period, Government will establish a total of 50 model irrigation schemes mainly focusing on crop farming.
  • ii) Promote smallholder investment in micro-level irrigation schemes through facilitation of farmers to access micro-finance.
  • Strategy 3: Promote appropriate technology for household level irrigation.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Promote Research and Development (R&D) and support application of appropriate technology on pilot basis.
  • ii) Disseminate appropriate technologies by use of a designed dissemination strategy and effective Community mobilization.
  • Strategy 4: Build capacity of the private sector players to construct and maintain irrigation schemes.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Train private sector players in construction and maintenance of irrigation schemes. Government will provide training to 60 private sector players to build their technical capacity and enhance their level of involvement in constructing and maintaining irrigation schemes.
  • ii) Promote PPP in the construction of irrigation schemes by designing and operationalising a PPP framework for construction of irrigation schemes.
  • iii) Implement the framework for Operation and Maintenance (O&M) management of water for production facilities with the involvement of the private sector.
  • Strategy 5: Rehabilitate existing irrigation schemes.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Rehabilitate and maintain the functionality of the existing five irrigation schemes of Kibimba, Doho, Mubuku, Olweny and Agoro.

403. Objective 2 - Increase supply of water in the cattle corridor from the current 36 per cent to 50 per cent and those outside the cattle corridor from 21 per cent to 30 per cent.

  • Strategy 1: Construct valley dams and valley tanks and set up reliable O&M structures and systems.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Construct and maintain the functionality of 12 valley dams in the cattle corridor and 3 outside the cattle corridor with regional balance and production levels as key principles.
  • ii) Construct and maintain functionality of 135 valley tanks in the cattle corridor and 15 outside the corridor putting into consideration regional balance and the production levels.
  • iii) Appropriately equip a total of 150 valley dams and tanks to facilitate easy livestock watering.
  • iv) Build capacity through training of at least 150 private sector players to construct and maintain valley dams and tanks.
  • v) Develop and implement management systems for water for Production equipment.

404. Objective 3 - Strengthen management of water catchment areas around Water for production facilities.

  • Strategy 1: Manage water resources at catchment areas.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Gazette water catchment areas.
  • ii) Enforce water catchment area laws and regulations.
  • iii) Plant appropriate vegetation around water for production facilities.
  • Strategy 2: Build capacity for water resource management.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Train community user committees in water resource management to develop a pool of competent and functional community committees in management of water for production facilities.
  • ii) Support development of by-laws and ordinances to enable the proper management of water resources around water for production facilities.
  • iii) Support community mobilization, sensitization and information dissemination to enhance their participation in managing the water resources.

405. Objective 4 - Increase water supply systems for rural industries to facilitate agro-processing and other industrial activities.

  • Strategy 1: Provide water for production supply systems to key industrial areas.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Construct and maintain the functionality of 25 water supply systems to key rural industrial areas putting into consideration the principal of regional balance.
  • ii) Set up an appropriate operation and maintenance system.

406. Objective 5 - Increase water supply for multi-purpose use in water stressed areas of the country.

  • Strategy 1: Construct bulk water supply schemes.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Construct and maintain functionality of 3 Bulk water supply schemes for multipurpose use. Set up appropriate operation and maintenance system.

6.5 LAND MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION

6.5.1 Situational Analysis

407. Uganda covers a total surface area of approximately 241,038 square kilometres of which 18.2 per cent is water and 81.7 per cent is land. A total of 42 per cent of the available land is arable land although only 21 per cent is currently utilized, mostly in the southern parts of the country. Land is fairly distributed among households throughout the country with the average land holding being about 1.6 to 2.8 hectares in the South and 3.2 hectares in the North. There are four different forms of tenure namely: customary, freehold, leasehold and mailo.

408. The Land Act, 1998 recognizes the multiple land tenure systems as indicated in Table 6.1. A great part of the land in Uganda is held on customary rights and is usually subject to restrictions such as transfer outside the family and clan. The successions follow the native rules and certain family, clan or communal rights that have to be respected. Freehold land was given as a grant to the citizens of Uganda and existing institutions54 by the colonial masters before independence in 1962. Since independence, leasehold has been granted from public land vested in the Government which was represented by the Uganda Land Commission, until the promulgation of the new Constitution in 1995. Since then, this role has been taken over by the District Land Boards. Mailo is, in principle, a feudal land tenure system, originating from an agreement between the King of Buganda and the British Government in 1900. It is today treated more or less as freehold land tenure.

Table 6.1.DISTRIBUTION OF LAND TENURE SYSTEMS, 2002/03 (PERCENTAGE)
System of TenureUgandaCentralEasternNorthernWestern
Registered freehold mailo7.88.97.81.811.1
Unregistered freehold mailo35.778.311.96.633.6
Leasehold15.912.326.415.68.8
Customary40.60.453.776.146.6
Source: 2002/03 Uganda National Household Survey
Table 6.1a.POWER POTENTIAL AND INSTALLED CAPACITY
Type Of PowerPower PotentialInstalled Power CapacityActual Power GenerationRemarks
Hydro power2200 MW409 MW140-180MW180MW (Nalubaale HPP)
200MW (Kiira HPP)
28.84MW (Mini -HPP)
Biomass power Potential26MW (17MW connected to Grid)26MW (17MW connected to the Grid)Kakira (18MW) but to Grid 12MW



Kinyara (8MW) but to Grid 5MW
Solar PowerCapacity dependent on the design and technology
Geo Thermal power Potential450MWExploration and development underway in Kibiro and Katwe - Kikorongo.
PEAT power Potential800 MW
Thermal Power170 MW170MWNamanve (50MW), Mutundwe (50MW), Kiira (50MW) and Tororo (20MW)
Atomic EnergyStudies to be undertaken

409. The ambiguity of the different systems of land ownership complicate access to land especially for those that may want to use it as a factor of production. The majority of land owners in rural areas have focused more on land as their fundamental source of livelihood. They have continued to practice primitive and peasantry methods of production utilizing very small proportions of their land holdings.

410. The majority (95 per cent) of land owners do not have land titles to guarantee their security of tenure. The problem of accessing land titles is compounded by: bureaucracy, manual operations, corruption, low level of funding to the sector, legal and regulatory constraints, attitude, culture, squatters, historical issues, shortage of relevant skills such as land surveying and many other related problems.

411. The Land Act (1998) also provides for female inheritance rights over land, and requirements for spousal consent in all matters relating to land from which family derives subsistence. However, customary practice favours male inheritance of land so that women’s land rights tend to be limited to access while men enjoy ownership rights. Women’s minimal land ownership means they have limited decision making power over land use. Women often lack awareness about their legal land rights. In post-conflict areas these gender-related land issues are particularly acute. The situation is made worse given the fact that 70 per cent of women are employed in Agriculture and yet only 20 per cent of women own registered land. It has been established that there is an increase in women’s accessibility to land by 5 per cent, agriculture production would be boosted by 0.3 per cent every year55.

412. The supply of land is fixed but Uganda’s population continues to grow at a very high rate of 3.2 per cent per annum. The current population estimated at 30.7 million in 2009 is projected to rise to 38 million by 2015 thus causing a challenge to land distribution. Table 6.2 shows how the population density has been increasing between different population censuses.

Table 6.2.UGANDA’S POPULATION DENSITY
Years194819591969198019912002
Total Population (Millions)5.06.59.512.616.724.2
Population Density (km2)2533486485124
Source: UBOS Database 2004

413. This rapidly growing population density puts pressure on land resources and has therefore created serious socio-economic problems, including; land fragmentation, increasing land disputes, loss of forest cover and environmental degradation, poor agricultural yields, constraints in physical planning among others.

414. The number of districts increased from 56 to 80 between 2000 and 2008. This has created a need for district border demarcations, survey and planning of district headquarters. Furthermore, the discovery of oil in Albertine region has led to increased land transactions in the oil regions increased border disputes and consequently the demand for survey works. The trends in the outcomes of the Land Administration and Management sector are summarized in Table 6.3.

Table 6.3.TRENDS IN OUTCOMES IN THE LAND ADMINISTRATION AND MANAGEMENT SUB-SECTOR
Outcome Indicators2006/ 20072007/ 20082008/ 20092009/ 2010Target 2014/2015
% of International Boundaries Demarcated20552070
Certificates of Land Titles IssuedMailo (15,544)Mailo (16,000)Mailo (7500)Mailo (12000)Mailo (50000)
Leasehold (4,804)Leasehold (3,000)Leasehold (4500)Leasehold (5000)Leasehold (60000)
Freehold (565)Freehold (1,800)Freehold (3000)Freehold (8000)Freehold (150000)
Rehabilitation and Computerization of Land RegistryMailo (83,174)Mailo (124,382)Mailo (139,459)Mailo (185,000)

Leasehold (80,000)
Mailo (250,000)

Leasehold (200,000)

Freehold (80,000)
LIS Coverage of Districts000615
Digital Mapping Data Bases Produced910121535
District Thematic Maps Produced2754647082
No. of Plots Adjudicated, Demarcated and Surveyed Systematically2450785657750400,000
Cadastral Surveys Approved330020002500350010,000
Deed Plans for Titling Produced1620720042008000260,000
Districts Rendered Technical Support512102580
Training and Technical Capacity Undertaken456062120350
% Completion of Rehabilitation of Geodetic Network55010100
Number of Area Land Committees Trained1530163080
Number of District Land Boards Provided Technical Support1825374080
Number of Land Related Laws Reviewed and Submitted to Cabinet312314
Source: Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development (2006—2009)

6.5.2 Constraints to the Performances of Land Management Sector

  • i) The absence of a National Land Policy to guide review of the existing laws on land administration and management. For instance, although the Land Act, 1998 as amended in 2009, provides basic tenets of a land policy, several provisions do not conform to sections of other laws.
  • ii) Inadequate supply of skilled and experienced professionals including Land Surveyors, Valuation Surveyors and Land Economists.
  • iii) Inadequate capacity of the existing institutions of land management and administration at the National and Local Government levels. The decentralization system has created different centres of power in land administration. These centres lack the capacity to deliver services to the population effectively. The coordination mechanism has been severely affected by lack of standards and a central line of command and control at the national level. Poor enforcement of land use regulations remains a challenge.
  • iv) Obsolete equipment for survey works, mapping, physical planning, land registration and information management.
  • v) The low level of awareness on land issues, including land rights and obligations, therefore making some sections of the population vulnerable.
  • vi) Outdated information on land including cadastral maps, topographical maps, district maps. The National Atlas and other related maps have never been updated since the 1960s. By 2008, there were over 100 urban centres with no specific maps to guide their planning.
  • vii) Bureaucratic red tape in accessing land titles breeds corruption, delays and high transaction costs.
  • viii) The existing land law vests land ownership in the citizens of Uganda. In order to acquire any land for public use such as roads, open spaces and industrial parks, there has to be adequate compensation of the land owner. For instance, a number of Local Governments do not have adequate resources for this purpose. This affects the effectiveness of the Local Authorities and other Government institutions in service delivery. In addition, the existence of multiple tenure rights on land also affects access to land by would be potential developers.

6.5.3 Objectives, Strategies and Interventions

415. Objective 1 - Create an inclusive and pro-poor policy and legal framework for the land sector.

  • Strategy 1: Formulate the National Land Policy.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Finalize consultation and approval processes.
  • ii) Disseminate and implement the National Land Policy.
  • Strategy 2: Review and harmonize relevant legislations.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Review and harmonise existing laws.
  • ii) Formulate and implement regulations and guidelines.
  • Strategy 3: Formulate and implement a National Resettlement Policy.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Develop and implement a National Resettlement Policy (NRP) which lays down the eligibility criteria and guidelines for resettlement.
  • Strategy 4: Formulate and implement a Government Land Management Policy.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Develop and implement a Government Land Management Policy. This will provide a strong basis for deciding more systematically on how to bring such land to its best use as well as to redress past appropriations.
  • Strategy 5: Improve the land fund program.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Develop and implement a redistributive land reform program for comprehensive operationalisation of the land fund with a focus on poverty eradication and ensuring women ownership of Land.

416. Objective 2 - Establish and maintain transparent, accountable and easily accessible institutions and systems for decentralized delivery of land services.

  • Strategy 1: Strengthen coordination of the different institutions responsible for land administration and management.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Develop a sector wide legal, institutional and financial framework for implementation of land sector reforms at central and local government levels.
  • Strategy 2: Strengthen land, dispute and resolution institutions.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Develop and implement a strategy for Alternative Land Dispute Resolution.
  • ii) Institute a transparent, just and easily accessible legal, institutional and financial framework for alternative land dispute resolution.
  • Strategy 3: Resolve Land Conflicts in Northern Uganda and other parts of the country.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Develop and implement land disputes resolution programme for Northern Uganda. Gender sensitivity will be an integral part of the programme.
  • Strategy 4: Strengthen the Land Sensitization Secretariat at Central Government level.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Establish a coordination mechanism for provision of public information on land rights in all the institutions responsible for land management and administration both at central and local government level. A component to strengthen women’s awareness of their land rights will be included.
  • Strategy 5: Survey both International and District Boundaries.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Initiate and conduct Joint Technical and Boundary Commission dialogue for international boundaries.
  • ii) Initiate a technical/administrative forum for demarcation of district boundaries.
  • Strategy 6: Roll out the systematic adjudication, demarcation, survey and certification/registration of land programme.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Carry out a comprehensive assessment of the pilot Systematic Demarcation programme and develop a strategy for rolling out the program.

417. Objective 3 - Increase the stock and quality of human resources.

  • Strategy 1: Strengthen technical services of various institutions responsible for delivery of land services.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Review and implement the Training and Capacity Building Program for various central Government institutions responsible for delivery of land services.
  • ii) Review and implement the Training and Capacity Building Program for decentralized delivery of land services. In particular, focus will be on District Land Boards, Area Land Committees and Recorders.
  • iii) Recruit staff at national and district level, with at least two professionals to handle land matters in each district.

418. Objective 4 - Increase the level of awareness on land issues.

  • Strategy 1: Create awareness on land issues.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Review and implement an IEC strategy to promote awareness on land issues.

419. Objective 5 - Develop the requisite infrastructure for effective and efficient delivery of land services.

  • Strategy 1: Complete the rehabilitation and densification of the National Geodetic Network.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Design, modernize/rehabilitate the National Geodetic Network (NGN). This will increase the percentage of macro geodetic network. In order for Government to fully benefit from the GPS technology, densification of NGN is necessary.
  • Strategy 2: Re-establish the hydrographic survey capacity.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Develop and implement a program for delivery of Hydrographic Surveys.
  • ii) Recruit and train relevant human resource.
  • ii) Put up purpose-built facilities with functional designs to meet the requirements of modern survey and mapping survey delivery systems.
  • iv) Rehabilitate and reorganize the geodetic and survey data.
  • Strategy 3: Put up purpose built facilities with functional designs to meet requirements of modern survey and mapping service delivery system.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Renovate and construct DLOs, carry out Surveys and Mapping of HQs, LIS Centre, Storage and Archival Centre and School of Surveying and Land Management.

420. Objective 6 - Increase availability, accessibility, affordability, and use of land information for planning and implementing development programmes.

  • Strategy 1: Improve land data and information management.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Review and implement the Digital Mapping Programme which is critical for all forms of planning but most importantly physical planning.
  • Strategy 2: Establish and operationalise the Land Information System (LIS).
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Roll out and establish a transparent, decentralized, efficient and affordable GIS based National Land Information System. To this end, investments will be directed at revamping the recording system, revising the land maps and computerization of the land registries to reduce the amount of time taken in service delivery.

6.6 PHYSICAL PLANNING

6.6.1 Situational Analysis

421. Uganda has 112 gazetted towns56 of which 93 have up-to-date structure plans (Table 6.4). However, a big number of these towns have not translated the bulk of their Structure Plans into implementable detailed physical development plans. In addition, Uganda lacks a coherent rural land use plan. The country, therefore, continues to experience haphazard developments in both urban and rural areas.

Table 6.4.STATUS OF PHYSICAL PLANNING OF UGANDA’S TOWNS
City CouncilMunicipal CouncilsTown CouncilsAll gazetted towns
No. of gazetted towns011398112
No with up-to-date structure plans001193104
No Requiring Updating of existing Plan01020104
No without any comprehensive structure plan00000404
% of towns with up-to-date structure plans0859593
Source: Ministry of Lands, Housing & Urban Development, background paper for the NDP, 2009

422. Efforts have been taken to improve the situation, notably:

  • Planning of the first batch of 40 out of 143 Town Boards has commenced.
  • Review of the Kampala Structure Plan (1994) and preparation of the Greater Kampala Metropolitan Area physical development plan are ongoing and expected to be completed by 2012.
  • Most districts have now employed qualified Physical Planners. However, the structure provides for only one position of a District and Urban Physical Planner except Kampala City Council. The critical challenge is that none of the Local Governments has adequate facilities and budgets to oversee, monitor and evaluate the implementation of the available physical development plans hence the haphazard developments evident in most parts of the country. Many fragile ecosystems have continued to be tampered with due to either absence of the relevant land use plans or poor implementation of such plans where they exist. Water catchment areas, steep slopes and hill tops, natural forests and wetlands, among others, are daily being developed outside of the management principles of such fragile areas.
  • The National Land Use Policy was approved in 2007. The overall purpose of this policy is to achieve sustainable land utilisation in the country, including settlement, conservation, agriculture, and other economic activities. However, its dissemination and implementation have not been undertaken and as such the country continues to experience unplanned and uncontrolled land use development.
  • The Physical Planning Bill has been passed by Parliament. Once implemented, it will address issues of uncontrolled spatial developments.

6.6.2 Constraints to the Performance of Physical Planning Sector

  • i) Inconsistent laws: The applicable law (the Town and Country Planning Act, 1964) has provisions that are inconsistent with other laws such as the Local Government Act, 1997, the Land Act, 1998, the National Planning Authority Act, 2002, and other laws.
  • ii) Inadequate coordination: There is no clear mechanism for coordination among various institutions involved in physical planning. This problem is eminent between Urban and District Local Governments, and the Ministry responsible for physical planning and Local Government. Also, coordination among relevant MDAs is lacking.
  • iii) Inadequate financial resources for preparation and implementation of physical development plans.
  • iv) Inadequate human resources to formulate and implement physical development plans.
  • v) Negative attitude and perceptions as well as lack of goodwill to implement physical development plans.
  • vi) Lack of up-to-date planning information, including topographic maps, cadastre information and land tenure maps, among others.
  • vii) Lack of national physical planning standards, guidelines and regulations.

6.6.3 Objectives, Strategies and Interventions

423. Objective 1 - Increase the level of compliance to physical development plans by both private investors and Government projects (such as roads, dams, water supply schemes, irrigation schemes, housing, education and health infrastructure among others)

  • Strategy 1: Implement the new physical planning law.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Develop and disseminate comprehensive physical planning regulations, guidelines and standards.
  • ii) Carry out regular supervision, monitoring and inspection to ensure compliance with physical planning standards.
  • iii) Institute approval mechanism for public physical infrastructure projects.
  • iv) Produce a bi-annual State of Physical Planning Report.

424. Objective 2 - Put in place a national spatial development backbone to support orderly and sustainable urbanization, industrialization, services and infrastructural development.

  • Strategy 2: Formulate and implement national and regional physical development plans.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Develop and implement national physical development plan.
  • ii) Develop and implement regional physical development plans.
  • iii) Provide technical and financial support to LGs for physical planning.

425. Objective 3 - Improve capacity and efficiency for physical planning at all levels.

  • Strategy 1: Establish a land use (Physical Planning) database & computerize physical planning operations.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Establish and operationalize an appropriate institutional structure at the Local Government level.
  • ii) Train all Central Government physical planning staff in advanced Geographical Information System (GIS) skills.
  • iii) Roll out GIS training to all district and urban Local Governments to impart adequate GIS skills for all relevant Local Government technical staff.
  • iV) Establish a GIS centre and a national spatial database to adequately back up land use data repository and work stations for all trained Planners.
  • V) Support relevant security and law and order organs to build spatial databases linked (real time) to national spatial records of street layouts, utility maps, addresses, architectural plans, land use and ownership among others.

426. Objective 4 - Facilitate the participation of the marginalised groups in physical planning.

  • Strategy 1: Carry out national campaigns for planned physical (spatial) development.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Develop and implement an IEC strategy for Physical planning by end of 2010.
  • ii) Review the planning process to ensure increased physical plans implementation and public acceptance.
  • iii) Select and plan five model towns country wide using the newly developed participatory planning process.
  • iv) Measure and document economic benefits from planned developments in the five towns & elsewhere.

427. Objective 5 - Facilitate optimal utilization of land resources especially in areas with the highest economic potentials.

  • Strategy 1: Prepare physical development plans for areas with the highest economic potentials.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Develop and implement physical development plans for the Albertine Graben area.
  • ii) Develop and implement physical development plans for the Greater Kampala Metropolitan Area (GKMA).
  • iii) Develop a management framework to oversee planning and physical plan implementation within the metropolitan area.
  • iv) Develop and implement physical development plans for highly mineralized areas and establish a physical planning taskforce to implement the plans.
  • v) Prepare and implement model land use plans for northern Uganda, (preferably at sub county level) and establish a physical planning taskforce in the region.

6.7 URBAN DEVELOPMENT

6.7.1 Situational Analysis

428. Urbanization is when large numbers of people become permanently concentrated in relatively small areas, forming cities or towns. A country is considered to be urbanized when over 50 per cent of its population lives in the urban areas. Urban agglomeration improves productivity and promotes economic growth57.

429. Urban areas are dynamic and represent growing centres of industry, financial services, trade, education and other services. Urban people enjoy better incomes, a higher life expectancy and tend to maintain smaller families58. As they grow, urban areas become centres of entrepreneurship and innovation that attract talented and skilled workers. However, if not properly planned and controlled, urbanization can cause congestion, environmental degradation, housing shortages, and formation of informal settlements and slums.

430. Table 6.5 shows that Uganda’s urban population is increasing rapidly from less than 1 million in 1980 to 3 million persons in 2002, indicating a more than three-fold increase. At 12 per cent level of urbanization, Uganda is considered a rural economy as well as neighbouring Kenya and Tanzania that are 20 per cent and 22 per cent urbanized respectively. For the country to achieve faster socio-economic transformation there is need to raise the level of urbanization59.

Table 6.5.TRENDS IN URBAN POPULATION IN UGANDA 1980 - 2002
Census YearUrban Population (Millions)Total Population (Millions)Percentage of Population in Urban AreasUrban Growth Rate
19800.8412.66.7-
19911.6516.79.96.1
20023.0024.212.35.1
Source: UBOS, 2002 Population and Housing Census, 2005

431. The level of urbanization is still very low in most of the regions in Uganda ranging between 7 per cent and 10 per cent. Kampala city is 100 per cent urban with a population of 1.2 million and is the largest urban centre, followed by Gulu municipality with a population of 0.1 million (UBOS 2005).

432. However, the emerging rapid increase in the urban population is not matched with growth and development in basic physical infrastructure, housing, social amenities, management and skills. This has led to overcrowding, traffic congestion, growth of slums and informal settlements, dilapidated housing and poor sanitation.

433. Most urban dwellers do not have stable sources of income. On the whole, poverty has been decreasing both in the rural and urban areas (Table 6.6).

Table 6.6.POVERTY AND INEQUALITY BY SPATIAL SUBGROUP, 1992 TO 2003
LevelPoverty HeadcountGini Index of Inequality
1992/ 199319971999/ 20002002/ 20032005/ 20061992/ 199319971999/ 20002002/ 20032005/ 2006
National55.74533.837.731.10.360.350.40.430.408
Rural59.749.237.441.734.20.330.310.330.360.363
Urban27.816.79.612.213.70.40.350.430.480.432
Source: Uganda Population Secretariat; State of Uganda Population Report, 2007

434. The quality of the urban environment is being degraded due to proliferation of informal settlements and slums, substandard construction, increasing number of vehicles, industrial emissions/ effluent, deforestation and uncontrolled soil erosion, among others.

6.7.2 Constraints to the Performance of Urban Development Sub-Sector

  • i) Absence of a comprehensive National Urban Policy to guide the urbanization process, ensure orderly development and enhance urban management.
  • ii) Weak Institutional framework to regulate and support urban development.
  • iii) Inadequate funds and equipment to effectively address the challenges of urban development and management.
  • iv) Inadequate human capacity at Central and Local Government level.
  • v) Multiple Land Tenure Systems and Rights that constrain the preparation and implementation of agreed physical plans.

6.7.3 Objectives, Strategies and Interventions

435. Objective 1 - Create an inclusive policy and regulatory framework for urban development.

  • Strategy 1: Develop and harmonize National Urban Development policy, standards and regulations.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Formulate and implement the National Urban Development policy to guide urban planning and development.
  • ii) Develop and implement a Strategic Urban Development Plan.
  • iii) Review urban development laws and regulations.
  • iv) Put in place appropriate urban development standards and guidelines.
  • v) Formulate and implement appropriate pollution policy, laws and regulations.

436. Objective 2 - Ensure well planned and managed, quality, efficient, progressive and sustainable urban centres in Uganda.

  • Strategy 1: Strengthen urban management institutions and human resource capacity.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Recruit and train urban development technical personnel at the central and LG levels.
  • ii) Strengthen capacity of urban management institutions.
  • iii) Develop and implement E-governance to facilitate efficient and effective urban development and management.
  • iv) Strengthen the monitoring system for urban centres.
  • Strategy 2: Promote awareness on urban development and management.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Develop and implement national campaign programmes on sustainable urban development.

437. Objective 3 - Improve urban environment and heritage.

  • Strategy 1: Prepare urban beautification and landscaping plans.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Develop and implement urban beautification and landscape plans for selected urban centres.
  • ii) Develop and implement urban disaster management plans.
  • iii) Promote urban greening.
  • iv) Develop, restore, preserve and gazette urban heritage.

438. Objective 4 - Develop and strengthen a competitive urban economy.

  • Strategy 1: Put in place an urban redevelopment, renewal and revitalization strategy.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Develop and implement urban redevelopment, renewal and revitalization programs.
  • ii) Gazette and develop industrial parks, special economic zones and business parks.
  • iii) Set up and develop incubation centres for training, skills development and technology transfer in urban areas.
  • iv) Redevelop and upgrade urban markets and food courts through PPPs.
  • Strategy 2: Develop urban Local Economic Development (LED) Programmes.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Formulate and implement LED programme in city and municipal councils.
  • ii) Develop business associations/cooperatives /SACCOs.

439. Objective 5: Develop an efficient integrated infrastructure to support urban development.

  • Strategy 1: Develop and implement the Strategic urban infrastructure investment framework.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Develop and implement a strategic urban infrastructure investment plan.
  • ii) Formulate and implement a National Integrated Urban Transport Policy.
  • iii) Develop and implement an urban transport master plan.
  • iv) Develop and implement an urban drainage management strategy
  • v) Increase street-lighting coverage in urban areas.
  • Strategy 2: Increase sewerage coverage and sewerage treatment capacity in urban areas.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Expand the sewerage network coverage in urban areas.
  • ii) Construct sewage treatment plants.

440. Objective 6 - Upgrade slums and informal settlements.

  • Strategy 1: Develop a strategy for upgrading slums and informal settlements.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Develop and implement a programme for upgrading slums and informal settlements.

441. Objective 7 - Increase availability of and access to land for urban expansion and investment.

  • Strategy 1: Create land banks in urban areas.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Promote establishment of land banks in urban areas and promote land banking /consolidation schemes.

6.8 TRADE DEVELOPMENT

6.8.1 Situational Analysis

442. Trade development is concerned with the creation and diversification of markets, development and stability of productive capacities, harmonization of the tariff regime, reduction of trade barriers, diversification of exports, and expansion of export markets. Implementation of the National Trade Policy requires functional institutions, supportive legislation, adequate and efficient trade facilitating infrastructure as well as appropriate human capital and skills.

443. The trade sector is characterized by growth in both exports and imports, with the latter growing faster. However, exports substantially increased from 2.5 per cent in 2001 to 24.1 per cent in 2005, though they dropped to 18.4 per cent in 2006. In 2008/09, Uganda’s merchandise exports peaked at USD 2.8 billion, having increased from USD 2.6 billion in the 2007/08 financial year, compared to a meagre USD 372 million in 198660.

444. Overall imports have been increasing faster than exports resulting into a wider trade balance. Figure 6.1 reveals that the economy has been experiencing a growing balance of trade deficit since 2001. The imports by region of origin are shown in Figure 6.2.

FIGURE 6.1.VALUE OF EXPORTS, IMPORTS AND TRADE BALANCE

(1997 TO 2007)

Source: UBOS, Statistical Abstracts (various years)

FIGURE 6.2.IMPORTS BY REGION OF ORIGIN (USD MILLION): 1997 TO 2007)

Source: UBOS, Statistical Abstracts (various years)

445. Since 1986, Government has undertaken deliberate economic reform programs, including trade liberalization and diversification of exports. The measures resulted in increase and widening of the export base, with non-traditional export products playing a more prominent role in terms of export earnings. The contribution of the four traditional exports to total merchandise export earnings fell from 71.3 per cent in 1999 to 29.9 per cent in 2007, while that of non-traditional exports increased from 28.7 per cent to 70.1 per cent over the same period (Table 6.7). This implies that the economy is largely shielded from the effects of volatility in international prices of coffee and cotton, and any regional adverse global economic situations.

Table 6.7.COMPOSITIONS OF EXPORTS BY VALUE (PERCENTAGE)
Year1998199920002001200220032004200520062007
Traditional Exports65.971.352.638.339.137.336.832.929.929.9
Non-Traditional Exports34.128.747.461.760.962.763.267.170.170.1
Source: UBOS, Statistical Abstracts (Various years)

446. The contribution of the services sector has been increasing, overtaking agriculture as the leading contributor to GDP in 2002 (Table 6.8).

Table 6.8.CONTRIBUTIONS TO GDP AT FACTOR COST 1997/98 PRICES
1991199219931994199519961997199819992000200120022003200420052006
Agriculture50494847454341424241414039363432
Industry13131315161719191919191919212121
Services37383839394040404040404142434546
Source: UBOS Database

447. The growth in the services sector has benefited largely from significant increases in transport and communication, tourism and remittances by Ugandans abroad Table 6.9.

Table 6.9.REMITTANCES, USD MILLION, 2000-2007
20002001200220032004200520062007
USD million238342421306371423814856
Source: World Bank, Migration and Remittances Fact Books.

448. Despite the impressive performance in the exports sector, Uganda’s share in global trade remains negligible. The country accounted for 0.01 per cent and 0.02 per cent of global merchandise exports and imports respectively in 2007, compared to South Africa with 0.5 per cent and 0.4 per cent.

450. There is a significant untapped potential for women to contribute to Uganda’s growth through their participation in higher levels of trade and industry value chains. Women own about 40 per cent of private enterprises, mostly at the micro-enterprise, informal sector. About 29.5 per cent of women in business are in export trade. However, female entrepreneurs often lack the skills and knowledge required to manage a successful business. This is compounded in rural areas where women tend to have less access to information and markets, especially foreign markets, and more often have no access to formal credit. Their multiple roles leave them with limited time for continuous training and development or strategic networking for business and limited access to towns where training takes place.

6.8.2 Constraints to the Performance of Trade Sector

  • i) Weak policy, legal and institutional framework and systems notably the PPP and Micro, Small and Medium Enterprise (MSME) policy. There is absence of trade/market opportunity response strategies such as a deliberate effort to link the productive and trade sectors.
  • ii) Existence of Non-Tariff Barriers (NTBs) to trade in both regional and international markets.
  • iii) High cost and limited access to business finance coupled with a poor borrowing culture. The available alternative financial systems of credit rationing through micro-finance institutions are short term thus do not respond to long term productive investment needs. The formal banking sector has high liquidity levels but because of high risk perceptions, it only delivers low levels of domestic credit favouring a small number of large firms.
  • iv) Shortage of specialised technical and entrepreneurial skills (mismatch between the education curriculum and the labour market demands in the business sector)
  • v) Inadequate physical infrastructure (road network, rails, energy and ICT) constrains access to markets, low productivity, high production and distribution costs, leading to uncompetitive products and services. In addition, Uganda has the highest energy tariff in the East African region.
  • vi) Inadequate quality infrastructure and standards (metrology, sanitary, and psycho-sanitary and quality assurance).
  • vii) Inadequate data and information about the sector constraining informed planning, policy formulation, and investment decisions.

6.8.3 Objectives, Strategies and Interventions

451. Objective 1 - Improve the ‘doing business’ environment.

  • Strategy 1: Strengthen the policy, legal and regulatory frameworks.
  • Interventions Description
  • i) Develop and/or amend the required commercial laws and the regulatory frameworks.
  • ii) Formulate and implement the Public Private Partnership (PPP) Policy.
  • iii) Design and implement measures to enhance e-commerce and e-economic governance by putting in place the e-commerce policy, laws, e-payment regulations, among others.
  • iv) Implement the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) Policy and strategy.
  • Strategy 2: Implement measures to reduce the time and cost of starting a business.
  • Interventions Description
  • i) Strengthen the autonomy of the Uganda Registration Services Bureau.
  • ii) Enhance the computerisation and introduce online registration of business.

452. Objective 2 - Strengthen the competitiveness of the private sector.

  • Strategy 1: Develop and strengthen production of data and information in at least 20 regional trade information centres by 2014.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Strengthen and harmonize the market information systems and dissemination mechanisms, and deepen its outreach coverage by establishing regional trade information Centres.
  • ii) Develop and popularize an incentive regime for business formalization to ensure all businesses are registered.
  • iii) Enhance access to business finance and reduce the cost of borrowing.
  • Strategy 2: Implement measures for human resource development.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Equip the private sector with entrepreneurial development skills for both men and women.
  • ii) Work with relevant institutions and private sector to integrate into the curriculum business skills development that enhances labour productivity.
  • Strategy 3: Increase awareness on the available financing options and standards.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Develop appropriate incentives to encourage the private sector to take responsibility for capacity development.
  • ii) Enlighten the business community on the various trade financing options.
  • iii) Create awareness on the standards and quality issues for the private sector to comply.
  • iv) Enforce standards.

453. Objective 3 - Increase market access for Uganda’s products and services in regional and international markets.

  • Strategy 1: Negotiate better market access for Ugandan goods and services.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Strengthen and increase the capacity of the National Trade Negotiations Team (NTNT) and associated processes.
  • ii) Conduct studies to inform the negotiation processes.
  • iii) Train the private sector in trade policy and negotiation issues so as to enhance their participation in consultations.
  • iv) Hold regular consultations with the private sector on negotiation issues.
  • v) Develop and implement a coordinated approach across MDAs for effective promotion of Uganda’s products in international markets.
  • Strategy 2: Enhance branding of products and services.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Develop an effective branding programme for products and services brands.
  • ii) Strengthen the Non-Tariff Barriers (NTBs) monitoring and removal mechanism.
  • iii) Develop and implement market access response strategies.
  • iv) Formulate and implement coherent National Standards and Standard Positioning Service (SPS) Policies.
  • Strategy 3: Strengthen related institutions to support trade.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Strengthen trade-related institutions including implementing agencies and Local Governments to support trade development.
  • ii) Establish the Export Development Centre.
  • iii) Promote consumer awareness and sensitization on standards and quality issues (Amend UNBS Act and provide commercial extension services).
  • iv) Implement the National Exports Strategy (NES).
  • v) Establish Export Processing Zones (EPZs).

454. Objective 4 - Improve the stock and quality of trade infrastructure.

  • Strategy 1: Develop trade infrastructure.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Strengthen the Southern route (Port Bell to Dar es Salaam).
  • ii) Strengthen water transport and improve landing sites along Lake Victoria.
  • iii) Construct a standard rail gauge line from Malaba to Kampala.
  • iv) Construct a standard rail line Kasese-Kampala - Tororo-Pakwach.
  • Strategy 2: Establish relevant institutions and structures for enhancing infrastructure delivery and standards.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Provide incentives that promote private investment in trade infrastructure development (such as cold storage facilities, roads, air cargo, railways networks, laboratories, and community Silos).
  • ii) Establish a National Quality Institute and an Accreditation Centre.

455. Objective 5 - Promote policy synergies between the production and trade sectors.

  • Strategy 1: Strengthen coordination of trade institutions.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Strengthen and implement Public Private Partnership framework measures at the Local Government level.
  • ii) Enhance coordination within the trade Sector Working Group and build synergies with production sector working groups.
  • iii) Harmonize local taxation and licensing policies and practices with national development priorities for efficient flow of domestic trade.

456. Objective 6 - Provide equal opportunity to women and other disadvantaged groups to participate and benefit from trade.

  • Strategy 1: Promote equal opportunities to women, youth and disadvantaged groups.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Provide better access to credit and market information.
  • ii) Empower disadvantaged groups particularly women, youths and people with disabilities to enable them to participate more in trade through training in trade skills and competencies.
  • iii) Reintegrate the formerly war affected persons in the production and trade systems.
  • iv) Raise awareness about HIV/AIDS in the trade sector.

6.9 FINANCIAL SERVICES

6.9.1 Situational Analysis

457. Uganda’s financial infrastructure and services have evolved over the years. The financial sector has historically been dominated by financial institutions, in particular commercial banks. Currently, commercial banks account for 83 per cent of the financial sector assets. Within the banking sub-sector, there is a large share of foreign ownership (87 per cent) and high concentration (until recently, of over 70 per cent) of assets in the four largest banks.

458. The Government was also a key player in the commercial banking sub-sector with sole ownership of the former Uganda Commercial Bank (UCB). Following liberalization of the financial sector, Government divested its stake in UCB and other Banks. The role of Government has now been restricted to provision of policy oversight and supervision. The supervision function of the banking sector is vested in the Central Bank (BoU). There has also been a big increase in the number of players in the sector.

459. Uganda’s financial sector landscape changed tremendously in the mid 1990s, when new services were introduced including capital market developments. The leasing and mortgage services have also become a significant part of the market. The Capital Markets Authority was established by an Act of Parliament in 1995, to oversee the securities and stock market activities.

460. The financial institutions currently operating in Uganda include: the Central Bank (BOU) as a custodian of monetary policy and supervisor of regulated financial institutions, (i.e. those in Tiers 1-3). Tier 1 comprises commercial banks; Tier 2 credit institutions; and Tier 3 Micro Deposit Taking institutions (MDIs). Unregulated financial institutions fall under Tier 4 and include Savings and Credit Cooperatives (SACCOs), and MFIs. However, preliminary preparations are ongoing to put in place legislation for Tier 4. Non-banking financial institutions include: savings clubs, pension funds, insurance companies and foreign exchange bureaus.

461. A number of prudential and institutional reforms have been implemented in the financial sector with commendable success. The privatization of UCB was concluded in 2002 improving the service, and several laws were enacted to improve supervision and operation of the banking sector. The new Financial Institutions Act (FIA), 2004, that repealed the Financial Institutions Statute of 1993, has tightened the supervisory function of the Central Bank while the Microfinance Deposit-Taking Institutions Act (MDI) 2003, resulted in 4 former MFIs upgrading to regulated status and thus enabling them to mobilise deposits from the public while also benefiting from supervision by BOU.

462. There has been restoration of integrity and confidence in the banking sectors61 leading to a resurging positive performance. This performance is manifested in capital adequacy and falling Non-Performing Loan (NPL) ratios. The NPL ratio had dropped to 3 per cent at the end of 2006, a development that boosted the safety of the depositors’ funds.

463. The moratorium that was imposed on the establishment of new banks was lifted in 2007, leading to licensing of four new commercial banks62. The presence of added players in the financial market, especially foreign banks, has spurred competition and introduced new products and services on the market. In particular, the presence of foreign financial services has attracted financial and management expertise as well as technology, which foster greater productivity and efficiency. This has also facilitated strong capital flows and greater access to international financial markets.

464. Over the last decade, Uganda’s financial sector, though still small, has continued to grow into a sound and vibrant sector. This growth is reflected in a number of banking activities and monetary indicators, and is attributed to a number of factors namely; tightening the supervisory function of the Central Bank, strengthening of the regulatory framework and privatization of Uganda Commercial Bank (UCB).

465. Money and Banking: Over the past decade, the money and banking indicators of Uganda’s financial sector development, including base money and money supply (M2 and M3) have recorded impressive performance as indicated in Table 6.12.

Table 6.10.PERCENTAGE SHARE IN TOTAL EXPORTS BY REGION OF DESTINATION
Region20032004200520062007
COMESA27.726.830.729.537.9
Other Africa8.65.74.83.96.6
European Union26.327.331.127.424.3
Other Europe14.817.110.15.16.8
North America2.72.92.31.71.8
Middle East3.55.610.820.614.3
Asia9.38.97.57.85.4
South America0.10.10.10.10.2
Rest of the World0.40.00.10.00.0
Unknown6.65.72.53.82.8
Source: UBOS, Statistical Abstracts (various years)
Table 6.11.EXPORTS TO EAC MEMBER STATES (‘000 USD), 2003 TO 2007
Member State20032007Change (%)
Burundi10,07642,719324
Kenya78,432118,19151
Rwanda20,80383,309300
Tanzania5,83246,416696
Total Earnings115,143292,642154
As a % share of total exports21.621.90.3
Source: UBOS, Statistical Abstracts (Various years)
Table 6.12.PERFORMANCE OF MONEY AND BANKING INDICATORS 1997 TO 2007
Financial SectorBase Money (Billion UShs)M2 (Billion UShs)M3 (Billion UShs)M2 growth (% p.a)M3 growth (% p.a)Growth in money demand (% p.a)Currency in circulation (Billion UShs)Private sector demand deposits (Billion UShs)Time & saving Deposits (Billion UShs)
1997/98378.57873.051,019.9623.7426.0724.6625.07263.92220.81
1998/99460.52952.731,160.549.1313.773.8130.30324.90308.60
1999/00509.191,036.331,347.178.8016.106.9132.53360.09296.88
2000/01559.611,193.441,583.6815.2017.609.3028.83413.05316.61
2001/02661.641,490.591,925.4024.9021.6030.77392.90344.29
2002/03696.131,749.192,373.3817.3523.2740.72617.49460.06
2003/04867.091,924.882,587.2610.049.01
2004/05928.332,157.862,811.1112.108.6576.00803.98589.59
2005/061,100.172,520.183,271.60-1.750.7793.52860.15690.68
2006/071,360.132,993.903,842.0216.7217.4492.84961.53857.31
2007/081,614.493,894.525,037.0130.0831.10117.491,127.961,002.33
Source: Bank of Uganda Annual Report Year Ended 30 June 2008, Commercial Bank Balance Sheet.

466. The growth in base money has been largely on account of increased net foreign assets of the Central Bank. The growth in money supply (M3) has been largely due to increment in currency in circulation, private sector demand, and time and savings deposits. All these variables, have exhibited good performance, as illustrated by the Figure 6.4.

FIGURE 6.3.EXPORTS BY REGION OF DESTINATION (USD MILLION) 1997 TO 2007

Source: UBOS, Statistical Abstracts, (various)

FIGURE 6.4GROWTHS IN M2 COMPONENTS 1994 TO 2008

Source: BOU Annual Report 2008, Commercial Bank Activities

467. Net Domestic Assets and Net Foreign Assets: The net domestic assets of the banking system with Government have continued to indicate a saving especially in regard to Central Government. For example, banking system’s net claims on Central Government increased by 30.1 per cent between 2006/07 and 2007/08; and those to the private sector by 56.1 per cent. This implies increased credit to the private sector largely on account of the increased number of banks (Table 6.13 and Figure 6.5).

Table 6.13.GROWTH IN NET DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN ASSETS AND BANKING SYSTEMS CLAIM TO PRIVATE SECTOR AND FOREIGN RESERVES
YearNet Domestic Assets (Billion UShs)Net Foreign Assets (Billion UShs)Banking Systems claim on Private Sector (Billion UShs)Banking Systems claim on Central Government net (Billion UShs)Banking Systems claim on Parastatals (billion UShs)Banking Systems claim on Local Government (billion UShs)Net Domestic Credit (Billion UShs)
1994352.5-148.5212.17-10.120.000.0034.0
1995316.7-38.5257.74-44.870.000.00-24.3
1996209.172.2344.82-7.250.000.00-31.5
199793.9231.7353.0684.390.000.00-118.7
1998-81.3452.0431.83120.590.000.00-221.6
1999-195.3585.0546.3497.0820.201.09-197.0
2000-162.4614.8580.41169.3612.391.02249.2
2001-296.6792.3634.93257.666.020.98207.2
2002-501.41,090.6661.66469.372.860.7916.7
2003-904.91,500.5848.60585.182.550.59-190.8
2004-899.21,680.5986.03557.8211.690.36-463.8
2005-1,209.22,050.81,130.12657.106.770.03-812.0
2006-1,648.42,614.01,45.69878.5118.560.10-969.6
2007-2,084.23,330.91,792.47981.1030.430.35-688.0
2008-2,841.44,355.92,774.491,357.0725.520.09-302.8
Source: Bank of Uganda Annual Report Year Ended 30 June 2008, Monetary Authority Balance Sheet

FIGURE 6.5PRIVATE SECTOR CREDIT TRENDS FY 1997/98 -2007/08

Source: Bank of Uganda (Annual Report Year Ended 30 June 2008, Commercial Bank Balance Sheet

468. However, foreign reserves have recorded unstable performance over the last decade, giving an overall downward trend. Figure 6.6 indicates that Uganda’s foreign reserves declined sharply between 1995 and 2000. Since then however, there has been an upward trend though still unstable.

FIGURE 6.6PERCENTAGE ANNUAL GROWTH IN NET FOREIGN RESERVES

Source: Bank of Uganda Annual Report Year Ended 30 June 2008, Commercial Bank Balance Sheet

469. Financial Depth: Overall Uganda’s financial depth as measured by the ratio of currency in circulation to GDP, the ratio of currency in circulation to broad money (M2), financial savings (composed of total time and saving deposits plus certificates of deposits as ratio of M2), and the ratio of broad money (M3) to GDP has continued to register impressive performance.

470. Commercial Banks’ Activities: Commercial banks’ activities as measured by the asset holdings, outstanding loans and advances to the private sector, as well as commercial banks’ liabilities which have indicated positive growth over the past 5-10 years. BoU Annual Reports have been capturing this information, which makes it easier to assess comparative performance and establish trends over the year. The most recent performance is provided in Table 6.14:

Table 6.14.COMPARATIVE COMMERCIAL BANK PERFORMANCE 2005 TO 2008
Activity2005200620072008
Outstanding loans and advances to the private sector (UShs Billion)829.571,017.841,335.872,075.28
Commercial banks’ liabilities810.69972.381,293.292,049.72
Source: Bank of Uganda Annual Report Year Ended 30 June 2008, Commercial Bank Balance Sheet (Billion Shillings)

471. The growth in the non-banking sector has also been spectacular especially in regard to the introduction in the mid 1990s of hitherto missing securities exchange and capital markets. There has also been a positive development in leasing and mortgage, insurance and microfinance services. The Uganda Capital Markets Industry has within its first 10 years of existence (1997 to 2007) recorded some positive results. There are currently 7 local equities listed on the stock exchange, 5 cross border listings, 18 Government bonds and 5 corporate bonds (two of which have been redeemed). Market capitalization increased by over 7000 per cent from UShs 4.6 Trillion to UShs 62 Billion in 2000.

472. Additional progress includes passing of the Collective Investment Schemes Act in 2003, issuance of twenty (20) licenses in 2007 up from 9 in 1997; and formulation of a number of laws and regulations to improve the regulatory oversight of CMA. Examples of these laws and regulations include the Capital Markets (Insider Dealing) Regulations; the Capital Markets (Asset Backed Securities) Regulations; and the Capital Markets (Mergers and Acquisition) Regulations. New products have also been introduced to the market, namely Government bonds, corporate bonds, equity, and Collective Investment Schemes. The future expansion of the securities exchange market is expected to come from the privatization of state enterprises, private sector company listings, and issuance of bonds by Government corporations and local/municipal authorities.

473. Leasing and Mortgaging: Uganda’s leasing and mortgage sub sector is underdeveloped but with high potential. Lease penetration63 in Uganda is less than 1 per cent compared to the global average of approximately 20 per cent. The main area of mortgage has been the acquisition and expansion of housing, while leasing has been in the acquisition of machinery and equipment. In addition, there are still few independent leasing/mortgage companies and limited participation of commercial banks in the leasing industry.

474. Insurance Industry: Uganda’s insurance industry is still underdeveloped. The sub-sector comprises of about 21 big companies and only few insurance underwriters. It employs less than 1,000 people and this number has kept fluctuating since 1997 as indicated in Table 6.15. The Uganda Insurers Association, as an umbrella body, is being strengthened to promote development and expansion of sound insurance and re-insurance activities in Uganda. As required by the Insurance Statute of 1996, most insurance companies have raised their capitalization though there are few yet to hit the UShs 1 billion target for the year 2006.

Table 6.15.SIZE OF INSURANCE SUB-SECTOR IN UGANDA
Year199719981999200020012002200320042005200620072008
No. of Insurance Companies261919191718192019192020
No. of People Employed676653592549431555487487553563598
Source: Uganda Insurance Commission, Annual Insurance Market Reports

475. Microfinance Sector: There are over 1,340 Microfinance institutions (MFIs) in Uganda three of which have so far been licensed under the Micro Finance Deposit Taking Institutions Act (MDI), 2003. There are a number of programmes/projects providing support from Government and other Development Partners such as GoU/ IFAD/EU-funded Microfinance Outreach Plan (MOP), and Microfinance Support Centre Ltd (MSCL) funded by African Development Bank (ADB). These programmes provide loans and matching grants to MFIs for expansion of financial services.

476. Pension Sector: Uganda’s Pension sector is monopolized by one single scheme - the National Social Security Fund (NSSF). The introduction of alternative schemes like the Health Social Insurance Scheme is still at policy formulation level. The NSSF, with an asset base of roughly $125m (equivalent to 10 per cent of the total assets of commercial banks), has invested almost all its liabilities in short-term Government securities and property, depriving the private sector of a vital source of long-term investment funds. Private pension funds help greatly to establish and develop a market for long term domestic financial instruments through pension funds to debt factoring, leasing and venture capital companies.

6.9.2 Constraints to the Performance of the Financial Sector

  • i) High risk borrowers contributing to high interest rates.
  • ii) Narrow range of assets acceptable as collateral.
  • iii) High interest rate spreads (by regional standards), attributed to higher operating costs and credit risk.
  • iv) Weak competition among financial institutions.
  • v) Old legislations that need to be reviewed or repealed and lack of sector specific laws, as is the case for the leasing and mortgage sector.
  • vi) Limited insurance options.
  • vii) Underdeveloped capital markets and limited financing options.
  • viii) Absence of medium and long term financing including, equity financing for SMEs.
  • ix) Absence of medium and long term financing for agriculture.
  • x) Low coverage of banking services in rural areas and a poor saving culture.
  • xi) Weak enforcement of contracts that might limit growth of the financial sector.

6.9.3 Objectives, Strategies and Interventions

477. Objective 1 - Promote a sound, vibrant and deep financial system

  • Strategy 1: Strengthen the financial system regulatory environment
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Coordinate and cooperate with regional regulatory authorities on information sharing, licensing and monitoring the performance of financial institutions.
  • ii) Benchmark the existing legal and regulatory regime with regional and international best practices.
  • iii) Enact laws and regulations for the financial sector, especially in areas of leasing, mortgages and Tier 4 institutions.
  • Strategy 2: Develop and strengthen payment and settlement systems.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Enact legislation related to electronic payments and settlements.
  • ii) Improve access to broadband width and other ICT infrastructure.
  • iii) Encourage the adoption of a universal switch.
  • iv) Expand access to Real Time Gross Settlement (RTGS) for payments and link Central Depository System (CDS) to RTGS.
  • v) Support the development of relevant risk management systems for monitoring and managing risks in financial markets.
  • vi) Promote accessibility to Electronic Fund Transfers for Tier 2 and Tier 3 institutions
  • Strategy 3: Promote competition and prudence in the sector
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Continue the policy of licensing new financial institutions that meet the required regulatory standards.
  • ii) Publish interest rates and other fees/ commissions charged by financial institutions.
  • iii) Design and implement incentives to encourage and promote the establishment of a bank or a bank branch in every district and an MFI in every sub-county.
  • iv) Expand the coverage of the Credit Reference Bureau to include all financial institutions and customers.
  • v) Develop and support financial literacy, public awareness and consumer protection policies.
  • Strategy 4: Encourage product innovations in line with market needs
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Carry out studies on the gaps in existing products and potential for product innovation
  • ii) Encourage the development of innovative products, especially those that best exploit existing infrastructure and institutions.
  • Strategy 5: Promote expansion of banking services to rural areas
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Provide logistical and technical support to SACCOs.
  • ii) Promote research into innovative ways of expanding financial access to rural areas.
  • iii) Develop tax relief and incentive schemes for rural banking institutions.
  • Strategy 6: Strengthen property and land rights legislation
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Strengthen land and property ownership and management systems.
  • ii) Promote public sensitisation on property rights.
  • Strategy 7: Strengthen anti-money laundering efforts
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Enact anti-money laundering legislation and develop regulations to enable its enforcement.
  • ii) Strengthen regional and international collaboration and partnerships in crime management.
  • iii) Review and amend cyber laws.

478. Objective 2 - Increase access to affordable long term finance

  • Strategy 1: Strengthen institutional arrangements for mobilizing long-term funds.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Encourage the introduction of a long term bond-yield curve in the private sector.
  • ii) Develop new standards for corporate governance and financial disclosure.
  • iii) Promote the revival of the life assurance facility.
  • iv) Develop the Public Private Partnership Policy framework.
  • v) Encourage organizations and corporations to use the debt market to fund long-term projects through the issuance of short-term and long-term instruments.
  • Strategy 2: Reform the pensions sector and promote savings mobilisation
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Prepare, adopt and implement the regulatory framework to support liberalization of the pension sector, including the establishment of a regulatory body for the sector.
  • ii) Review the NSSF Act.
  • iii) Undertake a diagnostic study of civil service pension schemes, including preparation of an actuarial valuation, and a reform option paper.
  • iv) Encourage and support collective investment schemes
  • v) Support training of fund managers and investment advisors

479. Objective 3 - Attain greater integration within the East Africa region.

  • Strategy 1: Harmonisation of financial sector policy within EAC.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Review policies governing various segments of the financial sector and ensure their harmonization within the EAC framework.
  • ii) Harmonize capital markets policies and regulations with other EAC partners.
  • iii) Promote cross-listing and greater cross-border investment in the region.

6.10 COOPERATIVES

6.10.1 Situational Analysis

480. The co-operative movement in Uganda is composed of an Apex body; tertiary and secondary unions; and primary societies formed by individual members. Government views the Cooperative Movement as being central in mobilizing and organizing farm-level production, value addition, marketing, savings and financial intermediation at the local level. It is a means through which, productive enterprise involving indigenous entrepreneurs can be built at all levels (rural or urban) in the national economy.

481. The Department of Co-operative Development under the Ministry of Tourism, Trade and Industry (MTTI) guides and regulates the co-operative movement. In addition, there are many other Government and non government players (Private Sector and Civil Society).

482. The Co-operative movement in Uganda is composed of 10,746 co-operative societies with a membership of 3.9 million people. There are 10,621 primary societies, 121 secondary societies including 80 Area Co-operative Enterprises, 4 tertiary societies64 and one apex body65 - the Uganda Co-operative Alliance Ltd. Of the total number of registered co-operative societies, 83 per cent are on permanent registration while 17 per cent are registered on probation. Co-operatives are generally categorized as follows: production and agricultural marketing (55 per cent); savings and credit (23 per cent), multipurpose (6 per cent), and services (16 per cent)66.

483. The Cooperative movement in Uganda thrived in the 1960s and 1970s when most of Uganda’s export commodities were traded through the cooperative chain. However, the period 1992 through 2006 exhibited a continuous decline of co-operative commodity marketing, for instance, co-operatives accounted for 22 per cent (28,585 tons) of the total coffee exports (130,068 tons) in 1992/93. This dropped to only 2 per cent (3,868 tons) out of the total of 180,164 tons in 2001/02 and further to a meagre 1 per cent (2,104 tons) out of 162,254 tons in 2006/07. While the performance of co-operatives declined, that of multinational companies significantly increased from 14 per cent (18,459 tons) to 83 per cent (134,589 tons) over the same period. The decline was largely on account of a new policy then to disband produce marketing Boards and the general policy of liberalizing the marketing of produce. Cooperative enterprises were ill equipped to match the competition given their poor financial status, narrow product base and weak managerial competences.

484. On the other hand, as co-operative commodity marketing declined, other co-operatives enterprises emerged; for instance, 2,351 SACCOS were registered between 2004 and 2008 with a portfolio of over 100 billion shillings, total member savings and shareholding of over 23 billion shillings and loans totalling 77 billion shillings. This was largely due to the failure of the formal financial services sector to adequately respond to the needs of most Ugandans. This expansion was also on the account of Government’s intervention of building a strong savings and investment culture especially in rural areas.

485. There are some factors that are negatively impacting on the performance of the cooperatives. These include:

  • Governance and Leadership gaps: Although co-operatives are democratic in nature, most of the membership has not taken advantage of this democracy to elect able leaders and appoint competent managers to ensure that the co-operative ideals and aspirations are realized and conformity to the co-operative Laws is achieved
  • Inadequate knowledge on Co-operatives: The majority of the current co-operative membership is not adequately educated and trained in cooperative matters. This leads to member exploitation, low patronage and poor accountability which negatively impacts on co-operative business.
  • Dented image and weak advocacy by the Co-operative Movement: This is attributed to various disadvantages in the past such as poor leadership, unethical practices, poor accountabilities, unfavourable economic and legal environment, political interference, mistrust among members and institutional failure to deliver services.
  • Unreliable market and management information: While co-operative members have responded to calls by Government to produce, most of them lack information on the available market opportunities for their products.

6.10.2 Constraints to the Performance of the Cooperatives Sub-Sector

  • i) Inadequate legal and regulatory framework: The current Co-operative Societies Act, 1991, and Co-operative Societies Regulations, 1992, do not adequately address some governance issues within the cooperative movement. Some sections of the law are inadequate on issues such as supervision and enforcement, the education fund, dispute settlement, offences and penalties, ethics and code of conduct.
  • ii) Limited skilled human resource for cooperatives as most of the institutions offering cooperative education and training have been declining from their original status.
  • iii) Poor and inadequate storage facilities and other infrastructure. Uganda is faced with an acute shortage of modern agricultural commodity warehouses. The National Warehouse Survey of 2007 (Ministry of Tourism, Trade and Industry) shows that there are only 866 warehouses in the country with a total storage capacity of 450,733 metric tonnes. Of these, only 3 per cent meet the standards for agricultural marketing while 8 per cent require minor repairs. The other 89 per cent require major refurbishment.
  • iv) Low savings by members is constraining the ability of cooperatives to invest. This is partly due to high poverty levels and a low savings culture in Uganda.
  • v) Low capitalization: the co-operative movement in Uganda is faced with the problem of insufficient working capital due to limited financing options in the country.
  • vi) Poor image and erosion of confidence in cooperatives
  • vii) Limited mobilization for cooperatives formation.

6.10.3 Objectives, Strategies and Interventions

486. Objective 1 - Promote good governance of the co-operative movement

  • Strategy 1: Strengthen the policy and legal framework of cooperative societies.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Finalize the formulation of the National Co-operative Development Policy and implementation strategy to empower and guide cooperatives.
  • ii) Review the Co-operative Societies Act, 1991 and the Co-operative Societies Regulations, 1992. It is expected that in the plan period, the Co-operative Societies Act (Cap. 112 Laws of Uganda) will be amended, the Co-operative Societies Regulations, 1992 reviewed, and model bye laws will be put in place.
  • iii) Popularize, disseminate and implement the policy and the laws in i) and ii) above.

487. Objective 2 - Enhance the capacity of co-operatives to compete in domestic, regional and international markets

  • Strategy 1: Increase productive capacity and productivity of the members of the Cooperative Movement.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Support farmers in enterprise selection through provision of advisory services to the different categories of farmer organizations.
  • ii) Support the re-establishment of the co-operative based inputs delivery system to avail quality inputs to the members. A mechanism to guide supply of inputs will be put in place.
  • iii) Support and facilitate cooperative society members to acquire mechanization and irrigation equipment, and other appropriate technologies.
  • iv) Facilitate cooperative society members in the acquisition of farm level post harvest handling technologies including packaging of commodities for marketing.
  • v) Support research and development in cooperatives.
  • vi) Support farm exchange visits to increase exposure of cooperative members to new ideas and technologies.
  • Strategy 2: Promote cooperative education and training.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Undertake a comprehensive co-operative training needs assessment, the report of which will guide the implementers on the training requirements for the different categories of cooperatives.
  • ii) Review, upgrade and strengthen Kigumba Co-operative College as a centre of academic excellence.
  • iii) Review and implement an appropriate co-operative curriculum.
  • Strategy 3: Promote value addition and collective marketing.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Strengthen the co-operative commodity marketing infrastructure through refurbishing, upgrading and equipping the existing cooperative storage facilities.
  • ii) Support the establishment of warehousing facilities for all types of commodities at community level around the whole country.
  • iii) Promote and support the Uganda Commodity Exchange (UCE) and the Warehouse Receipt System (WRS) to increase cooperative trade through them.
  • iv) Establish collaborations between regional and international cooperative movements and other agencies to strengthen the marketing network.
  • v) Provide extension services to cooperative members to identify opportunities for value addition to different enterprise products.
  • vi) Establish an Agricultural Commodity Marketing Fund.
  • vii) Restructure and strengthen producer co-operatives as well as supporting certification of members’ products.
  • viii) Support co-operatives to access and acquire intellectual property rights
  • Strategy 4: Improve access to financial services for the co-operative institutions.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Establish financial institutions at district or sub-county level that are tailored to the needs of co-operative institutions.
  • Strategy 5: Strengthen the capacity of Cooperative institutions.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Build capacity and enhance functionality of the offices responsible for Co-operative Development at the Central and Local Government levels through recruitment, training and equipping.
  • ii) Promote partnerships and linkages through developing and operationalising a framework for linking co-operatives and industries for purposes of supplying industrial inputs; accessing markets and promoting product research and development.
  • iii) Establish and strengthen the cooperatives information systems by facilitating co-operatives to develop management and market information systems for decision making, planning and marketing.
  • iv) Develop and standardize management and operational information systems for SACCOS.

488. Objective 3 - Diversify the type and range of enterprises undertaken by cooperatives

  • Strategy 1: Expand the scope and range of cooperative enterprises.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Increase the range of cooperatives through support and strengthening of other forms of co-operatives including insurance, housing, health, tourism, energy, consumer, shared services and enterprise based cooperatives
  • ii) Revitalize and strengthen dormant co-operatives by focusing on research, networking, study tours, mobilization and sensitization of the communities.

CHAPTER 7 SOCIAL SECTORS

7.1 POPULATION

7.1.1 Situational Analysis

489. Population size and growth: Uganda’s population growth rate was 3.2 per cent per annum over the period 1991 to 2002. It is estimated that the population increased at an average of 3.2 per cent to reach 30.7 million in 2009 and is projected to increase to 37.9 million in 2015 (Table 7.1). This trend suggests that the population could double to nearly 61 million in about 22 years67. More than half of the population (51 per cent) are females. In general, the population is increasingly becoming younger with the proportion of children (under 18 years) having increased from 51 per cent in 1969 to 56 per cent in 2002. More than half of these are below the age of 14 years. The proportion of older persons (60 years and above) on the other hand has decreased from 5.8 per cent in 1969 to 4.6 per cent in 2002. Owing to high population increase against fixed land, the population density of the country has increased overtime from 64 persons/km2 in 1980 to 85 persons/ km2 in 1991, to 123 persons/ km2 in 2002. This has also increased the dependency ratio to 110 per cent in 2002 and was projected to increase to 115 per cent in 2009.

TABLE 7.1POPULATION ESTIMATES AND PROJECTIONS (1991 TO 2015)
199119952000200220052006200720082009201020112012201320142015
Total population (million)16.6719.5022.8724.2326.7427.6328.5829.5930.6631.7832.9434.1335.3636.6237.91
Male population (million)8.199.5711.1211.8212.9413.3913.8714.3814.9315.5216.1216.7417.3818.0418.72
Female population (million)8.499.9311.7512.4013.8014.2414.7115.2115.7316.2716.8217.3917.9718.5719.19
Percent with age 0-4 years (96)18.9220.6121.0418.720.820.720.720.620.620.620.620.620.520.420.2
Percent with age 5-14 years (96)28.428.5130.1330.631.531.831.731.631.431.231.030.930.830.730.7
Percent with age 15-49 years (96)43.543.5642.4142.842.242.242.542.843.143.443.643.944.144.344.6
Percent with age 15-64 years (96)49.548.747.0647.646.246.046.246.446.646.847.047.347.547.747.9
Percent with 65 and over years3.32.171.773.11.61.51.51.41.41.41.31.31.21.21.2
Percent of females with age 15-49 (96)44.543.7542.9643.742.742.642.843.043.243.343.543.643.843.944.0
Sex ratio96.596.4394.6495.393.894.094.294.695.095.495.896.396.797.297.6
Dependency ratio102.51.051.12110.21.171.181.161.151.151.141.131.12l.111.11.09
Median age16.5151515.31414141414141414141415
Urban Population (million)1.892.983.954.084.224.374.524.694.895.035.215.395.57
Rural Population (million)14.7821.2522.7923.5524.3625.2226.1427.0928.0529.1030.1531.2332.34
Percent urban11.3412.3014.7714.7714.7614.7714.7414.7614.8514.7414.7414.7214.69
Percent rural88.6687.7085.2385.2385.2485.2385.2685.2485.1585.2685.2685.2885.31
Source: UBOS 2006

490. Fertility: The Total Fertility Rate (TFR) has remained high over the last three decades at an average of about 7 children per woman. This is mainly due to cultural and religious beliefs and preferences for large families as source of sustenance and form of social security. The low contraceptive rate estimated at 23 percent exacerbates high fertility. For example, in 2006, there was a high unmet need for family planning of 41 percent among 3 million married women in reproductive years. This unmet need is projected at 3.4 million married women by 2015. The low contraceptive use among adolescents has fuelled fertility with 59 percent of young people becoming pregnant by the age of 20 years68.

491. Mortality: The infant mortality rate declined from 122 to 76 deaths per 1,000 live births between 1991 and 2006 while under five mortality declined from 203 to 137 deaths per 1,000 live births over the same period69. These indicators could be further improved with higher levels of immunization from the current 63 per cent. The maternal mortality ratio as of 2006 was 435 deaths per 100,000 live births. The overall life expectancy at birth from 2002 census was 50.4 years for both sexes. There was a gain of 2.3 years in life expectancy between 1991 and 2002 for both sexes and was estimated at 51 years in 2009. The improved mortality indicators are a result of improved social service delivery and declining poverty levels.

492. Urban Migration: The population of urban dwellers has increased from less than one million (6.7 per cent) in 1980 to 3 million (12.3 per cent) in 2002. Between 1991 and 2002, this population grew at a high growth rate of 5.6 per cent.

7.1.2 Constraints to Sustainable Population Growth

  • i) Low levels of education and lack of skills which are mainly a result of high dropout rates, especially among girls in both primary and secondary schools, which in turn leads to teenage pregnancies and early marriages.
  • ii) Some cultural and religious beliefs do not agree with the need for family planning and, therefore, limit the use of family planning services by some sections of the population.
  • iii) Low levels of reproductive health services due to the fact that a number of individuals are either uninformed or do not have access to family planning services.
  • iv) Lack of social safety nets and security at old age. Households tend to consider having children as security for old age due to the absence of appropriate insurance and social safety nets. In addition, children are employed to provide family labour by most households. This problem is exacerbated by high level of infant mortality that drives couples to produce more children to cushion themselves against such risks.
  • v) Absence of advocacy programmes.

7.1.3 Objectives, Strategies and Interventions

493. Objective 1 - Integrate population factors and variables at various levels of development planning.

  • Strategy 1: Secure commitment to population and development linkages and ensure appreciation of community initiatives in response to population and development issues.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Develop capacity for population data management (collection, analysis, utilization and dissemination) at various levels.
  • ii) Develop capacity for integrating population variables into policies, plans and programmes.
  • iii) Advocate for better understanding and appreciation of the linkages between population and development. To enhance this, mobilization for commitment and support of decision makers at various levels to allocate resources for the integration of population factors and variables into development planning will be undertaken.
  • iv) Advocacy for increased utilization of population data and information for evidence-based decision making.

494. Objective 2 - Promote improvement in the health status of the population.

  • Strategy 1: Promote access and use of population and health information.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Develop capacity to analyze, document and disseminate population trends in relation to socio-economic development and patterns at central and local Government levels. In this regard, training programmes for staff will be developed and research reports will be produced annually.
  • ii) Design and implement community awareness programmes on health rights especially reproductive rights and improved quality of health services delivery.
  • iii) Continue to conduct and extensively disseminate findings from Uganda Demographic Health Surveys (UDHS), Population Census, and reports from the Annual Health Management Information System (HMIS).
  • Strategy 2: Advocate for affordability, availability and accessibility of quality health services.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Promote awareness among men, women and communities on their roles and responsibilities in sexual and reproductive health and rights.
  • ii) Promote the strengthening and expansion of a functional referral system. This will require strengthening the HMIS and disseminating UDHS results.
  • iii) Advocate for development and appropriate deployment of skilled human resource for reproductive health through dissemination of UDHS, Population Census and HMIS reports.
  • iv) Advocate for Reproductive Health (RH) commodity security. In this regard, HMIS reports, Labour Market Information system (LMIS) reports, and Ministry of Health sector reports will be produced and disseminated.
  • v) Promote the strengthening of youth-friendly sexual and Reproductive Health services. This will include advocating for institutionalisation of youth friendly services.
  • vi) Advocate for linking of reproductive health and HIV/AIDS programmes. To facilitate this, advocacy for increased budgetary allocation for RH will also be intensified.
  • vii) Advocate for adherence to RH rights especially for women and girls including Gender Based Violence (GBV).
  • viii) Equip the referral system with communication, ambulances, basic medical equipment and personnel, and develop appropriate guidelines.
  • ix) Revise, disseminate and enforce public health and environment standards for communities and households. Community and household guidelines for public health and environment sanitation standards will be developed.
  • x) Advocate for improvement of maternal and child mortality through campaigns to reduce teenage pregnancies, proper spacing of pregnancies and improve quality of maternal care.
  • xi) Improve access to RH services in HC IIIs and IVs with a focus on maternal health care and family planning.
  • xii) Advocate for improved nutrition especially for mothers, children and the elderly.

495. Objective 3 - Enhance Competitive skills building and human capital development.

  • Strategy 1: Ensure that established population groups have functional and competitive skills and are increasingly participating in education, training and functional literacy programmes.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Promote compulsory Universal Primary Education and Post-Primary Education and Training. In this regard, EMIS reports and annual reports will be produced and education sector plan reviewed.
  • ii) Promote increased enrolment and retention of girls and boys at all levels of education including technical and vocational training. In addition, advocacy for making vocational training more practical and relevant through redesigning the curriculum will be undertaken.
  • iii) Improve Functional Adult Literacy programmes especially for the rural poor through redesigning the FAL curriculum.
  • iv) Promote the revision of the education curriculum to focus on entrepreneurship and competitive skills development at all levels.
  • v) Promote a work ethic and culture that encourages every person to contribute positively to the socio-economic development of the country.

496. Objective 4 - Advocate for improved nutrition and food security, increased household incomes, protection of the environment and sustainable use of natural resources.

  • Strategy 1: Increase ability of households to earn and allocate higher incomes to meet national nutrition and food security standards, and to demand appropriate sources of clean energy while conserving water and soils.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Advocate for the review and development of a legal framework to ensure food security at all levels.
  • ii) Promote school feeding programmes to reduce hunger at school and improve the nutritional status, development and school performance of children.
  • iii) Encourage appropriate cultivation and distribution of food to meet domestic demand and have surplus for sale.
  • iv) Encourage appropriate food processing, preservation and storage at household level.
  • v) Revitalize public health education on appropriate feeding, nutrition and health.
  • vi) Establish functional schemes for rewarding communities and households adopting strategies for appropriate food and nutrition security.
  • vii) Review and develop the policy and legal frameworks for natural resource management at national and community level.
  • viii) Support rewarding programmes for water and soil conservation at community level.
  • ix) Support acquisition of appropriate technology for alternative sources of clean household energy.
  • x) Empower communities, households and individuals to improve their incomes and develop a saving culture.

497. Objective 5 - Promote positive health seeking behaviour.

  • Strategy 1: Ensure that communities and individuals utilize available health services and adhere to good sanitation practices.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Encourage male involvement in reproductive health.
  • ii) Promote community utilization of safe motherhood and child survival services.
  • iii) Advocate for strengthening health education, proper hygiene, safe water and proper sanitation practices at the household level.

498. Objective 6: Reduce the unmet need for family planning.

  • Strategy 1: Promote adherence to a manageable family size among couples.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Advocate for affordability, availability and accessibility of family planning services and promote provision of family planning information and increased utilization of family planning.
  • ii) Focus on making family planning services available for women and girls especially in rural areas.
  • iii) Promote efficient commodity security logistics.

499. Objective 7 - Advocate for planned urbanization and human settlements.

  • Strategy 1: Ensure planned urban infrastructure with adequate employment and amenities for education, health, water and waste disposal.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Analyze, document and disseminate information on the advantages of planned urbanization and human settlement and relate them to social service and infrastructure provision.
  • ii) Promote the reviewing of the land tenure system.

500. Objective 8 - Mobilize resources for effective implementation of the national population policy and programmes.

  • Strategy 1: Ensure that population activities and resources are efficiently managed and that implementing partners adhere to the action plan.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Advocate for increased budgetary allocation for implementation of the population policy at national, district and lower levels.
  • ii) Develop capacity of stakeholders at various levels for resource mobilization.
  • iii) Strengthen partnerships and collaboration for resource mobilization, including the private sector.

501. Objective 9 - Develop a monitoring and evaluation system for the implementation of the National Population Policy.

  • Strategy 1: Establish a functional monitoring and evaluation framework.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Develop a monitoring and evaluation framework.
  • ii) Establish a management information system for the national population policy and programmes.
  • iii) Ensure data sharing and institute appropriate interventions at all levels.

7.2 LABOUR AND EMPLOYMENT

7.2.1 Situational Analysis

502. Uganda’s total labour force was estimated at 10.9 million persons in 2006 (UNHS 2005/06) and is projected to reach 19 million by 2015. The labour force participation rate was 82 per cent with more males than females. The combined unemployment and underemployment rates accounted for 14 per cent of the labour force.

503. Out of 12 million Ugandans in the working age group, only 6.4 million were actively working in 2002. Nearly 75 per cent were actively working in rural areas. The labour market will, therefore, need to absorb about 8.2 million people in 2015. Moreover, 50 per cent of the economically active youth are not engaged in income generating employment (paid employment or self-employment). Of these, 6 per cent are looking for employment while the rest are employed as unpaid family workers. The most affected is the young female population (14-30 years) of which 70 per cent are engaged in unpaid family work (Population and Housing Census, 2002). The overall unemployment rate70 was 5 per cent in 2002 with the urban unemployment rate standing at 10 per cent (UBOS 2002). The proportion of the permanently employed to the total labour force was 4.8 per cent in 2002/03 and reduced to 4.6 per cent in 2005/06.

504. In addition, subsistence agriculture remained a major sector of employment increasing from about 66 per cent in 2002/03 to about 75 per cent in 2005/06 (2006 UNHS). Between 2002 and 2005, the percentage of self-employed people in the agriculture sector increased by 11.2 per cent. This could be partly due to the failure to get non-agricultural work as explained by a negative growth rate for the self-employed in non-agricultural activities (-9.4 per cent) per annum. While the Ugandan economy has been growing at an average rate of 7 per cent for the last 10 years, the average rate of population growth remains high at 3.2 per cent per annum.

505. While agriculture accounts for over 75 per cent of labour force, problems of low agricultural productivity and land degradation appear to be getting worse. Farmers’ yields are typically less than one-third of the yields obtained on research stations. The rate of soil fertility depletion in Uganda is among the highest in Sub-Saharan Africa with an average annual rate of total depletion of 70 kilograms of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium per hectare. The agriculture sector therefore requires a strong stimulus if it is to absorb the increasingly large number of the labour force. Alternatively, other sectors of the economy (industry and services) will have to expand significantly in order to create opportunities for labour migration from the agricultural sector.

506. The industrial sector which is the immediate alternative employer is still equally under developed. Over 95 per cent of Uganda’s exports are primary agricultural commodities. Uganda’s industrial sector is largely informal characterized by production of low quality goods; gross deficiencies in technology; lack of indigenous capacity; little attention to research; low development and innovation; lack of foundational engineering industries and foundries necessary for the manufacture of tools and spare parts for use in different industries and the generally poor state of roads and rail infrastructure that makes supplies and distribution of goods costly. These inhibiting constraints will have to be relaxed in order to create opportunities for absorbing the increasingly expanding labour force.

507. Labour productivity in Uganda is still very low. The value added per worker in Uganda is 68 per cent lower than that in India and 96 per cent lower than that in China. Tanzania’s labour productivity is 28 per cent higher than that of Uganda. For instance, the WB/UMACIS survey (2003) reported that about 24.7 per cent of workers surveyed reported having been ill within the previous 30 days.

508. Government has put in place several Labour Laws to regulate the work environment and facilitate delivery of Labour services. The Employment Act No.6 (2006) requires districts to appoint Labour Officers to provide Technical Advice to employers. However out of 90 districts, only 30 have recruited Labour Officers to enforce Labour legalization. There is also inadequate funding to the Centre and Local Governments to register and undertake sufficient inspection of workplaces. The level of awareness of the Provisions of the existing Labour Laws is also unacceptably low among the workers and employers.

509. There is a structural segregation of women into low paying sectors; 50 per cent of employed women are in the three lowest paying sectors (agriculture, household and mining and quarrying) compared to 33 per cent of men. In the private sector women are paid lower wages than men for the same work; in 3 out of 9 identified occupations, women earn less than 75 per cent of the average male wage (MFPED 2009).

7.2.2 Constraints to the Performance of Labour and Employment Sector

  • i) Inappropriate education and training system: The current education system prepares graduates to become job seekers rather than job-creators. Little emphasis is placed on entrepreneurship development, vocational training and skills development at all levels. Most of Uganda’s employees have inadequate technical and professional qualifications. This factor is basically responsible for some employers’ general preference for expatriate personnel to locally trained Ugandans.
  • ii) Inadequate attention to workers’ training and retraining including the neglect of farmers in general training policies and programmes.
  • iii) Low levels of income and savings and inadequate financial intermediation to enable potential entrepreneurs to start new enterprises or expand existing ones.
  • iv) Poor Health: Poor health conditions owing to malnutrition, lack of access to clean water, unhealthy housing and environmental sanitation limit the productivity of the labour force.
  • v) Inadequate Infrastructure: Lack of infrastructure such as roads and rail denies producers access to markets. The problem is aggravated by the absence of electricity and water for production.
  • vi) Use of rudimentary and obsolete technology: Despite the existence of technologies elsewhere in the world, Uganda’s economic sectors continue to experience major deficiencies in terms of technology use and advancement.
  • vii) Non-conducive work environment such as unhygienic and hazardous work environment which is risky to people’s lives.
  • viii) Weak labour market information system to facilitate efficient planning for the labour force.

7.2.3 Objectives, Strategies and Interventions

510. Objective 1 - Create an enabling environment for increasing high quality employment.

  • Strategy 1: Implement the existing policies, regulations, laws and guidelines.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Implement the national youth employment policy and plan and implement other laws and guidelines on labour productivity and employment. Deliberate effort will be made as affirmative action to target the employment of persons with disability and women in line with the disability Act and policy, the gender policy and national action plan on women and UN conventions on the rights of persons with disability and women.
  • ii) Strengthen the Labour Market Information System (LMIS) through increased funding so as to effectively guide both employers and job seekers.
  • iii) Establish a minimum wage for decent income, improved productivity and increase in aggregate demand for goods and services.
  • iv) Strengthen the industrial Court to arbitrate disputes between workers and employers.

511. Objective 2 - Raise the supply of resilient SMEs and reduce the high failure rate.

  • Strategy 1: Promote institutionalized entrepreneurship development training.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Provide entrepreneurship training for youth and women. Areas of focus will include business planning, expanding business programmes, competing through quality, accounting and book keeping among others.
  • ii) Provide regular business health checks and report performance of SMEs. In addition, business counselling will be provided to SMEs.
  • Strategy 2: Promote Start-ups and youth entrepreneurship products to include graduate empowerment.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Establish enterprise start-up business clinics.
  • ii) Develop a techno-entrepreneurs’ park and SME business incubation programme.
  • iii) Provide young enterprises seed capital.
  • iv) Provide motivation for new enterprises. A mechanism of awards will be developed and operationalised.
  • Strategy 3: Promote value-chains.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Promote cluster development.
  • ii) Promote corporate governance of a community owned economic cluster to increase corporate participation.
  • Strategy 4: Increase access to finance.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Establish a credit guarantee scheme.
  • ii) Provide training in financial literacy; loan implementation and SMEs financing.
  • iii) Promote Joint Venture (JV) development to increase JV businesses.

512. Objective 3 - Increase protection of workers through improved compliance with labour standards.

  • Strategy 1: Strengthen institutional capacity.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Recruit labour officers at both Central and Local Government levels.
  • ii) Strengthen labour administration and compliance to labour standards through implementation of a decent work country programme.

513. Objective 4 - Promote social dialogue and industrial harmony in the employment sub-sector.

  • Strategy 1: Strengthen Social Dialogue and Tripartism.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Implement the Tripartite Charter to increase settlement of disputes.

7.3 EDUCATION AND SPORTS

7.3.1 Situational Analysis

514. The Education and Sports Sector in Uganda is comprised of Government and private formal as well as non-formal educational institutions spanning all educational levels namely: Pre-primary; Primary; Secondary; Business; Technical and Vocational Education and Training (BTVET); and Higher Education levels. It also includes public, private and community Physical Education and Sports institutions. It has multiple objectives including the transmission of general and applied knowledge, as well as skills development.

515. Education and Sports is important for the provision of the public good whose returns are critical for sustained economic growth and social transformation. There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that spending more years in school is an effective strategy for promoting development including improved family health, nutrition, and reduced fertility rates.

516. Factors affecting delivery of education and sports service: Service delivery, in the past decade, has been shaped by four critical contextual factors that include: the macro-economic context, sectoral policies, demography and international long term commitments.

517. The current budgetary allocation is inadequate for the required expansion of service delivery in the sector, to meet the projected social demand over the next decade. The allocation to the Education and Sports Sector as a proportion of total GoU expenditure, in the past decade, has progressively declined from the all time high of 24 per cent (FY 2001/02) to 17.3 per cent (FY 2009/10).

518. Basic Education: This is constituted by pre-primary and primary schools. Pre-primary schools cater for 2-5 year olds and are currently exclusively owned and managed by the private sector. In 2008, the enrolment in pre-primary schools was reported at approximately 89,296 children in about 1,724 registered pre-primary schools in the country. The Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) increased by 1.8 per cent between 2002 and 2009 (EMIS, 2009). However, many children of pre-primary school going age remain excluded considering the number of children aged 3-5 years who were approximately 3.5 million in 2008.

519. Primary education caters for 6-12 year olds. It is provided through a network of 16,600 public and private primary schools scattered across the country. Of these, 73.8 per cent were public primary schools in 2008 (Figure 7.1).

FIGURE 7.1PRIMARY SCHOOLS BY OWNERSHIP

Source: Education Management Information System (EMIS), 2009

520. The number of Government primary schools increased from 12,500 in 2000 to 12,169 in 2009 and the pupil classroom ratio improved from 106:1 to 72:1 over the same period. The introduction of UPE in 1997 significantly increased access to primary education as total enrolment tripled from about 2.7 million in 1996 to 8.2 million in 2009. The Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER)71 reduced from 128 per cent in 2000 (132 per cent, boys, 124 per cent, girls), to 115.1 per cent in 2009 (118.1 per cent for boys, 112.1 per cent for girls). A significant number of new teachers have also been trained and recruited. The number of qualified teachers has more than doubled from 74,000 (1995) to 158,110 (2009). This has decreased the proportion of untrained teachers from 28 per cent to 11 per cent in the same period (Figure 7.2).

FIGURE 7.2TRENDS IN PRIMARY SCHOOL ENROLMENT (2000 - 2009)

Source: Education Management Information System (EMIS), 2009

521. Over the same period, the number of books for the four core subjects of English, Mathematics, Science and Social Studies increased from 6.6 million to 11 million (2008). Between 2000 and 2005, the average pupil book ratio is reported by the Ministry of Education and Sports to have improved from 4:1 to 2:1. Completion rate has declined by 13.9 per cent from 62.9 in 2001 to 49 per cent in 2008. The decline is attributed to class repetition estimated at 11 per cent and school dropouts at 6.7 per cent (Figure 7.3).

FIGURE 7.3COMPLETION RATES TO PRIMARY SEVEN

Source: Education Management Information System (EMIS), 2009

522. Upon the implementation of UPE, there was massive recruitment of teachers to cater for the increased enrolment. The Pupil Teacher Ratio (PTR) reduced from 65:1 in 2000 to 48:1 in 2006 but reverted to 52:1 in 2009 (Figure 7.4).

FIGURE 7.4TRENDS IN PUPIL TEACHER RATIO (PTR) AND PUPIL CLASSROOM RATIO (PCR)

Source: Education Management Information System (EMIS), 2008

523. There has been an increase in classroom construction leading to an improved Pupil Classroom Ratio (PCR) from 106:1 (2000) to 72:1 (2009). Between 2000 and 2005, the total number of classrooms increased by 60 per cent as a result of the continued construction of classrooms under the School Facilities Grant (SFG) and Classroom Completion Grant (CCG). Approximately 80 per cent of the classrooms were built under SFG.

524. Secondary Education: is provided through a network of schools totalling to 3.020 (914 Government and 1,994 non- government). The percentage share of responding Government, private and community schools was 31.1 per cent, 57.1 per cent, and 12.4 per cent respectively. There are also a very small number of international schools that deliver foreign curricula. Rural based secondary schools account for 37.8 per cent of the total number of schools. Most of the private schools are found in urban areas. The introduction of Universal Secondary Education (USE)/Universal Post Primary Education and Training (UPPET) in 2007 increased secondary school enrolment (S1 - S6) by 25 per cent from 814,087 in 2006 to 1,165,355 students in 2009, with girls constituting 45.6 per cent of total enrolment. Figure 7.5 shows trends in Secondary School Enrolment 2000-2009.

FIGURE 7.5TRENDS IN SECONDARY SCHOOL ENROLMENT- 2000-2009

Source: Education Management Information System (EMIS), 2009

525. As a result of USE, the GER improved to 29 per cent; the NER to 24 per cent in 2008 and the Gross Intake Rate (GIR) for S1 to 33.3per cent in 2008. The improvement of the GIR increased the proportion of S1 in the total enrolment to 29 per cent.

526. In addition, the transition rates from P.7 to S.1 have increased since the introduction of Universal Secondary Education in 2007 as shown in Figure7.6 below.

FIGURE 7.6TRANSITIONAL RATES FROM PRIMARY SEVEN TO SENIOR ONE FOR 2001-2009

Source: Education Management Information System (EMIS), 2009

527. The same trend is observed in the transition rates from S.4 to S.5 between 2005 (39 per cent) and 2009 (48 per cent). The number of classrooms constructed for secondary schools also increased from approximately 14,760 in 2005 to about 33,512 in 2009.

528. Efficiency and quality of secondary education remains very low due to poor management of school resources. According to preliminary results of the 2008 National Standardized Test for Senior 2 students; 81.9 per cent of students reached minimum competency levels in English, 69.4 per cent in Mathematics and 36.7 per cent in Biology.

529. The secondary curriculum has many optional subjects. In addition, the workload is still very low by international standards. Poor implementation of efficiency enhancing policies, and inequitable deployment of teachers are some of the causes of low efficiency and quality in secondary education.

530. Figure 7.7 shows that the student teacher ratio in secondary school has relatively remained the same (1:18 in 2000 to 1:19 in 2008). The student class room ratio improved from 54:1 in 2000 to 46:1 in 2007.

FIGURE 7.7TRENDS IN STUDENT CLASSROOM RATIO AND STUDENT TEACHER RATIO

Source: Education Management Information System (EMIS), 2008

531. The high cost of transition to mass provision of secondary education is compounded by budget limitations even if efficiency measures were to be implemented vigorously.

532. Business, Technical, Vocational Education and Training (BTVET): This is an overlapping three-tier system; comprising craftsman level training offered by technical schools and institutes, technician level training offered by technical colleges and Graduate Engineer level training offered by universities. It comprises 133 public institutions, about 600 private training service providers and 17 apprenticeships and enterprise-based training programmes representing 17 percent, 81 per cent and 2 per cent respectively (Figure 7.8).

FIGURE 7.8POST PRIMARY INSTITUTIONS BY TYPE

Source: Education Management Information System (EMIS), 2008

533. Between 2006 and 2009 enrolment in BTVET increased by 14.5 per cent from 25,682 (25 per cent female and 75 per cent male) to 30,009 (39 per cent female and 61 per cent male) respectively. This is attributed to the implementation of the BTVET component of USE. The number of instructors has increased in both public and private institutions from 1, 041 in 2004 to 1,843 in 2008.

534. To adequately contribute to development, the BTVET sub-sector should have an enrolment ratio of at least 30 per cent of post primary enrolment.

535. Higher Education: this is the heart of education as well as the core of national innovation and development systems. It is also the place where teachers are trained and curricula developed. Without research in higher education to develop curricula for the entire education system, all curricula will be of little relevance to national development. Universities are the core of any national development system because they produce not only the knowledge needed to drive economies but also the skilled human resources required to do the job.

536. During the plan period, the higher education gross enrolment ratio will be raised from the current 4.97 per cent to at least 15 per cent (of relevant age). To economically take off, a country should have a tertiary gross enrolment ratio of at least 40 per cent in relevant disciplines. As the country’s ratio is still very low, the contribution of the state to public universities should be increased from 0.30 per cent as a percentage of the GDP (where it has been since 1999) to 1.0 per cent to match what Kenya and Tanzania spend on this item. This is the key way to keep Uganda’s edge as a supplier/exporter of education in the region. The higher education sub-sector should be prepared to receive the graduates of UPE and USE. Attention should be paid to both public and private institutions in terms of providing the requisite resources and incentives to expand and maintain the required standards.

537. Due to increased emphasis on primary and post primary education, higher education is continuing to face major challenges particularly with the subventions from Government. Most public universities are characterized by over-crowded lecture rooms, dilapidated old infrastructures, meagre education facilities, inability to attract the best academic and administrative staff and inadequate research or artistic productions. There were 145 higher education (universities and non-university) institutions with a total enrolment of 155,000 students in 2007 growing from 10,000 in 2000. However, enrolment growth was 14 per cent, slightly lower than the Sub-Saharan average growth of 15 per cent. Preliminary figures indicate 180,000 students were enrolled in 2009. The current staffing level of 1:20 representing only 53 per cent of total needs is far lower than the ideal set by the National Council for Higher Education. Moreover, about 47 per cent of academic staff work part-time, which is inconsistent with what is required to maintain high quality education and training standards. Privately sponsored student numbers in both public and private institutions have increased enormously. By 2005/6, the share of private fee paying students in public universities was 80.2 per cent (9,592 students) as compared with 19.8 per cent (11,786 students) Government sponsored ones. This growth must be matched with facilities hence the need to secure more financial support. Private education will increasingly become vital for absorbing demand and therefore enhancing access. This plan will focus on improving the higher education sub-sector because all educational levels dovetail into the higher education sub-sector.

538. Despite the rush to attain university education, student enrolment in science and technology in both private and public universities lags behind at less than 27 per cent (2006) of the total enrolment. This is below the international minimum standard of 40 per cent registration in science and Technology in order for a country to economically take off and participate in the global knowledge based economy.

539. Teacher Education: This constitutes Primary school teachers trained in Primary Teacher Colleges (PTCs) and Secondary school teachers trained in National Teachers Colleges (NTCs) and Universities under the Teacher Development and Management System (TDMS) that has been operational since mid 1990s. In the past decade the education and sports sector made great efforts to boost the number of qualified teachers at both primary and secondary levels. However, this increase remains short of the required numbers resulting into high Pupil Teacher Ratios. The total number of qualified teachers in the primary sub sector increased from 110,366 in 2000 to 158,110 in 2009 while in the secondary sub-sector there were a total of 63,293 teachers in 2008.

540. The shortage of teachers has led to prioritizing the implementation of the policy of 100 per cent Government sponsorship of students joining Primary Teachers Colleges and 80 per cent sponsorship for those joining National Teachers Colleges (NTCs). In addition Pre-service students registered in all the 46 Government aided PTCs are being trained on competencies required to deliver the Thematic Curriculum. Furthermore, the Scheme of Service targeted at all serving staff has been introduced as a framework for career progression and development. This framework is expected to address the issue of teacher motivation and retention as well as making the teaching profession first choice for bright students.

541. Physical Education and Sports: This contributes to national development through promotion of fitness, teamwork, discipline, patriotism and social harmony. It is also a profession that creates opportunities for self employment and livelihood, as well as providing entertainment and amusement. The ministry has developed the Physical Education and Sports Policy and a Strategic Investment Plan that are expected to guide the development of Physical Education and Sports in the country. The Policy and the Strategic Plan are being operationalised through formal education institutions at all levels of the Education System. In addition, attempts are being made to procure basic physical education and sports equipment.

542. Since 2007, the Physical Education and Sports sub-sector has trained 100 coaches; 800 youth sports trainers, and 800 Physical Education primary teachers and volunteer trainers. It has also successfully carried out public awareness raising and education workshops for 160 sports stakeholders throughout the country. In addition, it has distributed Physical Education and Sports instructional materials and sports equipment to a number of educational institutions at all levels. In the primary sub-sector total equipment available includes 1,143 footballs, 673 netballs, 41 rackets and a mixture of others. The total number of facilities includes 1,059 fields, 476 courts, 35 swimming pools and a mixture of others. In the secondary sub-sector, the total equipment available includes 3,836 footballs, 2,399 netballs, 148 rackets and a mixture of others while the total facilities includes 1,285 courts, 12 swimming pools and 386 other facilities.

543. Special Needs Education (SNE): It is estimated that 10 per cent of school-going-age children have special needs of some kind and require special needs education. The scope of SNE covers all levels of education and training. In the pre-primary education sub-sector, there are a total of 6,632 (47.8 per cent males and 52.2 per cent females, EMIS, 2008). SNE pupils are currently 185,545 (53 per cent males and 47 per cent females) enrolled in Government aided primary schools. At secondary school level, there are a total of 11,145 (51.8 per cent males and 48.2 per cent females) learners with SNE needs.

544. Gender in Education Sector: The introduction of UPE resulted in increased enrolment for boys and girls, and by 2006 it had reached 90.4 per cent for girls compared to 93 per cent for boys. Completion rates to Primary Seven are low overall, and lower for girls. In 2006, 53 per cent of boys and 42 per cent of girls completed primary school. Fewer girls are still enrolled at secondary level; just one third of the girls who enrolled in primary are still in school at the age of 18, compared to half of the boys (UDHS, 2006). Whilst high costs affect both boys and girls, key causes of drop-out and absenteeism amongst girls are: early pregnancy; sexual harassment; female genital mutilation (MGLSD, 2008); lack of sanitation facilities. Girls also lag behind boys in grade promotion and learning achievement; their performance in national examinations such as PLE, UCE and UACE is much lower than that of boys as indicated by the UNEB Primary Leaving Examination results for the past five years (2004-2009). A report of the MoFPED shows that if the number of skilled women in the labour force is increased by 5 per cent every year, this would increase national output by 0.3 per cent.

545. The same is true for numeracy rates for girls in P.3 and P.6 (Figure 7.10).

FIGURE 7.9LITERACY RATES FOR P.3 AND P.6

Source: National Assessment of Primary Education (NAPE), 2009

FIGURE 7.10NUMERACY LEVELS S FOR P.3 AND P.6

Source: National Assessment of Primary Education (NAPE), 2009

546. Girls constitute the largest proportion of out-of-school children in the population. Girls are also more likely to drop-out of school or repeat grades than boys. Girls performance in National Examinations such as PLE, UCE, and, UACE has remained much lower compared to that of boys.

547. In the primary sub-sector the total number of qualified teachers in 2008 was 159,516 (male 60.2 per cent and female 39.8 per cent). The number of qualified female teachers has persistently been very low (Figure 7.11).

FIGURE 7.11TOTAL NUMBER OF QUALIFIED TEACHERS IN THE PRIMARY SUB-SECTOR

Source: EMIS, 2008

548. In the secondary sub-sector the total number of qualified teachers in 2008 was 63,293 (male 75 per cent and female 24.9 per cent). The female rate of participation as teachers in secondary education has persistently been very low (Figure 7.12).

FIGURE 7.12TOTAL NUMBER OF QUALIFIED TEACHERS IN THE SECONDARY SUB-SECTOR

Source: Education Management Information System (EMIS), 2008

7.3.2 Constraints to Performance of Education and Sports Sector

  • i) Weak institutional alignment, coordination and accountability practices. The amorphous structure of non-formal BTVET aggravates the coordination and management problems resulting in increased transactional costs within the sector.
  • ii) Inadequate budgetary resources to meet current and emerging priorities: Public funding to higher education has also been declining overtime. A lot of pressure is being put on the existing old facilities in public universities resulting into poor quality of service delivery.
  • iii) Capacity gaps in education: Teaching methods are old fashioned and books are not only inadequate but those that are available are not always used effectively. For example at primary and sometimes secondary levels many students leave school without having mastered required levels of literacy and numeracy.
  • iv) Social and cultural practices, attitudes and perceptions which affect the performance of the sector. Although the cost factor appears to be the most important for boys, girls drop out of school due to teenage pregnancy, sexual harassment and early marriages while for boys indifference to education is a key factor. In addition, a significant number of girls help with household chores. There is limited access to education for marginalized groups including children with disabilities and those in post conflict areas.
  • v) Inadequate physical infrastructure (scholastic materials, classroom blocks, water and sanitation, and power supply).
  • vi) Inadequate sports facilities and equipment.

7.3.3 Objectives, Strategies and Interventions

Primary Education

549. Objective 1 - Increase access and equity of primary education for girls and boys.

  • Strategy 1: Reduce costs of education to families.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Continue with the implementation of compulsory UPE by providing capitation grants to cover school costs.
  • ii) Adopt and implement a differentiated allocation formula for capitation grants to schools that takes into consideration the differences among schools and the communities they serve so as to realize an improved allocation of the capitation grants. In addition, a budget line will be allocated within the UPE capitation system for specialized equipment, facilities and materials for children with disabilities.
  • Strategy 2: Support programs targeted at disadvantaged children and the youth.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Collaborate with NGOs to implement special projects for disadvantaged and marginalized groups and integrate NGO staff into the district establishments and provide corresponding wage bills.
  • ii) Recruit and train more Special Needs Education (SNE) teachers to build capacity for provision of SNE and Inclusive Education in the Local Governments.
  • iii) Provide hardship allowances to teachers in hard to reach, hard to stay and conflict areas to increase their level of motivation and retention.
  • Strategy 3: Reduce social-cultural barriers to girls’ school attendance in order to reduce gender disparity in primary education.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Lower social-cultural barriers to girls’ access to primary education. This will include among other interventions, deploying more female teachers to rural schools to handle gender related issues at school level.
  • ii) Increase girls’ participation and retention in primary education through designing and implementing priority programmes and projects as well as disseminating lessons learned.
  • Strategy 4: Expand and improve primary school infrastructural facilities.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Use the School Facilities Grants (SFG) to expand and improve classrooms, teachers’ houses, pit latrines and other related facilities in order to improve hygiene, safety and security of children at school to be gender responsive.
  • ii) Repair/maintain facilities established under the SFG program in a cost effective manner.
  • iii) Make SFG flexible enough to accommodate the diverse infrastructural needs of schools in conflict areas and especially those with special needs requirements.

550. Objective 2 - Improve quality and relevance of primary education for girls and boys.

  • Strategy 1: Enhance instructional quality to increase pupils’ achievement of literacy, numeracy, and basic life skills.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Increase pupils’ competences in literacy (read and write), basic arithmetic and practical mathematics (numeracy) to help them master literacy, basic arithmetic and numeracy.
  • ii) Decongest overcrowded classrooms (particularly at lower primary classes- P1 to P3), to enable teachers to work with manageable groups of pupils that permit significantly more teaching and learning to take place.
  • iii) Craft a new regime of indicators for class size as a basis for determining quality targets and disbursement of funds rather than the current pupil-to-classroom and pupil to teacher ratios that tend to mask huge variations among classes particularly P1 & P2 that are generally more crowded than upper primary classes.
  • iv) Intensify the use of local languages as the medium of instruction in P1-P3, while P4 becomes a transitional class and time for the change of medium of instruction to English.
  • v) Intensify the implementation of the thematic curriculum that was introduced in 2006.
  • vi) Implement the continuous assessment system in primary schools to enable teachers to continually assess progress of pupils and provide remedial assistance to pupils that lag behind.
  • vii) Design curricula, instruction methods and materials appropriate for pupils in conflict areas and adequately orient on their delivery and use.
  • Strategy 2: Strengthen the teaching force.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Make teaching in the classroom effective through accelerated recruitment of more qualified teachers, enhanced free service and in-service training of teachers focusing on training of untrained and licensed teachers, and undertaking regular school inspection and support supervision activities.
  • ii) Carry out regular review of the Primary Teacher Education (PTE) Curriculum for primary teacher training to accommodate emerging issues.
  • iii) Recruit additional tutors to meet the requirement of growing enrolment and teaching staff at teacher training colleges.
  • iv) Appoint mentor teachers in all schools to liaise between teachers and Coordinating Centre Tutors (CCTs) as a measure to improve coordination and collaboration.
  • v) Rehabilitate and expand Primary Teachers Colleges (PTCs) facilities (with emphasis on Non Core PTCs).
  • vi) Provide relevant equipment, furniture, and other supplies to PTCs.
  • vii) Improve the management of PTCs and the conditions of service for primary teachers, including the implementation of the new scheme of service.
  • Strategy 3: Adopt pre-primary programs and other measures to prepare children for the intellectual requirements of primary school.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Strengthen public-private partnership in the provision of pre-primary education through licensing of more Early Childhood Development (ECD) centres.
  • ii) Institute measures that discourage under-age enrolment in P1 of children aged five years and below, and over-age children above six years.
  • iii) Integrate remedial programs into P1 and PTE curricula to target children that enrol in P1 with little or no exposure to reading, prereading materials and other readiness skills.

551. Objective 3 - Improve effectiveness and efficiency of primary education.

  • Strategy 1: Ensure that schools manage instructional programs, staff and other resources and become accountable to their communities.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Improve schools management through Teacher Development and Management Systems (TDMS) in-service training program for head teachers in financial and school management practices.
  • ii) Mobilize communities to participate in school activities.
  • iii) Develop and implement school improvement plans.
  • iv) Effectively monitor pupils’ progress towards acquisition of numeracy and literacy skills.
  • v) Regularly publish results of assessments of students’ achievements in literacy and numeracy, as a basis for each school’s plan for improvement of pupil achievement levels.
  • vi) Implement the customized performance targets scheme for head teachers rigorously to enhance performance and compliance with set learning achievement targets.
  • Strategy 2: Ensure that district education offices deliver educational services, help schools comply with standards and regulations, and monitor regularly and report accurately on school performance.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Strengthen the capacity and role of District Education Officers (DEOs) to effectively work with Local Governments (LGs) on the needs of schools and to have enhanced supervision capacity.
  • ii) Publish on annual basis district league tables to enable Local Governments (LGs) gauge and track performance rating at national level. The key measurement variables will focus on critical outcome indicators such as completion and net enrolment ratios.
  • iii) Implement customized performance targets and institute a reward system to encourage performance of districts and schools.
  • iv) Involve districts in Annual Sector Reviews (ASRs) to review annual progress and agree on performance targets.
  • v) Formulate relevant sectoral policies and ensure that the existing legal framework reflects the sectors’ strategic direction.
  • vi) Conduct research in topical areas and disseminate results to inform policy and decision making.
  • vii) Pilot priority initiatives that hold promise for the sub-sector.
  • viii) Strengthen EMIS to collect and analyze data, and report on schools in a timely manner for planning and decision making.
  • ix) Institute a coherent assessment strategy that includes day-to-day assessment in the classroom, and at each grade level of critical competencies as a measure to strengthen the tracking of pupil achievements at all levels.
  • x) Implement a new scheme of service for primary teachers (including head teachers) that will create a career ladder and differentiates salaries according to career status.
  • Strategy 3: Strengthen capacity of the Ministry, its agencies and institutions to provide leadership and management.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Provide administrative staff with the needed resources and tools to track the flow and use of resources. This is geared at realizing enhanced accountability.
  • Strategy 4: Enhance quality assurance and accountability.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Develop and maintain a coherent and feasible system of standards and performance monitoring for efficiency and effectiveness.

Secondary Education

552. Objective 1 - Increase access and equity in secondary education.

  • Strategy 1: Reduce costs of secondary education to families.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Continue with implementation of the Universal Secondary Education (USE) program.
  • Strategy 2: Expand, equip, and improve secondary school facilities.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Continue with construction of “seed secondary schools” in sub-counties where there are none and in districts where the need is great. All schools will be constructed on the principle of inclusiveness to ensure that they have accessible physical infrastructure to take care of concerns for students with disabilities.
  • ii) Rehabilitate and expand existing secondary schools to accommodate growing numbers.
  • iii) Expand, equip and improve secondary school facilities in needy areas.
  • iv) Provide furniture, equipment and supplies to all secondary schools.
  • Strategy 3: Improve equity in the participation of girls, students with disability and needy students.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Implement targeted bursary schemes for girls, students with disabilities and needy students.
  • ii) Implement and continuously assess and rationalize affirmative action for girls and students located in war-ravaged areas.
  • iii) Enforce the policy of inclusive education to reduce the costs of educating children with special needs in separate institutions and enable them to easily associate with other normal children. This will also enhance their life skills.
  • iv) Construct and equip regional secondary schools for children with severe disabilities to enable them gain access to formal education.
  • v) Establish regulation to protect girls and boys from sexual harassment in schools.

553. Objective 2 - Improve quality of secondary education.

  • Strategy 1: Strengthen the teaching force.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Improve the teacher training (pre-service and in-service) to enhance the competency of secondary school teachers to teach effectively; through training and continuous professional development. It is expected that guidelines for in-service or pre-service training will be used to motivate more teachers to enrol for special needs education.
  • ii) Establish TDMS for secondary education as a delivery mechanism for institutionalized teacher development and professional support for teachers, head teachers and education managers.
  • iii) Develop a new secondary teacher training curriculum that is focused on improvement of instructional skills for teachers in an inclusive education system.
  • iv) Upgrade facilities of National Teachers Colleges (NTCs).
  • v) Improve staffing and management of NTCs.
  • vi) Replace the two NTCs taken over by Universities (i.e. Nagongera and Kaliro NTCs).
  • vii) Recruit and train additional Special Needs teachers and guidance counsellors.
  • viii) Improve conditions of service for secondary teachers, NTC tutors and Non teaching staff.
  • Strategy 2: Establish education “centres of excellence”.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Fully equip teachers with all the facilities required for effective teaching and learning under the zonal model schools policy. These will include, among others, adequate number of qualified teachers, fully furnished libraries, science and ICT laboratories, adequate and relevant instructional materials, teachers’ houses, adequate and functional sanitation and hygiene facilities for both boys and girls, clean water and power.

554. Objective 3 - Improve effectiveness and efficiency of secondary education.

  • Strategy 1: Accord high priority to workforce competencies and further education.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Review secondary education curriculum to prioritize competencies with a broader application in the areas of effective communication, understanding of abstract concepts, numerical skills solving semi-structured problems by formulating and testing hypotheses; and ICT.
  • ii) Construct laboratories for science and ICT as well as libraries to create a firm basis for acquisition of productive and employable knowledge and skills. The infrastructure will be made accessible to Persons with Disabilities (PWDs) and specific computer packages for students with visual impairment procured and installed in the laboratories.
  • Strategy 2: Make more efficient use of teachers/instructors’ and learners’ time, and other resources.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Reduce students’ course load drastically through consolidation of subject matter into fewer courses.
  • ii) Ensure a nationally approved limited list of core textbooks as opposed to school-based lists.
  • iii) Increase the standard minimum class size and rationalize teacher workloads.
  • iv) Redeploy teachers from schools where there is a surplus to those where there are deficiencies. Schools with few or no special needs teachers and female teachers will be given priority in improving staffing levels.
  • v) Introduce and implement double-shifts and multi-grade classrooms, so that space and staff are used efficiently.
  • vi) Ensure that all teachers have the required skills to teach at least two subjects.
  • Strategy 3: Reconfigure secondary education.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Redesign the current six-year academic secondary curriculum to prepare students for higher education, and entry- level-jobs in the workforce.
  • ii) Establish general secondary schools that are tailored to the needs of the communities they serve.
  • Strategy 4: Ensure effective and efficient school inspection.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Increase the level and quality of secondary school inspection through provision of adequate financial and logistical facilitation and further enhancing the human resource capacity for school inspection in the Local Governments (DEOs and Inspection Units).

Business, Technical, Vocational Education and Training (BTVET)

555. Objective 1 - Increase access and equity of BTVET.

  • Strategy 1: Expand and improve BTVET facilities.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Construct and rehabilitate infrastructure in existing BTVET institutions.
  • ii) Furnish existing institutions with the required equipment, furniture and other supplies.
  • iii) Modularize BTVET courses to optimize use of training facilities.
  • iv) Provide matching grants to deserving private providers of BTVET.
  • Strategy 2: Improve equity in the participation of girls and needy students.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Target grants to BTVET institutions in more needy areas.
  • ii) Institute a bursary scheme for eligible girls and needy students.
  • iii) Take affirmative action for girls, needy students and students with special needs in the war-ravaged areas.
  • iv) Enforce inclusive education policy in the BTVET sub sector to reduce the costs of educating children with special needs.

556. Objective 2 - Improve quality and relevance of BTVET.

  • Strategy 1: Re-configure the BTVET sub-sector.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Transform BTVET into a flexible system to increase enrolment rates.
  • ii) Institutionalize BTVET within the framework of Uganda Vocational Qualifications Framework/Authority (UVQF/A) to ensure alignment of course objectives with corresponding job qualifications as well as credible assessment and certification of occupational competencies for learners.
  • iii) Oblige training providers in both public and private institutions to meet the sectoral objectives and standards.
  • iv) Ensure that 10 per cent of primary seven completers and 30 per cent of Post ordinary level students pursue skills development courses in BTVET.
  • v) Modularize all BTVET courses to ensure that they are based on the requirements of the labour market.
  • vi) Strengthen public-private partnership in the provision of skills training in accordance with UVQF/A.
  • Strategy 2: Strengthen the teaching force.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Recruit additional qualified instructors and craftsmen.
  • ii) Strengthen training (pre-service and in-service), and Continuous Professional Development (CPD) for instructors and head teachers.
  • iii) Enhance monitoring and support supervision.
  • Strategy 3: Strengthen intra and inter-sectoral linkages.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Design and implement collaborative mechanisms among MDAs in the provision of BTVET.
  • ii) Improve articulation of education between BTVET and other levels with a view to ensure continuity of opportunities.
  • Strategy 4: Adopt and implement efficiency measures to deliver BTVET programs.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Encourage private providers and communities to offer skills training courses.
  • ii) Modularize BTVET courses to optimize use of training facilities.
  • iii) Increase the supply of training materials through matching subsidies.
  • iv) Establish a text-book rental scheme.

Higher Education

557. Objective 1 - Increase equitable access to Higher Education.

  • Strategy 1: Reduce costs of education to families.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Continue and enhance Government sponsorship of higher education students so as to realize increased enrolment in higher education.
  • Strategy 2: Develop facilities to cope with rapidly increasing numbers.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Rehabilitate and expand existing facilities.
  • ii) Establish an open university.
  • iii) Strengthen the new public universities of Eastern and Northern Uganda.
  • iv) Encourage the private sector to get more involved in the provision of higher education.
  • v) Decentralize university education by opening up rural campuses for programmes that relevant to those areas.
  • Strategy 3: Diversify the sources and mechanism for financing higher education.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Reform public financing to target individual students and disciplines (science and technology) rather than institutions.
  • ii) Establish a student loan scheme to allow more students access tertiary education.
  • Strategy 4: Reform and improve curricula and instruction in priority disciplines.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Review the higher education curricula to link them to national socioeconomic development needs and those of the labour market.
  • ii) Attract and retain qualified faculty staff.
  • Strategy 5: Promote research, particularly applied research and publications.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Craft a policy to institutionalize research in all institutions of higher learning for both students and faculty members.
  • ii) Establish and maintain a specific fund/budget line for research.

558. Objective 2 - Improve quality and relevance of the tertiary education system.

  • Strategy 1: Restructure the tertiary system to increase coherence and flexibility.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Operationalise the sub-sector strategic plan that centres on a restructured system in order to develop coherence among Universities and other institutions of higher learning.
  • ii) Develop a course-credit system that allows mobility of students among disciplines and institutions without loss of earned work.

CROSS-CUTTING ISSUES

Physical Education and Sports

559. Objective 1 - Improve access to physical education and sports in the country.

  • Strategy 1: Expand physical education and sports (PES) facilities.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Finalize the development of the Medium Term Capacity Building Plan.
  • ii) Disseminate the Physical Education and Sports Policy.
  • iii) Train a minimum of 25 coaches annually. Coaches in the sports of deaf and blind people will be trained, for instance coaches in the area of Goal ball.
  • iv) Carry out in-service training of teachers. This is expected to reach 400 in-service teachers annually.
  • v) Provide sports equipment and materials to a minimum of ten schools per district annually.
  • vi) Expose Ugandan athletes to international sports events. This is anticipated to benefit thirty sports personalities in each international event annually.
  • vii) Provide logistical support to a minimum of fifty national clubs and associations annually.
  • viii) Organize sports competitions for schools and institutions to ensure continued sports competitions on an annual basis.
  • ix) Develop an M&E framework for physical education and sports.
  • Strategy 2: Support national sports federations and associations.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Support construction of facilities aimed at increasing the number of facilities for sports.
  • ii) Mainstream sports into educational curricula at various levels. This is expected to make physical education and sports part and parcel of education curricula at all levels.
  • Strategy 3: Establish a national recognition and reward scheme for elite sports persons. This is expected result into an operational recognition and reward system for athletes.
  • Interventions Description
  • i) Provide bursary/scholarships to elite athletes. An operational reward scheme will be put in place.
  • ii) Provide financial rewards to excelling national athletes. National awards (national, regional, parliamentary and presidential). To this end, a national rewards scheme is expected to be operational during the plan period.
  • iii) Promote private sector investment in sports.
  • Strategy4: Introduce a pension scheme for nationally acclaimed elite sports persons.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Create and operationalise a contributory fund for retiring athletes.

HIV/AIDS

560. Objective 1 - Combat HIV/AIDS in the Education Sector.

  • Strategy 1: Build capacity to combat HIV and AIDS.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Strengthen the sector’s policy framework for HIV/AIDS. This is expected to improve the sector response to HIV and AIDS.
  • ii) Train and mentor staff on relevant HIV/AIDS competencies such as Life skills, care and support.
  • iii) Review and formulate a new sector strategic plan on HIV/AIDS and put in place a monitoring and evaluation system.
  • iv) Provide technical backup to support schools/institutions to enhance institutional capacity.
  • v) Formulate an IEC strategy and build capacity for its implementation.
  • vi) Mainstream HIV/AIDS education in the school curriculum.
  • Strategy 2: Conduct HIV/AIDS advocacy and prevention education.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Raise awareness and distribute IEC materials.
  • ii) Encourage research in institutions to enhance knowledge creation.
  • iii) Promote Music Dance and Drama (MDD) and media campaigns in schools and institutions to raise awareness about HIV/AIDS.
  • Strategy 3: Provide HIV/AIDS treatment and care.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Liaise with service providers of anti-retroviral treatment to provide ARVs.
  • ii) Ensure the provision of food and nutrition in schools/institutions for HIV/AIDS learners and teachers. This is expected to increase the health and life expectancy of HIV/AIDS learners and teachers.
  • iii) Provide spiritual and physical support in schools/institutions. This is expected to improve performance and retention of HIV/AIDS learners and teachers.
  • iv) Distribute and promote use of condoms in schools/institutions. This is expected to reduce infection rates in schools and institutions.
  • v) Provide educational support and skills training to orphans and vulnerable children (OVCs).
  • Quality and Standards (Quality Assurance)

561. Objective 1 - Enhance quality and standards (quality assurance).

  • Strategy 1: Strengthen school inspection and support supervision.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Ensure that District Education Officers and District Inspectors of Schools (DISs) inspect and report on school compliance with standards, regulations, and other procedures. This is expected to ensure compliance with standards, regulations, and other procedures by schools and institutions.
  • ii) Ensure that CCTs regularly observe teaching and learning and continuously help teachers to improve their instructional methods and management.
  • iii) Conduct regular assessments of progress in education. The focus will be on primary National Assessment of Primary Education (NAPE) and secondary National Assessment of Secondary Education (NASE).
  • Strategy 3: Prevent and reduce corruption and misuse of public resource.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Institute an appropriate regime of incentives and sanctions that counter corruption and misuse of public resources. This is expected to increase transparency and accountability in the use of public funds.
  • ii) Enforce codes of conduct and sanctions against unprofessional conduct to improve education service delivery.
  • iii) Train staff in critical areas especially procurement and financial management.

Information and Communication Technology

562. Objective 1 - Adopt Information and Communication Technology in the delivery of Education and Sports services.

  • Strategy 1: Strengthen the use of ICT in the MoES Headquarters
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Upgrade ICT infrastructure to match the expanded needs of the sector and technological trends. This is expected to enhance sector performance.
  • ii) Connect all departments, sections and units to the Local Area Network (LAN) for enhanced internet connectivity.
  • iii) Improve the integrity of the LAN to enhance its dependability and reliance as a tool for accessing and storage of information.
  • iv) Enhance training of staff in the use of the LAN (i.e. intranet, internet, email) to enhance productivity.
  • Strategy 2: Integration of ICT in various curricula.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Review curricula to ensure that they include ICT as one of the skills areas to be addressed. This is expected to lead to impartation of appropriate skills in ICT.
  • ii) Enhance training of qualified ICT instructors in order to improve the teaching and learning process.
  • iii) Enhance the provision of computer hardware, software and accessories to schools/institutions.
  • iv) Carry out in-service training of teachers on ICT.
  • v) Promote the use of ICT to deliver various curricula as an efficiency measure to improve the teaching and learning process.

Environment

563. Objective 1 - Enhance environmental awareness in delivery of Education and Sports Services.

  • Strategy 1: Integrate environmental concerns in education and sports programs.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Mainstream environmental issues in various curricula at all levels of the education systems. This is expected to enhance environmental management in schools and institutions.
  • ii) Formulate sector specific policies and implementation guidelines on environment management.
  • iii) Strengthen coordination and networking on environment issues at the MoES Headquarters.
  • Strategy 2: Support Information Education Communication (IEC) activities on environment.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Support production and dissemination of brochures, flyers, and kits to schools to raise awareness levels.
  • ii) Sensitize stakeholders to create informed stakeholder participation.
  • iii) Carry out orientation and in-service training of teachers to enhance teaching and learning.
  • iv) Carry out multimedia campaigns.

Special Needs Education (SNE)

564. Objective 1 - Enhance equitable access to education and sports at all levels.

  • Strategy 1: Policy development and review.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Appraise the current policy framework in order to recommend necessary solutions to challenges. This is expected to institute relevant and operational policy framework.
  • ii) Formulate and operationalise new policies as well as plans and guidelines.
  • Strategy 2: Carryout advocacy and awareness creation.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Develop an advocacy strategy for SNE.
  • ii) Sensitize stakeholders to enhance stakeholder participation.
  • iii) Produce and distribute copies of approved policies.
  • Strategy 3: Build capacity for SNE.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Review the various curricula to integrate SNE issues.
  • ii) Enhance training of SNE teachers, head teacher and the community (pre-service and in-service).
  • iii) Community (pre-service and in-service). This is expected to result into community interest and participation.

Gender Mainstreaming

565. Objective 1 - Enhance gender equity in education and sports at all levels.

  • Strategy 1: Raise gender awareness.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Carry out training and in-service training of teachers (particularly senior women/men teachers and career teachers) and other stakeholders in gender responsive methodologies and practices.

Non-Formal BTVET

566. Objective 1 - Increase equitable access to non- formal BTVET.

  • Strategy 1: Offer non-formal training to communities in post P7 enrolling BTVET Institutions.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Design and implement a programme to facilitate enrolment of communities around BTVET Institutions for Non-Formal training during holidays.
  • ii) Set up non-formal BTVET centres in communities. This is expected to expand training opportunities for BTVET training.
  • Strategy 2: Support companies and individuals that offer industrial training and BTVET Non-formal training to increase the capacity of technicians and craftsmen.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Support companies and individuals involved in non formal BTVET.
  • Strategy 3: Improve equity in the participation of girls and needy students.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Increase girls’ participation in non-formal BTVET to raise the number of female technicians and artisans.
  • Strategy 4: Develop modules for BTVET courses.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Modularize non-formal BTVET Courses. This is expected to enable BTVET graduates keep abreast with the modern technology changes.
  • ii) Train and retrain instructors/providers for non-formal BTVET institutions to improve the teaching and learning processes in BTVET institutions.
  • Strategy 5: Strengthen the teaching and assessment of enrolled students.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Strengthen the UVQF for better and standardized assessment and awards.
  • ii) Standardize BTVET Occupational Profiles.
  • Strategy 6: Foster partnerships between the sector and other sectors in service delivery and capacity building.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Enhance public private partnership in skills development.
  • Strategy 7: Strengthen intra and inter-sectoral linkages to enhance sectoral synergies.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Capacity building for private providers and non-formal educators.
  • Strategy 8: Adopt efficiency measures to deliver BTVET programs.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Strengthen Uganda Private Providers of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (UGAPRIV) for better monitoring and profiling of competencies.
  • ii) Inspect activities of the Non-Formal BTVET.
  • iii) Carry out sensitization campaigns to create awareness and positive attitudes among the population.

7.4 SKILLS DEVELOPMENT

7.4.1 Situational Analysis

567. The notion of skills development: Skills Development is the imparting of applied knowledge and skills required in the world of work for non formal and formal employment. Skills development system caters for diverse individuals (irrespective of age, education level and social economic status etc) who demand and are able to pay for it.

568. Structure organization and Scope of skills development: Skills Development is comprised of Formal Public and Private Institutions, Private Training Providers (PTP), Private companies and non-formal training arrangements. Its scope covers vast areas that span business, technical, vocational, health, agriculture, and Para-medical and Para-professional fields. It is carried out in a number of centres and places of learning including work places.

569. Skills development institutions: These comprise formal and non-formal institutions. Whereas formal skills development institutions are registered with Ministry of education and sports, non-formal institution providers are unknown. The private vocational training institutions are estimated at over 1,000 however, private training providers are registered with Uganda Association of Private Vocational Institutions (UGAPRIV) and are encouraged to register with MoES. Some of these private skills providers operate as micro or small businesses in the informal sector and deliver their own certificates that are not formally recognized by MoES. A vast majority of them concentrate on office related skills development areas such as secretarial services, computer skills and apprenticeship.

570. Trends in outputs: The demand for skills development in the country is rapidly growing. For instance the number of service providers has increased from 575 in 2006 to 734 in 2008 (137 public and 600 private) and offer over 10,000 training vacancies. Although the number of non-formal institutions remains unknown it is currently estimated at 1,000 Private Training Providers and over 600 private and public companies. The number of private formal training institutions registered with Moses increased from 450 (2006) to 600 (2008), while public owned institutions also grew from 103 in 2000 to 137 in 2008 (Figure 7.13).

FIGURE 7.13PUBLIC FORMAL SKILLS DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTIONS BY OWNERSHIP

Source: Education Management Information System (EMIS), 2008

571. Table 7.2 below shows the areas of focus in the formal skills development institutions.

TABLE 7.2AREAS OF FOCUS FOR FORMAL SKILLS DEVELOPMENT AND TARGET GROUPS
InstitutionsCoursesTarget Group
Technical schools, Farm Schools, Community Polytechnics
  • Carpentry and Joinery
  • Block laying and concrete Practice
  • Tailoring and Cutting Garment
  • Motor Vehicle Mechanics
  • Agriculture
  • Electrical installation
  • Brick laying & concrete
P.7 completers
Technical institutes
  • Carpentry and Joinery
  • Block laying and Concrete Practice
  • Tailoring and Cutting Garment
  • Motor Vehicle Mechanics
  • Electrical Installation
  • Agriculture
  • Leather and Tanning
‘O’ level completers
Technical colleges
  • Architect Diploma in Draftsmanship
  • Ordinary Diploma In Civil and Building Engineering
  • Ordinary Diploma in Electric Engineering
  • Diploma in Industrial Ceramics
  • Ordinary Diploma in Mechanics
  • Ordinary Diploma in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
  • Ordinary Diploma in Water Engineering
‘A’ level completers

Technical Institute

Completer - Holder of a Technical Craft

Certificate
Uganda Colleges of Commerce
  • Diploma in Business Studies
  • Diploma in Secretarial Studies
  • Diploma in Hotel and Institutional Catering
  • Diploma in Business Administration
  • Diploma in Human Resource Management
  • Diploma in Local Government Finance Management
  • Diploma in Accountancy
  • Diploma in Project Planning and Management
  • Diploma in Stores Management
A’ level completers
Meteorological Institute
  • Diploma in Meteorology
  • Certificate in Meteorology
  • Certificate in Agro - Meteorology
  • Certificate in Instruments and Weather Observation.
‘A’ level completers
Survey and physical planning
  • Certificate in Surveying,
  • Certificate in Physical Planning
‘O’ level completers
Para Medical or Health

Training Institutions
  • Enrolled Comprehensive Nursing
  • Registered Comprehensive Nursing
  • Registered Nursing
  • Registered Midwifery
  • Nursing and Allied Professionals
  • Anaesthesia
  • Ear, Nose, and Throat Skills
  • Mental Health
  • Medical Lab. Technology
  • Clinical Medicine
  • Bio-Chemistry
  • Micro-Biology
  • Lab Techniques
  • Pharmacy Technicians
  • Medical Entomology
  • Environmental Health Assistants
  • Community Health Nursing
  • Occupational Therapy
  • Ophthalmology
  • Orthopaedic Appliances
  • Pharmacy Technicians
  • Physiotherapy
  • Dental Techniques
  • Radiography
  • Haematology
  • Parasitological
‘O’ and ‘A’ level completers
  • Private Companies
  • Corporate companies
  • Business associations
  • NGOs
  • SMEs
  • Professional Associations
  • Business Assoc Extension workers
  • Refresher courses i.e. management, computer, administration
Public formal training institutions
Source: Ministry of Education and Sports (2008)

572. Private-not-for Profit: These are mainly faith-based institutions which are usually registered with authorities and regulated by Government. They may receive subsidies and other public support. This category also includes institutions financed by NGOs. There are several faith-based and community based vocational training institutes for women in textiles, embroidery cooking and other home economics-related courses. However, in the absence of data on them, it is not possible to know their number and social economic status of the target groups.

573. Private-for-Profit: These are particularly numerous in urban areas. They charge tuition fees, which typically, constitute their main source of revenue and practice selective admissions. However, the profit oriented centres may receive subsidies from the Government or other sources. In most cases, the duration of training offered by private institutions ranges on average from twelve to fifteen months as compared to the formal skills development component that takes a minimum of two years. The training conditions vary a lot from one institution to another.

574. The common programmes offered by private for profit institutions are: handicraft and industrial trade; occupations connected with computer science; secretarial and accounting; medical and health services; transport related courses; hotel management and tourism; communication; agriculture and rural development; tailoring of traditional and modern garments; driving; machine and metallurgy; home economics; nursery teacher training and cookery and bakery.

575. The technical component of skills development: This is an overlapping three-tier system; craftsman level offered by technical schools and institutions, technician level offered through technical colleges and graduate engineer level offered through university programs. Formal technical schools offer three year full time courses to P.7 leavers leading to the award of Uganda Junior Technical Certificate (UJTC).

576. Formal technical institutes offer two-year full time courses leading to the award of Uganda Craft Certificate (Part I) and also one year advanced course leading to award of Certificate (Part II), in course areas that include among others carpentry, joinery mechanics and plumbing. Informal skills development component on the other hand, is characterized by on-the-spot training, on-the-job and Industrial training. Business associations and professional associations facilitate infirm training.

577. Intake capacity in formal skills development institutions varies from one institution to another. Whereas public formal skills development institutions had an overall intake capacity of 41,096 places, only 21,763 were occupied by 2008, implying that a total of 19,333 (43 per cent) places remained vacant.

578. In terms of enrolment, Public formal skills development component experienced an increase in enrolment of 71per cent (from 14, 077 in 2000 to 47,298 in 2008). This data does not include enrolment for the on-the-job training; training covered by companies and apprenticeship.

579. With regard to graduation, a total of 16,203 students graduated from the formal skills development component in 2007 of which 10,530 were male and 5,676 were female. This Figure however excludes students who graduated from non-formal institutions as shown in Figure 7.14.

FIGURE 7.14GRADUATING STUDENTS IN FORMAL SKILLS DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTIONS - 2007

Source: Education Management Information System (EMIS), 2008

580. The total number of classrooms and workshops in formal skills development institutions has increased. While the classrooms increased by 16 per cent (100) from 597 in 2005, to 697 in 2008, workshops increased from 54 to 70 over the same period. The trend in the increase in classroom stock is expected to continue since more resources are being allocated to the sub sector.

581. The trends also indicate increased availability of instructors for public skills development institutions as indicated in Figure7.15. There is however, a wide gender gap of 79 per cent in the number of instructor’s recruited in the skills development system. The instructor development programme needs to be well instituted and developed at all levels to meet national demand.

FIGURE 7.15TRENDS IN NUMBER OF INSTRUCTORS IN PUBLIC FORMAL SKILLS DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTIONS BY GENDER 2001-2008

Source: Education Management Information System (EMIS), 2008

582. Main achievements: These include the establishment of new structures for formal skills development, reorganization of the skills development sub-sector, creation of the skills development department, strengthening of quality assurance mechanism and regulatory framework, establishment of a coordination mechanism for public and private provision of skills development, establishment of Uganda Vocational Qualification Framework (UVQF) coordinated under the Uganda Association of Private Vocational Institutions (UGAPRIV), the full transformation of Department of Industrial Training (DIT) into a National Vocational Assessment Body replacing UNEB in technical exams, transfer of DIT as well as departmental training institutions to MoES, integration of non-formal training programme into the BTVET system.

583. Quality assurance reforms: In the early 1990s, the policy and legal frameworks for regulation of non-formal skills development required either updating or review. A coherent policy and legal framework has been developed to support the implementation of planned interventions.

584. Improved coordination of private training providers: To allow for easy coordination, an organization for private providers UGAPRIV was established to coordinate all registered private providers. Most of the formal skills development institutions that were formally under other Ministries were brought under the skills development sub-sector, although some have since been returned to their departments. Despite the achievements, efforts should be increased to coordinate the non-formal training as provided for in the BTVET Act, 2008.

7.4.2 Constraints to the Performance of Skills Sector

  • i) High unit costs: On a student basis when compared to other levels of education (especially primary and secondary), skills development education is much more expensive to provide. This is because of the smaller classes and larger expenditure on facilities, equipment, and consumables.
  • ii) Access and participation especially in rural areas remain limited to the majority who graduate or dropout of P.7 because of the limited capacity and the high cost.
  • iii) Negative social perceptions and stigma: This is particularly in the public and majority of parents who consider vocational education as fit for only the academically less endowed.
  • iv) Inadequately trained instructors: Uganda lacks fully fledged instructor training institutions for producing qualified instructors.
  • v) Gender stereotyping: There are still deep-rooted gender stereotypes in skills development courses. This is exacerbated by the fact that some types of occupational courses are often strongly gender biased. Some skills are culturally identified with one gender only; for instance, domestic related courses and secretarial skills are identified with females, while industrial arts skills are identified with males.
  • vi) Unsynchronized curricula: The curricula and training programs for skills development institutions are not standardized. There is no uniformity in the courses being offered, the quality of the training as well as the standards to be complied with by all providers. The unstructured nature of non formal training institutions also makes coordination of training very difficult.
  • vii) Scarcity of data on skills development and the labour market: accurate data on actual number of people undergoing skills development under various approaches is lacking. In addition data on actual employability of graduates including job opportunities and evolving skills demands in the labour market is also lacking. This is attributed to absence of institutionalized skills development as well as labour market and employment surveys. The last comprehensive labour market survey occurred 40 (forty) years ago and a national man power survey was last conducted in 1988.
  • viii) Mismatch between training content and the actual skills required in the labour market: Large numbers of graduates of formal skills development system continued to be unemployed despite the fact that there is a shortage of skilled workers in the economy. This is attributed to inadequate participation by employers in curriculum design and its delivery.
  • ix) Fragmented nature of skills development: skills development provision in the country is spread over different Ministries and organizations, including NGOs and faith based organizations with multiple testing and certification as well as standards. The DIT assessment programme is not spreading out fast enough to match the demand.
  • x) Diverse and amorphous scope: Skills development is not only diverse but is also amorphous with a wide scope and no clearly defined structure for the non-formal component.
  • xi) Lack of appropriate training equipment: training of high quality requires appropriate equipment, tools and adequate supply of training materials. However, Uganda’s system faces a chronic shortage of these inputs. As a result, efficiency and quality of skills development remain low. This is compounded by lack of qualified instructors, poor management and coordination, and streamlined curricula and unstructured non-formal training institutions. In addition, there is no programme to upgrade instructors in order to match the demand.
  • xii) Inadequate Certification System: In Uganda, certification exists only at the end of an arduous long cycle of education.
  • xiii) Proliferation of Certificates and Qualifications: There are currently many certifications being awarded by various bodies in the public sector, private sector and non-governmental organizations haphazardly. All these need to be harmonized to ensure proper maintenance of quality and standards. DIT/UVQF needs more capacity to meet the demand.
  • xiv) Accreditation System: There is currently no system and institution for comparing and ranking of certificates from outside and within the country. UNEB has been trying to do so but they are not mandated and structured to do so. There is need for benchmarking the system of certification and qualification against set standards by a legally and organizationally competent institution. DIT/UVQF was established for this purpose but it requires more support.
  • xv) Progression and integration: except for the direct formal academic career progressions, the rest of the other career paths are incapable of having continuous progression in their certification qualifications and career development from the lowest certificate to the highest degree attainable. Vocational courses have terminal progression and are integrated with academic pathway. The BTVET path should not be a dead end and more University programmes for technicians have to be opened.
  • xvi) Inadequate experienced instructors and teachers in private institutions. They are mainly drawn directly from graduates of technical institutes and polytechnics who have rarely had industrial experience or pedagogical training. Although there are some instructor initiatives at Nakawa Vocational Training Institute, more comprehensive instructor training institutes have to be opened to cover all parts of the country.

7.4.3 Objectives, Strategies and Interventions.

585. Objective 1 - Increase access to and participation in a coherent and flexible skills development system.

  • Strategy 1: Re-configure the skills development system.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Transform skills development into a flexible system through a gradual transition from the current full-time programs to a more flexible system.
  • ii) Build more capacity for UVQF/A to certify learners’ acquisition of vocational skills.
  • iii) Expand the existing post-primary vocational, farm schools and community polytechnics to cover rural areas.
  • iv) Modularize courses in skills development to ensure that they are based on the requirements of the labour market.
  • v) Oblige all training providers (both private and Government) to offer courses that correspond to the assessment requirements specified by UVQF/A.
  • Strategy 2: Make more efficient use of instructors’/teachers’ and learners’ time, and other resources.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Re-deploy instructors from institutions where there is a surplus to those where there are deficiencies.
  • ii) Implement double-shift and multi-grade systems for efficient use of space and staff.
  • iii) Provide continuous training of instructors in latest technologies in education.
  • Strategy 3: Expand, equip, and improve formal skills development facilities.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Continue to rehabilitate existing facilities.
  • ii) Construct new facilities to accommodate the growing numbers of students, including implementing the policy of establishing more regional/zonal vocational and technical institutes.
  • iii) Equip all training facilities.
  • iv) Re-establish “centres of excellence” in each district.
  • v) Strengthen public private partnerships in the provision of skills training.
  • vi) Provide training materials and equipment for BTVET programmes.
  • Strategy 4: Enhance status and attractiveness of skills development.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Support social marketing programmes for perception and attitude change among the public about technical and vocational training.
  • ii) Create a network among skills development experts and institutions to increase visibility and funding.
  • iii) Redesign BTVET programmes make them more relevant to target groups.

586. Objective 2 - Improve quality and relevance of skills development.

  • Strategy 1: Assure employability of trainees.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Identify and profile skills demanded in potential growth sectors.
  • ii) Enhance capacity of training centres through the training of trainers, supply of equipment and instructional materials.
  • iii) Enhance monitoring and evaluation of employability of trainees through tracer studies and other relevant methods.
  • Strategy 2: Provision of Life Long Learning.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Provide second chance to learners with limited access to training in the past to build on their skills and competencies.
  • ii) Provide modular short training to individuals and employees.
  • iii) Integrate non-formal training in BTVET programmes
  • Strategy 3: Delivery of quality skill development.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Provide well qualified instructors and craftsmen with industry-based experience.
  • ii) Provision of Competency Based Training (CBT).
  • iii) Establish a training fund to support skills development.
  • Strategy 4: Reform and improve curricula and instruction in priority disciplines.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Review curricula to include use of ICT.
  • ii) Transform the five Technical Colleges into National Polytechnics that train technicians.
  • iii) Establish a research fund.
  • Strategy 5: Strengthen and motivate the teaching force.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Improve conditions of service to attract and retain academic staff.
  • ii) Recruit and train (pre-service and in-service) instructors.

587. Objective 3 - Improve effectiveness and efficiency in the delivery of skills development.

  • Strategy 1: Strengthen intra and inter-sectoral linkages.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Collaborate with other ministries in the delivery of skills development.
  • ii) Improve articulation between formal skills development and other levels of education and training.
  • iii) Adopt efficiency measures in the delivery of formal skills development programs.
  • Strategy2: Provide requisite tools and resources to technical/administrative staff.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Train principals/deputies, instructors/teachers in supervision and management.
  • ii) Provide requisite tools to staff.
  • Strategy 3: Develop and maintain public private partnerships in delivery of services.
  • Intervention Description
  • i) Solicit community contribution to institutions’ construction and maintenance.
  • ii) Encourage NGOs assistance to programs for disadvantaged groups.

7.5 HEALTH AND NUTRITION SECTOR

7.5.1 Situational Analysis

588. Uganda has made progress in improving the health of its population: life expectancy increased from 45 years in 2003 to 52 years in 2008; HIV prevalence reduced from 30 per cent in the 1980s to 6-7 per cent in 2008; polio and guinea worm were eradicated, although there is re-emergence of polio due to cross border migration.

589. The Under-five mortality rate (U5MR) improved from 156 in 1995 to 137 deaths per 1,000 live births; the infant mortality rate (IMR) decreased from 85 to 76 deaths per 1,000 live births. Under-weight prevalence reduced from 23per cent to 16 percent over the same period; stunted growth from 41per cent to 38.5per cent and wasting increased from 4 percent to 6 percent (UDHS, 2006). The Newborn Mortality Rate was 33 per 1,000 live births in 2000 and decreased to 29 in 2006 accounting 40 per cent of infant mortality. Seventy percent of overall child mortality is due to malaria, ARIs, diarrhoea, pneumonia and malnutrition. The prevalence of vaccine preventable diseases has declined sharply.

590. Malaria, malnutrition, respiratory tract infections, HIV/AIDS, and tuberculosis remain the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. The high burden of disease due to these conditions continues to undermine efforts and investments made for social and economic development. Non-communicable diseases (NCD) are an emerging problem and include hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, chronic respiratory diseases, mental illness, cancer conditions, injuries as well as oral diseases. Cancers are on the increase in Uganda and some of them are linked to STDs such as HIV/AIDS and Human Papilloma Virus. The increase in NCDs is due to multiple factors such as adoption of unhealthy lifestyles, increasingly ageing population and metabolic side effects resulting from lifelong antiretroviral treatment. Uganda has the world’s 2nd highest accident rate, with over 20,000 road accidents annually. In 2008 there were 2,334 fatalities. Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are still common even when many are targeted for elimination. Trypanosomiasis may be expanding. The threat of fatal viral infections such as Ebola, Marburg, also SARS and avian influenza has implications beyond health and it impacts on trade, tourism and investment.

591. Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) reduced from 527 to 435 per 100,000 live births between 1995 and 2006, but remains very high. Teenage pregnancy estimated at 25 per cent in 2006 is among the highest in Sub-Saharan Africa and significantly contributes to overall MMR. Despite the slight drop in MMR, it is still short of the 2015 MDG target of 131. There is lack of facilities, supplies, medicine and staff. While 95 per cent of women visited antenatal clinics, only 47 per cent had four or more visits as recommended (UDHS 2006). Only 42 per cent of births are assisted by a skilled provider, and 63 per cent of women in rural areas give birth at home, compared to 20 per cent of women in urban areas. These poor results are compounded by unfavourable practices in health seeking behaviour and limited male involvement. Sexual and Gender Based Violence is common and often related to excessive use of alcohol. The 2006 DHS shows that 40 per cent of women and 11 per cent of men have ever experienced sexual violence Female Genital Mutilation, is a major health concern and the health service lacks the necessary human and physical resources to treat victims. Despite high levels of awareness, only 18 per cent of married women use a modern contraceptive method, partly because of cultural factors and partly because of poor access to reproductive health services. Key factors limiting use are low education amongst women, and the practice of not discussing family planning with spouses. Poor health outcomes for women and girls are magnified in the post-conflict areas of the North where incidences of early marriages stand at 43.1 per cent.

592. HIV prevalence amongst women is 7.5 per cent compared to 5 per cent among men. According to the UDHS of 2006, 21 per cent of married women say they cannot refuse sex, while 46 per cent of them say they cannot ask their husbands to use a condom. Young women and girls are also vulnerable to infection, especially those affected by conflict and violence.

593. Limited male utilisation of health services such as reproductive health and VCT, compromises family health. In addition men are less involved in providing care at home, resulting in greater burden of care for women. Negative cultural practices are among the under lying causes of poor health seeking behaviour among women.

594. Adequate nutrition has internationally been recognized as one of the key factors in human development and economic productivity. Data from the previous three Demographic Health Surveys, report high levels of child and maternal under nutrition that have persisted over the past 15 years. According to the 2006 UDHS, 38 per cent of children under five in Uganda are stunted, 16 per cent are underweight, and 6 per cent are wasted. Fifty percent (50 per cent) of women and 73 per cent of children fewer than 5 years are anaemic. One out of every five children (20 per cent) and one out of every five women (20 per cent) are vitamin A deficient. Countries with widespread iron deficiency as it is the case in Uganda are known to lose 2 per cent of their GDP every year due to poor learning ability and low productivity due to iron deficiency.

595. Infant and young child feeding practices are sub-optimal with only 60 per cent of infants 0 - 6 months exclusively breastfeeding and 80 per cent receiving complementary foods which is often not adequate in terms of quality and quantity. The causes of malnutrition are multi-dimensional and require an integrated approach involving line Ministries including MoH, MAAIF, MoES, MTTI, MoJCA, MoLG, MoGLSD, MWE and other stakeholders such as Universities, Hospitals, NGOs and CBOs.

596. These problems call for intensive, focused and well-coordinated collaboration between the Ministry of Health and other stakeholders. Over 75 per cent of the disease burden in Uganda can be prevented through health promotion and prevention. Preventive interventions such as immunization, promotion of sanitation and nutrition, though cost-effective, have not been given adequate attention. Opportunity now exists with the new vaccines coming on the market for prevention of pneumonia (pneumococcal vaccine), diarrhoea (rotavirus vaccine) and cervical cancer (Human Papilloma Virus).

597. The performance of the health sector under the PEAP was monitored through eight indicators (Table 7.4).

TABLE 7.3TRENDS IN HEALTH-RELATED OUTCOMES (1995-2006) AND PLANNING TARGETS
Indicator1995200120061PEAP Target (2007/2008)NDP Target (2014/2015)MDG Target (2015/2016)
Infant Mortality Rate (per 1,000 live births)818876684141
Under 5 Mortality Rate (per 1,000 live births)1561521376060
Maternal Mortality Ratio (per 100,000 live births)527505435354131131
Total Fertility Rate6.96.96.55.46
Source: Ministry of Health, Sector Performance Report 2008
TABLE 7.4TRENDS IN HEALTH SECTOR PERFORMANCE INDICATORS (2000/01 - 2008/09)
Indicator2000/ 20012001/ 20022002/ 20032003/ 20042004/ 20052005/ 20062006/ 20072007/ 20082008/ 20092015
OPD Utilization0.430.600.720.790.900.900.900.80.81.5
DPT 3/ Pentavalent vaccine coverage48638483898990828587
% of deliveries in health facilities22.6192024382932403440
% of approved positions filled by qualified health workers40425668687538.438.45685*
HIV- Prevalence rate at ANC6.16.56.2-6.1-6.47.06-76-7
% of HCs without medicine (stock outs)N/AN/A3340352735282665
% of household latrine coverageN/AN/A5659575858.56367.472
Source: Ministry of Health. Annual Health Sector Performance Report, FY 2008/09

598. New outpatient attendance improved from 0.60 visits per capita in the FY 2001/02 to 0.80 visits per capita in FY 2008/09. Similarly, deliveries in health facilities increased from about 23 per cent in the FY 2001/02 to 40 per cent in 2007/08. However, the vaccination coverge remained largely stable between 2002/03 and 2008/09, and the percentage of health centres without medicine stock-outs throughout the year actually decreased from 33 per cent to 26 per cent. Only 56 per cent of all positions in the staff establishment are currently filled by qualified staff. However, it should be noted that the standards changed in 2006/07 to reflect the higher need for Human Resources for Health (HRH) and increased workload, resulting in the sudden ‘drop’ from 75 per cent in 2005/06 to 38 per cent 2006/07 (Table 7). The steady increase in 2008/09 was directly related to the recruitment drive that was instituted in 2008.

599. The above progress registered in the health sector in general, was a result of improved availability of resources including finances, health infrastructure and equipment; increased accessibility to especially government services (opening of new facilities, removal of user fees); improvements in management; and strengthening of IEC campaigns.

600. Over the past decade, Government has focused on expanding its health infrastructure through construction of more health facilities in an effort to bring services closer to the people (Table 7.5). However, a number of these health facilities are neither manned with the right cadre of health workers nor adequately equipped. In addition, the number of private facilities dropped dramatically from 858 in 2004 to 277 in 2006.

TABLE 7.5HEALTH FACILITIES (2004 - 2006)
Year200420062010
INDICATOR