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Ghana

Author(s):
International Monetary Fund
Published Date:
July 2012
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Chapter One Introduction

1.1 Background

Over the years successive governments have provided Medium-Term National Development Policy Frameworks to guide the preparation and implementation of Sector and District Development Plans aimed at reducing poverty and improving the social wellbeing of the people. The Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy (GPRS I) and the Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy (GPRS II) are the latest of such national development policy frameworks.

GPRS I was a comprehensive policy document prepared as a pre-condition for Ghana to benefit from a significant measure of debt relief under the Highly Indebted Poor Country Initiative (HIPC). It was primarily aimed at positioning the country in an improved macroeconomic environment to address critical issues of poverty on an emergency basis. It also focused on that component of human development which targeted measures designed to improve access of Ghana’s population to basic needs and essential services, with programmes in basic education, safe water and improved health, environmental sanitation, modernized agriculture, private sector development, and good governance.

A general assessment of the overall policy environment which emerged from the implementation of GPRS I indicated a positive and significantly stabilized macroeconomic environment, with a potential for attaining higher rates of growth. Against this background, the GPRS II was adopted and implemented over the period 2006-2009 with a shift in focus and context to accelerated growth of the economy towards sustained poverty reduction and the attainment of middle income status within a measurable planning period. It focused on implementing growth-inducing policies and programmes which have the potential to transform the structure of the economy and maximize the benefits of shared accelerated growth.

Consistent with its commitment to own the development process and provide a successor to the GPRS II, government initiated a process in 2009 to formulate a medium term national development policy framework. With the large fiscal imbalance experienced in 2008 and the difficult macroeconomic situation inherited, the goal of the medium-term national development policy framework, Ghana Shared Growth and Development Agenda (GSGDA), 2010-2013, is to achieve and sustain macroeconomic stability while placing the economy on a higher path of shared growth, and poverty reduction.

1.2 Strategic Focus of GSDA

In the medium-term, the strategic direction is to lay the foundation for the structural transformation of the economy within the decade ending 2020, through industrialization especially manufacturing, based on modernized agriculture and sustainable exploitation of Ghana’s natural resources, particularly minerals, oil and gas. The process will be underpinned by rapid infrastructural and human development as well as the application of science, technology and innovation. In this regard expenditure is expected to be prioritized in favour of policies, programmes and projects in Agriculture, Infrastructure (including energy, oil and gas), Water and sanitation, Health, and Education (including ICT, Science, Technology and Innovation).

This will enhance the creation of employment and income earning opportunities for rapid and sustained economic growth and poverty reduction. Within this context, the thematic areas of the MTDPF are as follows:

  • Ensuring and sustaining macroeconomic stability;
  • Enhanced competitiveness of Ghana’s private sector;
  • Accelerated agricultural modernization and natural resource management;
  • Oil and gas development;
  • Infrastructure and human settlements development;
  • Human development, employment and productivity; and
  • Transparent and accountable governance.

The GSGDA is presented in two volumes: Volume I, the policy framework, analyses the macroeconomic context and the development policy choices that should be made to attain the goals of GSGDA. It includes a policy matrix, which outlines issues, policy objectives, and strategies, and also identifies the agencies responsible for implementing each component of the strategy. Volume II is the four year costing framework, which shows the indicative financial requirements for the effective implementation of the policies and strategies outlined in the GSGDA.

1.3 Review of the GPRS II Expenditure Framework

GPRS II was formulated around the following thematic areas:

  • Continued Macroeconomic Stability;
  • Private Sector Competitiveness;
  • Human Resource Development; and
  • Good Governance and Civic Responsibility

In 2002 a process was initiated to effectively link the GPRS I to annual national budgets through the Medium Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF). However the MTEF, had a major shortcoming in that while it provided a high level of detail, it did not aggregate spending into programmes, thus making it difficult to track the relationship between resource allocations and programme priorities as set out in the GPRS I.

To overcome this constraint a refined mechanism that allows sector priorities to be effectively linked to the GPRS II objectives through the MTEF was instituted in 2006. This new mechanism establishes the links between the sector plans, GPRS II priorities and the annual budget by ensuring that all:

  • the objectives of MDAs are properly aligned to the strategic objectives of the GPRS II;
  • the objectives of the current MTEF are properly aligned to the GPRS II; and
  • resources for financing expenditures associated with the implementation of the GPRS II are consolidated and rationally allocated.

The total cost of implementing the GPRS II was estimated at US$8.063 billion, of which 35% was expected to go to implementation of policies, and strategies related to Private Sector Competitiveness thematic area, 55% to Vigorous Human Resource Development thematic area, while 10% was allocated to Governance and Civic Responsibility thematic area.

The GPRS II envisaged that the resource envelope would comprise both domestic and external sources of financing. In each of the four years within the GPRS II period, budgetary resources were expected to constitute an average of 35% of annual GDP, with domestic revenue sources making up some 23% of GDP, while grants from bilateral and multilateral sources constituted about 5.5% of GDP. The remaining 6.5% was expected to come from divestiture receipts, programme loans and exceptional financing arrangements. This was to ensure that Ghana gradually weans itself off excessive reliance on donor support. With regard to external inflows, it was expected that HIPC savings and other debt relief as well as resources from the Millennium Challenge Account will augment domestic resources.

The outturn over the four year period shows that budgetary resources constituted an average of 38.4% of annual GDP, with domestic revenue sources making up of 22.8% of GDP, while grants from bilateral and multilateral sources constituting about 5.6% of GDP. The remaining 10% was from divestiture receipts, programme loans and exceptional financing arrangements.

The overall resource allocation (Services and Investment) through the 2008 Annual Budget for the implementation of the GPRS II amounted to US$9,105.14, representing about 13% increase over the planned GPRS II resource requirements. Nearly 60% of the overall resources spent on the implementation of the GPRS II were from Government of Ghana (GOG) sources, while the remaining 40% were contributed by Development Partners (DPs). Distribution of the resources by thematic area shows that 45.2% were allocated to the implementation of programmes related to Private Sector Competitiveness thematic area, 32.5% to the Human Resource Development thematic area, and 21.8% to Governance and Civic Responsibility thematic area. There were contrary to the pattern of distribution envisaged under the GPRS II costing framework where 35% were expected to go to implementation of policies and strategies related to Private Sector Competitiveness thematic area, 55% to Human Resource Development thematic area, while 10% was allocated to Governance and Civic Responsibility thematic area.

The key conclusion from this observation is that resources were prioritized away from Human Resource Development thematic area, in favour of Private Sector Competitiveness and Governance and Civic Responsibility thematic areas during the implementation period. The sources of this misalignment were both GOG and DPs. When the DPs prioritized their resources in favour of the Private Sector Competitiveness and Good Governance and Civic Responsibility thematic areas, GOG resources were prioritized in favour of Human Resource Development thematic area in the approved budget, however the actual releases were prioritized in favour of Private Sector Competitiveness thematic area.

1.4 GSDA Expenditures

In order to overcome the problem of misalignment of resource allocation observed under the GPRS II, the mechanism for linking the GSGDA to the annual national budget, and the process for managing public expenditure will further be strengthened through:

  • preparation of well costed medium term sector development plans based on the GSGDA;
  • ensuring that all the objectives of MDAs are properly aligned to the strategic objectives of the GSGDA;
  • ensuring that only activities related to the GSGDA receive budgetary resources:
  • ensuring that resources for financing expenditures associated with the implementation of the GSGDA are consolidated and rationally allocated;
  • ensuring that resources for financing GSGDA implementation can be effectively tracked on an annual basis; and
  • ensuring effective Cash Management and Public Financial management Systems

Preparation of a well costed medium term sector development plan: The MTEF mechanism provides the linkage between the sector development plans, GSGDA priorities and the annual budget. The design of the MTEF is largely based on well-prepared and fully costed sector plans and any shortcomings in developing these plans will automatically render the operation of the MTEF dysfunctional, and the linkages between the sector development plans, GSGDA priorities and the annual budget weak.

Alignment of the objectives of MDAs to the strategic objectives of the GSGDA: To ensure that the objectives of MDAs are properly aligned to the strategic objectives of the GSGDA, the MTEF will accordingly be updated with the MDAs policy objectives and cost outlays annually.

Budgetary resources are used finance only GSGDA priorities: The budgeting process has not developed the relevant mechanism to ensure that only MDAs who has approved Sector Medium Term Development Plans (SMTDP) receive budgetary allocations. Neither is there a mechanism to ensure that only programmes and projects from the approved SMTDP receive resource allocation. For the budget to serve as a tool in delivering the objectives of national development policy framework an incentive mechanism will be developed and effectively enforced to ensure that only MDAs who have approved Sector Medium Term Development Plans (SMTDP) receive budgetary allocation.

Effective tracking of Resources for financing GSGDA implementation: The National Expenditure Tracking System (NETS) developed to facilitate the monitoring of release and expenditure of public funds has not been efficient. The format for capturing data from key national institutions responsible for supervising the release of public sector funds including MOFEP, BOG, CAGD and DACF Secretariat, and MLGRD continue to vary, making it difficult to reconcile data from these sources. For effective tracking of public funds, the institutional arrangements would be clearly defined, and the mechanism for reporting be clearly outlined.

Cash Management System will be established, to provide frequent and up-to-date monitoring of revenues, expenditures and cash balances which is critical in setting up monthly cash ceilings for MDAs. Treasury Single Account will be established to link all government accounts to ensure efficient monitoring and use of cash balances. A user-driven Ghana Integrated Financial Management Information Systems (GIFMIS) will also be implemented to further improve public financial management.

1.5 The Processes for Costing GSGDA

The process for preparing the costing framework involved desk-top research, data capturing, technical analysis of data, and validation of data by key stakeholders. The process lasted for a period of four months, beginning in July, 2010 and ending in November.

The process begun with the formation of task team comprising of technical experts in public finance, national budget preparation and execution processes, Medium Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF), and national development planning in Ghana. The process was led by a task team leader responsible for providing the overall technical direction for the exercise. The process was participatory involving the MDAs who provided inputs for the exercise, while the task team provided the technical guidance and final analysis of data for the report.

Costing guidelines were provided to guide the MDAs in costing their respective medium term development plans. The costing guidelines were informed by the review of the costing frameworks for the GPRS I & II, and the guidelines for preparing the national budget. It outlines the costing methodology, activities that qualify for costing under the framework, identification of inputs, per unit cost application, and method of cost aggregation. This is to ensure uniform costing structure, and easy harmonization of the costings submitted by MDAs.

Inception meeting was organized with MDAs to discuss the costing guidelines and the relevant timelines for the preparation of the costing framework.

MDAs were requested to submit the indicative cost of their respective medium term development plans based on the costing guidelines to NDPC within two weeks after the inception meeting. This was predicated on the fact that MDAs had already costed their draft medium term development plans and required time to adjust them to fit the requirements of the costing guidelines. Technical support was provided by the task team and NDPC technical staff to MDAs who required it.

All costing inputs received from MDAs were forwarded to Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning for them to be captured into the MTEF database. Validation exercise was undertaken by the task team to ensure that the data captured into the MTEF database is the same as submitted by the MDA.

The review of each MDAs MTEF output was undertaken to ensure that they complied with the costing guidelines. Comments on each MDAs indicative cost was compiled, and a validation meeting organized with the MDAs to discuss comments on their respective costing. The exercise was to ensure that: (i) double counting, under-counting and over-costing are eliminated; (ii) sequencing of activities to be implemented is appropriate; and (iii) strategic, catalytic and transformational initiatives are given priority in the costing.

MDAs were then requested to review their indicative costing on the basis of the comments provided by the task team and re-submit. Re-submitted inputs were re-captured into the MTEF database.

The final MTEF output of each MDA was reviewed against their absorptive capacities, and the necessary adjustments made when necessary. MDAs historical expenditure pattern obtained from the database of the Controller and Accountant-General, as well as the average completion time of major national projects were used as proxies for absorptive capacity. On the basis of MDAs historical budgetary expenditure, MDAs (especially in the key infrastructural sectors) ability to utilize more than double of its current resource utilization within a year could not be adequately justified, especially when there are institutional and regulatory procedures which usually slow down the rate of execution of projects.

The final MTEF output was generated and used as the basis of analysis for the resource requirement for the implementation of the medium term national development policy framework, 2010 – 2013.

1.6 Structure of the Document

This document is presented in four chapters. In addition to the introductory chapter, chapter two presents a summary of the GSGDA policies and strategies to be implemented over the period 2010 - 2013, while chapter three presents estimates of resource requirements for the implementation of the policies and strategies. Chapter four presents analysis of the resource envelope and the financing gap.

Chapter Two Summary of Gsgda Policies and Strategies

2.1 Introduction

This chapter presents the summary of GSGDA policies and strategies in each thematic area that are expected to be funded and implemented over the GSGDA planning period. It also outlines the key objectives expected to be achieved in each thematic area upon the implementation of policies and strategies.

2.2 Ensuring and sustaining macroeconomic stability

Despite the improvements in the performance of the economy in the last two decades, structural challenges still persist, characterized by large fiscal and balance of payment deficits. The medium term economic growth and development will therefore depend very much on the ability to address existing fiscal and balance of payment imbalances. Over the medium term, therefore, priority policies to ensure and sustain macroeconomic stability will focus on: (i) improving fiscal resource mobilization; (ii) improving public expenditure management; (iii) promoting effective debt management; (iv) ensuring price and exchange rate stability; (v) improving export competitiveness; (vi) diversifying and increasing exports and markets; and (vii) strengthening economic planning and forecasting to ensure synergetic development of strategic sectors.

Increasing revenue mobilization effort through reforms to tax collection (i.e. single revenue authority, taxation of natural resources, reduction of tax exemptions); enhancing central government control over expenditures and the wage bill through the introduction of treasury single account, information and financial management system, payroll management, hiring controls, payroll audits; and ensuring efficient resource utilization through improved procurement and internal auditing review are expected to contribute about 1% of GDP to fiscal deficit reduction on a sustainable basis.

The medium term debt strategy, on the other hand, will focus on managing the risk exposure associated with the existing debt portfolio and taking the necessary and prudent steps to mitigate the potential risk that would be embedded in current and future borrowing. The debt strategy will cover all external public and publicly guaranteed debts and domestic debts. It will also cover all market risks, including Interest Rate Risk (IRR), Foreign Exchange Risk (FER) and Refinancing Risk (RFR). Significant consideration will be given to operational risk in debt management, which is a major improvement on the previous strategy which concentrated on achieving debt sustainability by sourcing for only concessional loans with grant element of at least 35%.

In the medium-term, policies will be implemented to ensure that inflation is brought down and maintained at single digit. The commitment to reversing the negative impact of the global financial crisis and its domestic pass-through effect on macroeconomic indicators including inflation and exchange rate expectations remains high. The risk-based supervision of banks will be consolidated, with a commitment to sustaining the major financial sector reforms over the medium term. The Financial Services Bill will be passed to provide the legal and regulatory framework for providing non-bank financial services to non-residents.

Within the framework of trade liberalization, trade policy will be used to promote the international competitiveness of domestic enterprises, including: improving export competitiveness; diversifying markets and increasing exports; and accelerating economic integration with other regional and/or sub-regional states. Priority policies therefore shall focus on: maintaining competitive real exchange rates; improving the import/export regime; establishment of the Ghana Competition Commission to deal with unfair international trade practices; promoting new goods and services; and strengthen links between industrial and trade policies.

2.3 Enhanced competitiveness of Ghana’s private sector;

Ghana’s private sector remains uncompetitive in spite of several attempts by succeeding Governments to enhance its competitiveness. The private sector under this policy framework is expected to partner Government and other stakeholders in the transformation of the economy through industrialization and modernized agriculture. The overall objective is to ensure that private sector work for Ghana, and share the benefits of growth and transformation process.

The focus of medium term priority policies therefore is to:

  • improve private sector competitiveness domestically and globally
  • develop micro, small and medium enterprise (MSME)
  • ensure rapid industrialization driven by strong linkages to agriculture and other natural resource endowments
  • develop tourism as a major industry; and
  • develop and strengthen Ghana’s creative arts industry

These are to be achieved through: improving the investment climate; reducing the cost and risk of doing business; providing modern, efficient and competitive infrastructure; creating the financial sector which is responsible to the private sector; and making available human resources with relevant skills and competences. Others include:

  • attracting private capital from both domestic and international sources
  • promoting an enabling environment and effective regulatory framework for public sector management
  • ensuring that businesses behave as good corporate entities which uphold the tenets of human rights, social responsibility and environmental sustainability; and
  • ensuring consumer safety and welfare.

The many barriers that confront investors and investments will be removed to make Ghana a more attractive investment destination. The various business registration requirements, levies for business registration, and several investment legislations, will be rationalised while MDAs that administer business regulations will be made more responsive to the needs and imperatives of the private sector.

To enhance productivity and efficiency, and reduce the cost of doing business, continued effort will be made to remove value chain constraints to improve service delivery through urgent and aggressive investment in both physical and social infrastructure as a national priority to improve efficiency and reliability in the production chain. In the medium-term, priority areas will include water, health and education, energy, roads and transport, ports and harbours, information technology and science, technology and innovation.

Priority will also be given to investment in relevant and quality human resource development to provide modern skills and competencies required for the industrial economy envisaged over the medium term. Priority skills and competencies will include specialized skills often missing in our domestic economy and which reduces opportunities for top leadership positions in business for locally trained professionals.

Special Industrial Estates (SIEs) focusing on the exploitation of industrial minerals and other resource endowments to drive SME-based industrial and commercial value chains shall be promoted. Fiscal and regulatory space will be created to facilitate the incubation of SMEs into champions which can spearhead substantial job creation and accelerated industrial development.

2.4 Accelerated agricultural modernization and natural resource management

Ghana’s agriculture is dominated by subsistence small holder production units with weak linkages to industry and the services sector. It is characterized by low productivity, low income and un-competitiveness in production, processing and distribution. Given its central role in generating income and providing subsistence for majority of the people as well as its potential to lead the transformation of the economy, agriculture is expected to drive the new development agenda.

The main focus of agricultural development policy, over the medium-term, will be to accelerate the modernisation of agriculture and ensure its linkage with industry through the application of science, technology and innovation. The modernised agriculture sector is expected to underpin the transformation of the economy through job creation, increased export earnings, food security, and supply of raw materials for value addition and rural development as well as significant reduction in the incidence of poverty. This will be complemented by an effective natural resource management and environmental governance regime.

The broad objectives to be achieved under the medium term development strategy include:

  • improved agricultural productivity;
  • increased agricultural competitiveness and enhanced integration into domestic and international markets;
  • reduced production and distribution risks/ bottlenecks in agriculture and industry
  • promote selected crop development for food security, export and industry;
  • promote livestock and poultry development for food security and income;
  • promote fisheries development for food security and income; and
  • improved institutional coordination for agricultural development.

Some of the specific interventions to be implemented over the medium term include:

  • Scaling-up support for agricultural producers through the establishment of an Agricultural Development Fund;
  • Establishment of the National Food Buffer Stock Company and Ghana Commodities Exchange to enhance the marketing of agricultural produce and incomes of farmers;
  • Provision of subsidies for the procurement of improved seeds, grade breeders and stocks, pesticides, fertilizers and other inputs;
  • Promotion of selected crop development for food security and for export;
  • Supporting the production of adequate quantities of agricultural raw materials focusing on shea nuts, dawadawa, cotton, pineapple, bananas, rubber, vegetables, and ornamental plants to feed existing local firms as well as new ones;
  • Supporting livestock farmers to substantially increase the scale of production, including larger scale production of guinea fowls;
  • The development of aquaculture;
  • Promotion of small holder productivity; and
  • Promotion of irrigation-based agriculture with the rehabilitation of existing facilities and the phased irrigation of the Accra Plains.

Ghana is endowed with abundant natural resources, which must play an important role in the agricultural and industrial development efforts of the country. The fast growing population is presently exerting immense pressure on national resources, as well as creating waste management problems in the major towns and cities. There is a rapid loss of biological diversity and wildlife populations. The key priority areas for policy interventions over the medium term are:

  • Environmental Degradation (land, forest, etc)
  • Biodiversity and Protected Areas
  • Coastal Erosion and Marine Ecosystem
  • Wetlands and Water Resources Management
  • Climate Variability and Change

Environmental Degradation (land, forest, etc)

In the medium-term, the focus of policy interventions aimed at reducing environmental degradation shall include:

  • application of appropriate agriculture intensification techniques that provide irrigation infrastructure and promote correct soil conservation techniques;
  • encourage afforestation of degraded forests and off-reserve areas, including the adoption of a medium to long-term plan for public and private programmes;
  • encourage investments in industrial scale tree farming in specific depleted forest reserves and on degraded land, and in commercial forestry outside forest reserves and along dried up and flowing streams and rivers;
  • monitoring the activities of both large and small scale mining companies in order to protect the environment;
  • strengthen and enforce existing environmental laws and regulations including the passage of regulations under the current Minerals and Mining Act 2006 (Act 703);
  • vigorously pursue the reclamation and plantation development measures in areas mined-out especially by illegal miners;
  • ensuring environmental stewardship by mining companies; and
  • introduce and enforce economic instruments for mining sector environmental management.

Biodiversity and Protected Areas

The key policy strategies identified for addressing the challenges associated with loss of biodiversity and protected areas are:

  • maintaining and enhancing the protected area system;
  • strengthening the legal framework on protected areas.
  • implement national buffer zone policies for rivers and protected areas, incorporating the education of potential users on dangers their activities pose to wildlife and water bodies;
  • fast-tracked the identification of river basins and corridors best suited for connectivity and acquisition of lands that could possibly serve as landscape corridors; and
  • promulgating strict national legislation on initiation of bush fires to enable District Assemblies to enforce bye-laws on bush fires.

Coastal Erosion and Marine Ecosystem

Over the medium-term, interventions to be implemented to control coastal erosion and maintain marine ecosystem will include:

  • investing directly in control structures and construction;
  • establishment of gabions and boulder revetments to arrest erosion;
  • promotion of mangrove forests replanting and planting of other vegetative cover to contain erosion;
  • encouraging investments in upgrading and maintenance of waste treatment and small-scale waste collection facilities in order to reduce the impacts of pollution on the coastal environment;
  • designing appropriate policies to promote recycling, recovery, re-use and reduction of all types of waste;
  • monitoring and enforcing regulations contained in the newly enacted Legislative Instrument against inappropriate fishing methods, such as the use of light for fishing and the use of small mesh size;
  • strengthening enforcement against illegal fishing by trawlers;
  • strengthening institutional capacity for research, monitoring and enforcement of all bye-laws;
  • improving coastal zone management by ensuring proper location of industries in developing coastal towns; and
  • establishing a Coastal Zone Commission with strong stakeholder participation.

Wetlands and Water Resources Management

To ensure efficient management of wetlands and water resources policy measures interventions to be implemented will include:

  • promotion of decentralization and participatory wetlands management;
  • acceleration of national capacity building, and institution of appropriate legal and institutional framework to regulate the sustainable use of wetlands;
  • supporting comprehensive wetlands inventory, backed by research and monitoring;
  • instituting mechanisms to restore and rehabilitate degraded and badly altered wetlands;
  • establishing appropriate institutional structures for enhanced water resources management.;
  • ensuring that planning for water resources is made with due recognition of “environmental flow” requirements as well as the adoption of sustainable practices that avoid damage to critical natural capital and irreversible ecological processes; and
  • promoting partnership with the private sector for the protection and conservation of water resources.

Climate Variability and Change

The key policy measures to achieve the objective of adapting to the impacts of, and reduced vulnerability to climate variability and change include:

  • identifying and enhancing early warning systems;
  • enhance national capacity to adapt to climate change through improved land use management; and
  • adapt to climate change through enhanced research and awareness creation.

2.5 Energy, Oil and Gas Development

The focus of priority policies in the energy sector is to increase access of households and industry to reliable and adequate energy supply, and diversify the national energy mix to include the use of indigenous sources of energy. To achieve this, energy infrastructure will be rehabilitated and expanded to ensure adequate and reliable supply of energy and increased access to the modern forms of energy to the poor and vulnerable through the extension of the national electricity grid. In additional, national policy will promote energy efficient technologies that safeguard the health of domestic users especially women and children.

On the other hand, oil and gas resources will be developed to ensure that the industry becomes a major anchor for national growth and development. The oil and gas will provide opportunity for diversification of the economy, as well as capacity development to support the needs of a modern industrial society. Priority policies will focus on increasing access to petroleum products at prices that support the development objectives of the nation, paying attention to protecting the environment and implement a transparent revenue management policy to ensure the oil and gas resources benefit Ghanaians.

A local content law will be enacted to optimise the use of local goods, services, and associated resources in all segments of the oil and gas industry value chain, in order to retain a significant part of the benefits within Ghana. Priority will also be given to the redevelopment of existing settlements as part of the new urban settlements expected from the developments associated with the exploitation of oil and gas resources.

Owing to the huge investment requirements, attracting requisite investment capital into oil and gas exploration and development will continue to be an important step towards increased benefits to the people of Ghana. The oil and gas industry will provide the impetus to strengthen the capacity of local financial institutions to compete with their foreign counterparts for opportunities. It will also build capacity to improve domestic resource availability to fund further exploration as well as the establishment of other strategic industries.

The key policy interventions to support the achievement of these policy objectives are as follows: provide a conducive legal, fiscal and regulatory environment to attract investors into the energy sector; encourage Ghanaian investors to use the capital markets, including the Ghana Stock Exchange, to raise financing for investments in the energy sector; establish transparent and non-discriminatory practices in the implementation of rules and regulations; and ensure efficient and transparent pricing regimes for energy services.

2.6 Infrastructure and human settlements development

The critical role of infrastructure in propelling economic growth and development has become more crucial as Ghana transition into a middle-income country. Policies in this thematic area seek to expand existing social and economic production infrastructure to ensure that services provided are reliable, affordable and efficient. The medium term policies on infrastructure and human settlement development focus on the following key areas:

  • Transportation (including road, rail, air, maritime and inland transport)
  • Science, Technology and Innovation to Support Productivity and Development
  • Information and Communications Technology (ICT)
  • Water and Sanitation
  • Human Settlements
  • National Land Use

Transportation (including road, rail, air, maritime and inland transport)

Ghana’s transport sector needs a massive infusion of resources and policy interventions to enable it support national development. Policies identified for implementation are aimed at addressing the constraints in road, rail, air, maritime and inland water transports in an integrated manner. The key objectives of the transport sector policies over the medium term focus on:

  • establishing Ghana as a transportation hub for the West African Sub-Region
  • creating and sustaining an efficient transport system that meets user needs;
  • integrating land use, transport planning, development planning and service provision;
  • creating a vibrant investment and performance-based management environment that maximise benefits for public and private sector investors;
  • developing and implementing comprehensive and integrated Policy, governance and institutional frameworks;
  • ensuring sustainable development in the transport sector; and
  • developing adequate human resources and apply new technology.

In the road sector interventions to be implemented include:

  • prioritize the maintenance of existing road infrastructure to reduce vehicle operating costs (VOC) and future rehabilitation costs;
  • improve accessibility by determining key centres of population, production and tourism;
  • re-instate labour-based methods of road construction and maintenance to improve rural roads and maximize employment opportunities;
  • implement urban transport projects such as the Ghana Urban Transport Project (GUTP) including the Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and school busing schemes;
  • explore Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) and concession options for investment in transport infrastructure and services (single and multi-modal options);
  • build capacity of local road contractors and consultants, and ensure their proper classification and use; and
  • develop the institutional and regulatory arrangements for ensuring the most effective and efficient movement of freight and passengers.

Special initiatives will be launched to re-construct, rehabilitate or modernise as appropriate, the Eastern and Western Corridors, as well as the Bawku-Tumu-Lawra and Tamale-Fufulso-Sawla-Wa roads. Additionally, a natural resource road network will be constructed to upgrade the rural roads that support Ghana’s production infrastructure.

In the rail sector, the existing railway network will be rehabilitated in some cases, and totally rebuilt in others, and upgraded, modernized and expanded to support accelerated industrial growth. This will reduce the increasing pressure on urban transportation in the major metropolitan areas of Accra, Kumasi, Tema and Sekondi-Takoradi and provide industrial freight haulage to the new oil and gas-driven industries anticipated to spearhead accelerated growth. A general result will be to ease pressure and congestion on the roads and highways.

The facilities at the national airport in Accra will be sustained and progressively improved to make Accra a West African hub and gateway that will lead to growth in exports and tourism. Domestic air services will be encouraged through tax incentives for locally-based airlines. Attention will also be given to ensure that Ghana complies with, and sustains international safety and security standards at all its airports.

A modern deep sea port will be developed at a suitable location in the Western Region to serve the oil and gas services industry as well as the requirements of new processing industries. In addition, the existing Takoradi and Tema ports will be rehabilitation and upgraded.

The Volta Lake Transport system will be transformed into an effective transport hub by addressing its problems including dredging, removal of tree stumps from the Lake and the procurement of additional boats, ferries etc. In addition, the on-going Debre Marine Project to build a mini-harbour at Debre on the Lake will, when completed, enable all year round movement of bulk petroleum products from Akosombo to the North via pipelines and barges to reduce costs and the environmental consequences of road haulage.

Science, Technology and Innovation to Support Productivity and Development

Government has prioritized Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) as a principal vehicle to drive Ghana’s development agenda. The thrust of the STI policy is to harness the nation’s science and technology capacity to achieve accelerated economic growth and sustained poverty reduction.

The key policy objectives to be achieved are:

  • promote the application of Science, Technology and Innovation in all sectors of the economy; and
  • strengthen the appropriate institutional framework to promote the development of scientific and technological research.

These are to be achieved through the implementation of the following policy interventions:

  • encouraging the diffusion and transfer of technology;
  • promoting the establishment of two national science and technology theme parks: one in Cape Coast and the other on the Akuapim-Ridge;
  • initiating a Young Researchers Programme to stimulate interest in research and technological innovation among pupils in second cycle schools;
  • promoting and establishing national systems of innovation to support the technology development cycle;
  • establishing a Science and Technology Fund to support research activities in tertiary and research institutions;
  • providing support for businesses to adopt R&D as a critical component of production;
  • providing incentives to strengthen the linkage between research and industry, and facilitate their collaboration; and
  • establishing a mathematics, science and technology scholarship scheme to support brilliant but needy students who study science, mathematics and technology-based subjects at the second cycle and tertiary levels of education.

Information and Communications Technology (ICT)

The accelerated development of ICT infrastructure is a catalyst for Ghana’s modernisation and rapid growth. The key policy objectives to be pursued for the purpose are to:

  • promote rapid development and deployment of the national ICT infrastructure;
  • strengthen the institutional and regulatory framework for managing the ICT sector;
  • promote the use of ICT in all sectors of the economy; and
  • facilitate the provision of quality meteorological data and forecast in support of weather sensitive sectors of the economy.

The key strategic interventions to be implemented to achieve these policy objectives include:

  • facilitating the development of the ICT sector through the use of local capabilities in STI;
  • providing affordable equipment/accessories to encourage the mass use of ICT;
  • encourage ICT training at all levels and ensure that the broadband high speed internet connectivity is available in every district to increase adequate coverage of ICT infrastructure;
  • implement a national e-Governance programme by deploying ICT infrastructure in all Government institutions;
  • periodically review the existing institutional and legal framework to ensure effective meteorological service delivery and forecasting;
  • utilization in the process of education and in the provision of health services at all levels through the gradual introduction of electronic health records; and
  • the establishment of public centres to provide access to computers and the internet for those who do not own ICT equipment.

Water and Sanitation

Priority policy interventions to be implemented are aimed at achieving the following key objective:

  • ensuring efficient management of water resources; accelerating the provision of safe and affordable water;
  • accelerating the provision and improve environmental sanitation;
  • ensuring the implementation of health education programmes as a component of all water and sanitation programmes;
  • improving sector coordination through a sector-wide approach to water and environmental sanitation delivery; and
  • improving sector institutional capacity.

The key strategic interventions to be implemented to achieve these policy objectives therefore include:

  • enhancing trans-boundary water resources cooperation and management;
  • developed and implement legislative instruments for efficient water resources management;
  • develop mechanisms and measures to support, encourage and promote rainwater harvesting;
  • improved data collection and management for water resources assessment and decision-making;
  • support the provision of safe water in rural and urban areas with investments for the construction of new facilities as well as the rehabilitation and expansion of existing water facilities;
  • strengthen public-private and NGO partnerships in water provision as well as improve community-owned and managed water supply systems;
  • facilitate the extension of distribution networks especially to low income consumers;
  • support public-private partnerships in solid and liquid waste management;
  • promote cost-effective and innovative technologies for waste management;
  • Implement health education as a component of all water and sanitation programmes, through incorporation of hygiene education in all water and sanitation programmes.
  • adoption of a sector-wide approach to planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of sector activities
  • development and implementation of a Sector Strategic Development Plan;
  • develop a Strategic Environmental Sanitation Investment Plan;
  • implementation of the National Environmental Sanitation Strategic and Action plan; and
  • Strengthen Water Directorate and the Environmental Sanitation and Hygiene Directorate with adequately trained personnel and other resources to enable them take ownership and lead roles of the sector.

Human Settlements

The overall goal of human settlements development is to ensure that all organized human activities within our cities, towns and villages are undertaken in a planned and spatially determined manner in order to bring about equity and enhance socio-economic development. Policy interventions therefore focus on addressing issues relating to: housing and shelter; settlement disaster prevention; hierarchy of human settlements; and institutional arrangement for human settlements management.

The key strategies to be implemented in the housing and shelter policy area include:

  • launch a new national housing initiative to begin the rationalisation of the housing market in order to provide affordable housing for Ghanaians;
  • promote the manufacture and use of local building materials and appropriate technologies in housing;
  • establishing standards for local construction materials to guarantee the appropriate use of these materials for construction;
  • ensuring the enforcement of standards for architectural designs and building codes;
  • establishment of a legal framework to support the construction of condominiums;
  • promote savings and investments in housing.
  • review and implement the existing rural housing policy;
  • promote erosion control and prevention schemes, and drainage construction programmes;
  • foster the growth of settlements which can support the rural economy and its transformation;
  • promote self-help building schemes organized by trade associations.

In the area of settlements disaster prevention, key strategies to be implemented include:

  • proper planning of drainage systems;
  • undertake educational and sensitization programmes to make Ghanaians more conscious of how to prevent and manage disasters;
  • review and modernize building codes; and
  • strengthen institutions to enforce building and planning laws.

The urban system in Ghana is characterized by an over-concentration of towns within the southern zone as compared to fewer towns in the northern part of the country. This state of affairs is largely attributed to lack of effective intermediate cities between key urban settlements and the rural settlements; and the uncontrolled urban sprawl in cities and other urban settlements as a result of their attractiveness to rural migrants. The strategies to be implemented to address these problems include the establishment of a new hierarchy of urban centres, with clearly defined set of functions for each hierarchy having. All regions and districts, will be physically integrated, especially their respective capitals; and accelerated growth of medium-sized towns to large urban centres promoted.

To ensure effective institutional arrangement for human settlements management, a framework for effective coordination and development of the capacities of key national institutions for effective planning of human settlements shall be established. In the medium-term a National Human Settlements Commission or a National Housing Board to coordinate the activities of all institutions involved in housing development will be established.

National Land Use

In the medium-term, priority interventions will be implemented under the national land use policy to address existing and emerging problems and issues as they relate to urban development and management; rural development and management; and slum upgrading.

Key strategic interventions to be implemented under urban development and management include:

  • introducing a modern street naming and property address system;
  • providing adaptive space in the urban areas for commercialization;
  • reinforcing spatial planning in urban management;
  • ensuring linkages between urban and rural areas; and
  • the institution of a nationwide urban renewal programme.

Key strategic interventions to be implemented under rural development and management include:

  • improve the supply of a critical mass of social services and infrastructure to meet the basic needs of the people;
  • establishment of rural service centres to promote agriculture and agro-based industries; and
  • attraction of investment for the growth and development of the rural areas.

Key strategic interventions to be implemented under slum upgrading include:

  • strengthening the legal framework on urban development;
  • establishment of guidelines for the planning and development of urban areas;
  • improving upon existing infrastructure and facilities within slum communities; and
  • introduction of major slum renewal programmes.

2.7 Human development, employment and productivity

The acquisition and application of knowledge and skills in solving problems in society have remained essential aspects of national development efforts. The medium term policies on human development, employment and productivity focus on the following key areas:

  • Education
  • Skills Training
  • Health and Nutrition
  • Youth and Sports Development
  • Social Protection and Inclusion
  • Population Management
  • Labour Productivity and Employment

Education

Although school enrolments are increasing, the quality of education is declining. Priority policy interventions to be implemented over the medium term are aimed at achieving the following objectives:

  • increased equitable access to, and participation in education at all levels;
  • improved quality of teaching and learning;
  • bridging the gender gap in access to education;
  • improved access to quality education for persons with disabilities; and
  • improved management of education service delivery.

The key policy interventions to be implemented to improve equitable access to, and participation in quality education include:

  • the provision of infrastructural facilities for schools across the country particularly in deprived areas;
  • strengthening of enrolment drives in communities;
  • promoting collaboration with the private sector to expand school facilities within the set guidelines for the establishment of schools; and
  • enhancing teaching and learning in schools through increasing the deployment of trained teachers.

The key policy measures to be implemented to improve quality of teaching and learning include:

  • upgrading training facilities in the colleges of education;
  • upgrading the qualifications of staff;
  • introducing a national programme of education quality assessment and increasing management capacity to support and implement it;
  • implementing a diversified mix of incentives, including housing, training and professional development;
  • a clear career structure through the establishment of a Teacher Coordinating and Licensing body for teacher motivation and retention;
  • strengthening of supervision and management in schools to constantly monitor quality with the support of district assemblies, communities and parents; and
  • providing academic counseling services in schools.

The key policy measures to be implemented to bridge the gender gap in access to education include:

  • expanding the incentive schemes to increase girls’ enrolment, retention and completion particularly in deprived areas;
  • enforcing a ‘no-tolerance’ policy for sexual harassment and publicized disciplining of recalcitrant teachers;
  • intensifying community mobilization and sensitization to create awareness of the importance of girls’ education; and
  • re-introducing science and technology workshops for girls in second cycle institutions.

The key policy measures to be implemented to improve access to quality education for persons with disabilities include:

  • ensuring that rehabilitated/new infrastructure are disability-friendly to students;
  • enhancing the pedagogical skills of teachers of special education; and
  • improving the supply of logistics for special education on a regular basis.

The key policy measures to be implemented to promote science and technical education at all levels include:

  • providing incentives for science, mathematics, technical and vocational teachers;
  • supporting science and research development by increasing funding for research and technology development;
  • upgrading tools and equipment for teaching science, technical and vocational subjects; and
  • encouraging the private sector to support initiatives in science education.

The key policy measures to be implemented to strengthen linkages between tertiary education and industry include:

  • establishing industry/university collaborative programmes to increase opportunities for practical training/internship and human resource planning;
  • determining the skills and human resource requirements necessary for accelerated growth and restructuring of the economy;
  • the creation of opportunities for students to study and work; strengthening collaboration between polytechnics and industry; and
  • creating opportunities for industry to participate in curriculum development in the polytechnics.

Skills Training

A purposeful national shift in skills development is necessary to produce employable manpower for an industrial economy. The key policy measures to be implemented to improve skill development include:

  • developing and implementing a modern National Apprenticeship Policy;
  • empower the Council for Technical and Vocational Education Training (COTVET) to provide a more skills competency-based technical and vocational education;
  • restoring the vacation workshops for second cycle girls aspiring to careers in science and technology; and
  • modernization and expansion of technical schools to provide a well-developed stream as an alternative to second cycle academic education in collaboration with the private sector.

Health and Nutrition

Priority policy interventions to be implemented, under health and nutrition, over the medium term are aimed at achieving the following objectives:

  • ensure sustainable financing arrangements that protect the poor;
  • bridging equity gaps in access to health care and nutrition services;
  • improving governance and strengthening efficiency in health service delivery, sustainable financing arrangements that protect the poor;
  • intensifying prevention and control of non-communicable and communicable diseases;
  • improving access to quality maternal, child and adolescent health services;
  • strengthening mental health service delivery;
  • providing support for HIV and AIDS/STI/TB patients; and
  • improving nutrition and food security.

The key policy measures to be implemented to ensure sustainable financing arrangements that protect the poor include:

  • introduce the payment of a one-time premium under the National Health Insurance Scheme;
  • reviewing and implementing a comprehensive health financing strategy;
  • strengthening institutional capacity for Internally Generated Funds (IGF) generation and management;
  • advocating for ‘sin’ taxes as part of health revenue generation; and
  • fully integrating private medical practice into the operations of the NHIS.

The key policy measures to be implemented to bridge equity gaps in access to health care and nutrition services include:

  • accelerating Community Health Planning and Services (CHPS) expansion in under-served areas;
  • establishing new district hospitals in districts without such facilities;
  • upgrading, equipping and staffing existing district hospitals;
  • constructing new health facilities in underserved areas;
  • scaling-up the implementation of the medical waste management programme;
  • establishing infectious diseases management centres;
  • establishing intensive care units in regional and districts hospital;
  • expanding pre-service health training facilities; and
  • expanding infrastructure and equipment to support effective and efficient maternal and child delivery services.

The key policy measures to be implemented to strengthen efficiency in public health service delivery include:

  • improving financial management systems (e.g. budget, procurement and audit);
  • strengthening intra and inter-sector processes for policy dialogue, review, collaboration, coordination, planning and accountability;
  • reviewing and aligning data collection tools and linking District Health Management Information System (DHMIS) to regional/headquarters to build essential data depositories for effective action e.g. MOH, GHS (ICD, PHD, PPME etc); and
  • monitoring and evaluating the performance of the health sector.

The key policy measures to be implemented to improve access to quality maternal, child and adolescent health services include:

  • re-introducing certificate midwifery training and ensuring midwifery service in Community Health Planning and Services (CHPS) compounds;
  • providing comprehensive emergency obstetric care (including blood transfusion, ambulances) at the district level;
  • providing basic emergency obstetric care at all health centres; scaling up community case management and strengthening High Impact Rapid Delivery (HIRD) for under-five mortality (U5M), maternal mortality (MM) and malnutrition; and
  • instituting essential newborn care.

The key policy measures to be implemented to prevent and control the growth of non-communicable and communicable diseases include:

  • establishing screening and management programmes (for diabetes, hypertension, cancers, sickle cell, and asthma); and
  • developing capacity for research into communicable and non-communicable diseases and adolescent health programming;

The key policy measures to be implemented to strengthen Mental Health service delivery include:

  • advocating for the passage of the Mental Health Bill and implementation of the mental health law;
  • promoting community-based services and ensure stakeholder collaboration;
  • training and deploying more mental health personnel;
  • scaling up mental health promotion;
  • establishing services for treatment and rehabilitation of alcohol and drug addiction and other psychiatric conditions in all age groups, especially young people;
  • establishing and upgrading mental health facilities and infrastructure; and
  • establishing stress management centres at all levels.

The key policy measures to be implemented to address the adverse effects of HIV and AIDS/STI/TB and other related conditions include:

  • ensure the reduction of new HIV and AIDS/STI/TB transmission;
  • ensure reduction of the impact of HIV and AIDS-related morbidity and mortality; and
  • mitigate the negative socio-cultural effects of HIV and AIDS, and enhance their proper management.

The key policy measures to be implemented to address the persistent high malnutrition rate among children, particularly in rural areas and northern Ghana include:

  • reducing malnutrition-related disorders and deaths among infants and young children and Women In their Fertility Ages (WIFA);
  • promoting the consumption of locally available and nutritionally adequate food including the consumption of micro-nutrient rich foods among children and WIFA;
  • ensuring increased food security and social protection for vulnerable households including smallholder farmer households;
  • developing a comprehensive national nutrition and food security policy; and
  • mitigating the impacts of rising food prices as well as climate change on food security of the poor and vulnerable households.

Youth and Sports Development

The key policy measures to be implemented to improve youth and sports development include:

  • mainstreaming youth development into national development policy framework;
  • ensuring the implementation of the recently formulated youth policy;
  • equipping youth with employable skills;
  • introducing new initiatives for youth development;
  • review and pass the Sports Bill; and
  • provide support for the further development of academicals/schools and juvenile sports.

Social Protection and Inclusion

The key policy measures to be implemented to ensure social protection and inclusion include:

  • prepare a comprehensive national social policy framework to provide social safety nets, especially, for the poor, vulnerable and excluded;
  • strengthen coordination of social sector policies and programmes across sectors;
  • provide adequate resources for social policy formulation, implementation and evaluation;
  • improve targeting of existing social protection programmes;
  • mainstream social protection into sector and district planning; and
  • strengthen monitoring of social protection programmes.

Population Management

Priority policy interventions to be implemented, under this broad policy area are aimed ensuring that: population variables are integrated into all aspects of development planning at all levels; family planning is re-position as a national development issue; and demographic database on population and development are regularly updated.

The key policy measures to be implemented to ensure effective population management include:

  • Introduce measures that can improve the livelihoods in places of origin
  • Strengthen capacity of relevant stakeholders to integrate population issues into development planning
  • Integrate family planning into plans and activities of MDAs and MMDAs
  • Strengthen partnerships among stakeholders including the private sector to promote FP
  • Integrate Sexual and Reproductive Health and HIV and AIDS
  • Increase the number of trained professionals in reproductive health and family planning services delivery
  • Strengthen capacities for research, monitoring and evaluation
  • Strengthen the capacity of institutions to collect, analyze, coordinate and disseminate population and other relevant statistical data
  • Build capacity to effectively coordinate population management
  • Establish a regulatory body for effective migration management

Child Development And Protection

The key objectives of policies on child development and protection are to promote effective child development in all communities, especially deprived areas; enhancement of children’s physical, social, emotional and psychological development; and enhancement of institutional arrangements for inter and intra sectoral collaboration. The specific policy interventions to be implemented to achieve these objectives include:

  • creation of appropriate platforms for institutional collaboration on child survival, development and protection;
  • strengthening of the capacity of oversight institutions for children; and
  • enhancing the implementation and reporting of international conventions and protocols.

The Aged

The key objective for policy on the aged is to ensure that the issues on ageing is integrated in the development planning process. The specific policy interventions to be implemented to achieve this objective include:

  • promoting the development and effective implementation of a comprehensive ageing policy; and
  • improving funding of programmes for older persons.

Disability

The key objective for policy on the disability is to ensure a more effective appreciation of and inclusion of disability issues both within the formal decision making process and in the society at large. The specific policy interventions to be implement to achieve this objective include:

  • mainstream issues of disability into the development planning process at all levels
  • promote continuous collection of data on PWDs;
  • implement the provisions of the Disability Act; and
  • promote universal access to infrastructure by PWDs.

Labour Productivity and Employment

Priority policy interventions to be implemented, under this broad policy area are aimed at achieving the following key objectives:

  • national policy for enhancing productivity and income in both formal and informal economies;
  • mainstreaming employment issues in national development planning process;
  • strengthening the legal and institutional framework for labour administration;
  • implementing a functional labour market information and statistics system; and
  • implementing policies and strategies to promote workers rights, social dialogue and social protection.

The specific policy interventions to be implemented to achieve the objective of enhancing productivity and income in both formal and informal economies include:

  • developing and implementing productivity measurement and enhancement programmes for the formal and informal sectors of the economy;
  • supporting the development and implementation of capacity enhancement programmes that take into consideration the specific needs of men and women in both the formal and the informal sectors of the economy;
  • supporting the establishment of participatory and cooperative mechanisms to enhance income and job security in the informal economy; and
  • adopting measures to integrate formal and informal economies.

The specific policy interventions to be implemented to ensure that employment issues are mainstreamed in national development planning process include:

  • maintain prudent macroeconomic management to promote growth with employment;
  • review planning, budgeting and procurement guidelines to reflect employment generation as a requirement;
  • support MMDAs to develop and implement employment generation programmes within the national employment framework;
  • formulate and implement employment policy; and
  • review existing private sector development strategies and programmes in line with Government’s employment policy.

The specific policy interventions to be implemented to promote more and better jobs in both the formal and informal economies include:

  • supporting selected industrial products to be produced domestically in labour-intensive environment (e.g. construction and building materials, agricultural equipment, motor vehicles, etc);
  • developing and implementing a Rural and Urban Entrepreneurship and Artisan Project (RUEAP) to provide capital and technical support to potential businesses;
  • developing and implementing labour-based housing and public works scheme to reduce unemployment;
  • instituting labour-based constructional projects in urban and rural roads, drainage and environmental sanitation systems;
  • establishing ICT trainers programme to train SHS graduates in ICT applications (e. g. repair of mobile phones and other related gadgets);
  • promoting Ghana as a major destination for ICT Business outsourcing by establishing ICT parks of international grade in selected locations;
  • supporting artisans and other professionals including fitters and mechanics, carpenters and electricians; hairdressers and beauticians to form strong district, regional and national associations to enable them qualify for Government support;
  • expanding nursing and midwifery colleges and increase new students intake for healthcare-related jobs;
  • building the capacity of local publishing and printing industries to generate employment; and
  • establishing a system to identify, promote and reward innovation and creativity at all levels.

The specific policy interventions to be implemented to strengthen the legal and institutional framework for labour administration and employment management include:

  • strengthening the capacity of labour institutions;
  • enforcing rules and regulations governing labour administration including international standards, conventions and instruments; and
  • ensuring adequate employment generation provisions in national laws and regulations.

The specific policy interventions to be implemented to ensure a functional labour market information system include:

  • continuing the design and implementation of a labour market information system;
  • supporting organization and dissemination of labour market information for informed decision making;
  • strengthening the research and gender analysis capacity of the Ministry of Employment and Social Welfare;
  • promoting collaborationamong users of labour market information; and
  • restructuring and developing the institutional capacity of the Ministry of Employment and Social Welfare and its departments and agencies for the effective management of labour and employment policy issues.

The specific policy interventions to be implemented to promote workers rights, social dialogue and social protection include:

  • strengthening institutions for social dialogue and social protection;
  • building the capacity of tripartite partners;
  • facilitating the enforcement of labour laws which protect the security, health and welfare of workers, and especially stemming the tide of casualisation of employment;
  • enhancing the capacity of both public and private sector agencies, including the Factories Inspectorate of the Ministry of Employment and Social Welfare to facilitate work-place occupational safety and health standards; and
  • support the Social Security and National Insurance Trust (SSNIT) to expand the Informal Sector Fund to cover the risks and pension requirements of informal sector workers.

Poverty and Income Inequalities Reduction

Priority policy interventions to be implemented, under this broad policy area are aimed at achieving the following key objectives:

  • develop targeted social interventions for vulnerable and marginalized groups
  • enhanced public awareness on women’s issues
  • reduce poverty among food crop farmers and other vulnerable groups, including PWDs

The specific targeted social interventions for vulnerable and marginalized groups to be developed include:

  • coordinate and redistribute development projects and programmes in a manner that ensures fair and balanced allocation of national resources across ecological zones, gender, income groups including groups of PWDs;
  • designate a special sevelopment area for the coastal savannah region of Ghana;
  • Implement local economic development activities to generate employment and social protection strategies;
  • develop district infrastructure plans and improve business development services to facilitate local economic growth and private sector engagement;
  • develop harmonized regional infrastructure and investment plans and provide opportunities for private sector participation, especially in the tourism industry;
  • ensure accelerated development of social and economic infrastructure and services in rural areas and poor urban communities including education and training, health, roads, good housing, water and sanitation; and
  • improve agricultural productivity and incomes, and transform rural agriculture management and practices into viable business ventures.

The specific interventions to be implemented to enhance public awareness on women’s issues include:

  • promote the economic empowerment of women through access to land, labour, credit, markets, information, technology, business services and networks, and social protection; and
  • Promote the social empowerment of women through access to education.

The specific interventions to be implemented to reduce poverty among food crop farmers and other vulnerable groups include:

  • link food crop farmers to the Ghana School Feeding Programme, second cycle institutions, prisons for it to serve as ready market for their produce;
  • develop and implement a programme to expand access of extremely poor farmers to complimentary farm inputs and services; and
  • provide comprehensive business support to farmers benefiting from credit schemes, especially training.

2.8 Transparent and accountable governance

Transparency, accountability and participation are the cornerstones for good democratic governance. The overarching goal of this thematic area is to entrench participatory democratic governance by empowering state and non-state actors to participate effectively in the governance and development processes at all levels of the society. Consequently the medium term priority policies focus on addressing constraints in the following key areas:

  • Deepen Practice of Democracy and Institutional Reform Agenda
  • Local Governance and Decentralization
  • Economic growth and Plan coordination in special development areas to reduce poverty/ inequalities
  • Public Policy Management and Public Sector Reforms
  • Development Communication
  • Women Empowerment
  • Corruption and Economic Crimes
  • Rule of Law and Justice
  • Public Safety and Security
  • Access to Rights and Entitlement
  • National Culture for Development
  • International Relations (Partnership) for Development
  • Evidence-Based Decision Making

Deepen Practice of Democracy and Institutional Reforms

The specific interventions to be implemented to deepen practice of democracy and institutional reforms include:

  • strengthening the arms of the independent governance institutions such as Parliament, CHRAJ and the Economic and Organised Crimes Office (EOCO);
  • carrying out the constitutional review process;
  • build capacity of governance institutions and Parliament to draft laws and perform oversight responsibilities;
  • ensuring that civil society and private sector organizations participate effectively in the governance and development processes; and
  • ensure the enactment of the Transition Bill.

Local Governance and Decentralization

The specific interventions to be implemented to strengthen local governance and decentralization include:

  • reviewing the Local Government Service Act, 2003 (Act 656) and Local Government Act, 1993 (Act 462) to eliminate areas of conflicts and implement the National Decentralization Policy and Plan;
  • operationalisation and strengthening of the sub-district structures by reviewing and restructure the numbers and composition of the unit committees and ensure that the unit committees perform the functions assigned to them under LI 1589 of 1994;
  • fully operationalize the Local Government Act 1993, Act 462 and institute attractive incentives for Assembly members to enable them perform the duties assigned to them under the Act;
  • establish the proposed Constituency Development Fund for Members of Parliament; and
  • ensuring efficiency and transparency in the management of district and local resources.

Economic growth and Plan coordination in special development areas to reduce poverty/inequalities

The specific interventions to be implemented to reduce spatial and income inequalities across the country and among different socio-economic classes include:

  • ensuring accelerated rural development at the district level aimed at improving rural infrastructure and increasing access to social services;
  • enhance planning and coordination of the development of Ghana’s oil basin, and other special development areas including SADA, MIDA, CEDECOM/Coastal Savannah, Bui City, etc;
  • Review legislative frameworks for special development areas to conform to the national development planning system; and
  • Enhance monitoring and evaluation of special development areas and programmes.

Public Policy Management

The scope of efforts required to ensure effective public policy management entails:

  • strengthening the coordination of the development planning system for equitable and balanced spatial and socio-economic development;
  • upgrading the capacity of the public and civil service for transparent, accountable, efficient, timely, effective performance and service delivery;
  • rationalizing and defining structures, roles and procedures for state and non-state actors; and
  • provision of an efficient e-governance structure to ensure best practice.

The specific policy measures to be implemented include:

  • strengthening the coordinating function of the NDPC to enhance evidence-based decision-making and resource allocation at all levels;
  • reviewing the current status of the on-going public sector reform programmes to enhance accelerated implementation;
  • develop a comprehensive human resource development policy for the public sector to include reasonable remuneration;
  • undertake a comprehensive review and clarify the mandate and functions of state and non-state actors;
  • integrate the institutional networks within public sector and shared resources; and
  • make automation and networking compulsory as a tool to reduce fraud.

Public Sector Reforms

The specific policy measures to be implemented to bring about reforms in the public sector include:

  • the introduction of Ministerial Advisory Boards with private sector and civil society representation;
  • the establishment of a Public Sector Reform Secretariat and the Policy Evaluation and Oversight Wing of the Policy Unit at the Office of the President; and
  • the establishment of Project Advisory Committees and Project Management Units in each Ministry as well as the optimum deployment of capacity and expertise to implement specific reform initiatives.

Development Communication

The key objectives of priority interventions in this policy area is to:

  • ensure that development communications is mainstreamed into national planning system;
  • promote media and public relations accountability for national development;
  • enhance information dissemination on Government policies and programmes;
  • increased partnership with the media based on a mutual principled relationship of fairness, objectivity and truthfulness; and
  • promote an efficient communication strategy.

The specific policy measures to be implemented to ensure that development communications is mainstreamed into national planning system include:

  • streamlining development communications across MDAs and MMDAs;
  • create awareness of opportunities for engagement with local and national governance structures; and
  • strengthening the implementation of the National Development Communication Policy

The specific policy measures to be implemented to promote media and public relations accountability for national development include:

  • promoting social responsibility among media houses; and
  • developing behaviour change communication models in support of development.

The specific policy measures to be implemented to enhance information dissemination on Government policies and programmes include:

  • enact law on right to public information;
  • expand the structures of the PRAAD to function effectively in the collation, storage and retrieval of information;
  • initiate a process of public and media education on the right to information law after its passage; and
  • publish and disseminate materials in local language on the Right to Information Act.

The specific policy measures to be implemented to increase partnership with the media include:

  • organise regular press/media briefings;
  • improving media encounters//bi-monthly interactions with media;
  • identifying key authorities/professionals to speak to issues on behalf of Government; and
  • capacity building for media personnel and organizations.

The specific policy measures to be implemented to promote an efficient communication strategy include:

  • build capacity of ministers and members of Government on media relations and communication skills;
  • develop and implement a comprehensive and inter-sectoral communication policy to address all government communication needs including public feedback;
  • improve Government information dissemination and management machinery to take charge of Government information policy and public feedback;
  • maintain a policy of proactive communication and prompt response to public feedback;
  • expand opportunities for community and public ownership of radio; and
  • make use of indigenous communication channels e.g. drama, theatre, local dialects, etc.

Women’s Participation in Governance

The specific interventions to be implemented to improve women’s participation in Governance include:

  • increasing the pace of the implementation of the policy of affirmative action for women including strengthening the institutions dealing with women’s and children’s issues;
  • ensuring gender parity in education at all levels;
  • reviewing and enforce existing laws protecting women’s rights and introduce new legislations to take care of existing gaps; and
  • continue to formulate and implement gender policies and legislative reforms aimed at attaining a minimum of 40% women’s representation in Government and public sector appointments.

Rule of Law and Justice

The specific interventions to be implemented to ensure the rule of law and justice include:

  • improving case management systems of the courts including scaling- up mechanisms;
  • enhanced human resource levels; expanding infrastructure and revise and implement rules of procedure;
  • effectively mainstream the alternative dispute resolution (ADR) mechanism; and
  • review the Legal Aid Act, 1997, Act 542, and create under the Legal Aid Scheme a Directorate of Public Defenders (DPD) analogous to the Directorate of Public Prosecutions at the Attorney General’s Department as well as Citizens’ Advisory Bureaux to give free legal advice to citizens.

Public Safety and Security

The key objectives of priority interventions in this policy area is to:

  • ensure that the capacity of security agencies is improved to provide internal security for human safety and protection;
  • the intelligence agencies are strengthened to fight social and economic crimes; and
  • territorial integrity is safeguarded.

The specific interventions to be implemented to promote public safety and security include:

  • monitoring and regulating the operations of internet service providers as well as strengthening and supporting intelligence agencies;
  • reviewing existing laws and regulations on spatial and infrastructural development;
  • forestalling civil strife and external aggression in order to secure the country for growth and poverty reduction; and
  • build operational, human resource and logistics capacity of the security agencies.

Corruption and Economic Crimes

Over the medium term, efforts at fighting corruption and economic crimes are aim at promoting transparency and accountability and reducing opportunities for rent-seeking among public officials.

The specific interventions to be implemented to fight corruption and economic crime include:

  • enforcing existing enactments pertaining to public procurement, internal audit, public financial management and the whistle blower law;
  • ensuring the enactment of the Freedom of Information Bill; and
  • finalize and implement a fair wage policy.

Access to Rights and Entitlement

The specific interventions to be implemented to improve access to right and entitlement include:

  • developing and designing special capacity building programmes for the unemployed graduates, the vulnerable and excluded;
  • increase the provision and quality of social services;
  • Strengthen capacity for public education and dissemination of information on rights and entitlement;
  • Collect and document data on rights and entitlements of children;
  • Develop capacity building programmes for institutions responsible for children’s rights;
  • Enhance the capacity of relevant agencies to adequately enforce laws on family life (Domestic Violence etc);
  • Intensify advocacy for ratification of charters and domestication of international conventions, e.g. child labour (ILO Convention 182);
  • Mainstream Human Rights perspective into National Development
  • Promote human rights education at all levels; and
  • Implement National Disability Act, Early Childhood Care and Development Policy, Children’s Act, Gender and Children’s Policy and Human Trafficking Act, Juvenile Justice Act.

National Culture and Development

Recognising the important role that national culture plays in national development, medium term priority policies are aimed at creating appreciation of, and love for national culture. The specific policies to be implemented therefore include:

  • strengthening of both the National and Regional Houses of Chiefs to contribute appropriately to national development;
  • documentation of chieftaincy and cultural history,
  • review the national culture policy to ensure it takes into account the strategic role of culture in development;
  • mainstream culture in the nation’s social and economic development agenda;
  • promote the implementation of a dynamic culture development programme;
  • complete the development of fully-functional Centres for National Culture in all regional and district capitals; and
  • develop the capacity of Centres of National Culture to effectively promote cultural activities across the country.

International Relations (Partnership) for Development

The key objectives of priority interventions in this policy area is to:

  • accelerate economic and social integration with regional and/or sub-regional states;
  • sustain Government’s commitment to international peace and security, adherence to international protocols and conventions, and incorporate them into national laws;
  • institute mechanisms to manage external economic shocks; and
  • promotion of domestic trade and effective enforcement for standards and regulations.

The specific policies to be implemented therefore include:

  • Work towards establishing a common customs union;
  • Mainstream international protocols into local laws for the promotion of international peace and sustainable developments; and
  • Strengthen the Sub- Regional/Global collaboration among security agencies

Evidence-Based Decision Making

The key objective of priority interventions in this policy area is to improve accessibility and use of existing database for policy formulation, analysis and decision making. The specific policies to be implemented for the attainment of this objective therefore include:

  • rationalize the production of data within the statistical system;
  • define the roles and mandates of the various data producing institutions;
  • adopt common definitions, methods and classifications;
  • review the Statistical Service law, develop and adopt a statistical master plan;
  • adopt international standards and good practices system-wide, including the United Nations Principles for Official Statistics and the IMF’s General Data Dissemination Standards;
  • support MDA’s to generate data for effective planning and budgeting;
  • build capacity of MDAs in electronic data analysis and management;
  • Re-engineer and fully automate the operations of government strategic institutions;
  • establish strategic partnership between MDAs to harmonize and standardize government sector spatial databases for planning and monitoring development activities;
  • support the maintenance of an up-to-date spatial database for Mapping and Monitoring Development Activities (EMMSDAG);
  • support the development of a web-based system for accessing the EMMSDAG Spatial Database by strategic government institutions;
  • building capacity within MDAs, MMDAs and strategic government institutions in the use of the EMMSDAG Spatial Database for development planning and monitoring; and
  • strengthen MIS systems of MDAs and MMDAs.

Managing migration for national development

The key objective of priority interventions in this policy area is to minimise the negative impact and optimising the potential impact of migration for Ghana’s development. The specific policies to be implemented for the attainment of this objective therefore include:

  • formulate and promote national migration and development policy;
  • mainstream migration into national development frameworks;
  • establish national institution for the management of migration for development; and
  • establish a database on Ghanaians in the Diaspora.

Chapter Three Estimated Resource Requirements for The Implementation of Gsgda Policies and Strategies

3.1 Introduction

This chapter presents the methodology employed in estimating the resource requirements for the implementation of policies and programmes, as well as the guidelines for costing the Sector Medium Term Development Plans (SMTDPs).

3.2 Costing Methodology

The starting point for costing the GSGDA, 2010 – 2013 is the Sector Medium Term Development Plans (SMTDPs), 2010 – 2013. The process of national development planning in Ghana involves the preparation of national development policy framework on the basis of which Planning Guidelines are issued to MDAs and MMDAs to prepare their respective Sector and District Development Plans. The Sector and District Development Plans are synthesized and harmonized into the National Medium-Term Development Plan.

Consequently the consolidation of the costs of implementation of individual medium-term Sector or District Development Plans provides the overall resources required to implement a National Medium-Term Development Plan derived from the National Development Policy Framework. These costs which are normally outlined by strategy and policy objective within the sector or district medium term development plans can be aggregated at the national level by the following categorization:

  • Thematic Area;
  • Key Focus Area;
  • Policy Objectives;
  • Strategies; and
  • Implementing and Collaborative agencies

Diagram 1 shows a hierarchy reflecting how a thematic area can be further broken down into key focus areas, objectives, strategies, activities and inputs.

DIAGRAM 1:IDENTIFICATION OF INPUTS AND COSTS

In 2009 the Ministries, Department and Agencies (MDAs) were assisted by NDPC to prepare their respective SMTDPs, for the period 2010 – 2013 based on the GSGDA, 2010 - 2013. The SMTDPs are the basis of the logical framework for the GSGDA’s cost estimate.

The SMTDPs consist of the following:

  • Mission Statement;
  • Adopted Sector Objectives from the MTDPF, 2010 – 2013;
  • Sector Strategies in line with the Medium-Term Development Policy Framework (2010-2013);
  • Formulated broad sector programme;
  • Set of outputs based on broad sector programme; and
  • Set of activities which are aligned to the strategies and policy objectives of the GSGDA.

The activities to be costed by MDAs were expected to be SMART:

  • Specific: should clearly state exactly WHAT is to be accomplished and for whom in terms of end results
  • Measurable: should clearly state the desired LEVEL of accomplishment of end results
  • Achievable: should not be so tight that it cannot be achieved
  • Relevant: they should be consistent with MTDPF policy objectives, strategies and higher goals
  • Timely: should include time scales of WHEN the objective will be achieved

The MDAs were expected to define the activities to be undertaken in order to realize the objectives using the following approach:

  • Identify for each thematic area the objectives specified in the sector medium-term strategic plan.
  • For each objective, list the results expected or the outputs i.e. what are the specific things that will be delivered as a result of this project?
  • Identify the activities to be undertaken to implement the strategy, i.e. what will actually be done in order to deliver the intended outputs?

In the context of the GSGDA, 2010 – 2013, activities are limited to Service (Item 3) and Investment (Item 4). Personnel Emoluments (Item 1) and Administration (Item 2) are not to be included in the GSGDA cost estimates.

For each activity, an estimate of the input costs was provided. These Inputs were valued according to Quantities, Frequencies and Unit cost. The inputs were standardized and classified as the national account segment of the government chart of account. It is the product of the Unit Cost, the Quantity and the Frequency of the Input that will give the Total Input Cost.

The sum of the Input Costs for each Activity gives the Activity Cost. These are further aggregated to obtain the Strategy cost, the Policy Objective Cost, Key Focus Area Cost and eventually Thematic Area Cost as depicted in Diagram 2. Since there are cross cutting issues, MDAs were required to be careful to avoid double counting of activities to be shared with collaborating MDAs. Cost associated with MDAs role in achieving the cross-cutting policy objective were accounted for by the relevant MDA.

DIAGRAM 2:AGGREGATION OF COSTS

3.3 Guidelines for Costing the SMTDPs

The guiding principle derived from the costing methodology was summarized into the following to guide the MDAs in the costing of their SMTDPs:

  • The costs of both new and on-going programmes and projects necessary for meeting the targets were included in the total cost of implementation.
  • There is a basic assumption with regard to personnel and administration costs associated with the execution of the action plan. They are assumed to be included in the normal budgetary resources and are not included in the costing of the priority themes. Therefore, the activities costed consisted mainly of Service and Investment expenditures associated with the programmes and projects.
  • The implementation of SMTDPs (2010 – 2013) involves activities that may be carried out by the public sector alone, or by the private sector in partnership with the public sector. In the case of the latter, only the public sector activities are costed.

The costing of the SMTDP (2010 – 2013) was also guided by the Guidelines for the 2011-2013 Annual National Budget. The budget guidelines provide the boundaries within which a cost centre is allowed to budget and its elements such as exchange rate among others are therefore applied by cost centres during costing. The cost centres for the accumulation of costs are the same as the cost centres in the Annual National Budget, currently at 35 (Schedule 1).

Costs aggregated by Key Focus Area and Thematic Area are to be summarized using Schedule 2.

SCHEDULE 1: COST CENTRES

  • 1 Ministry of Food and Agriculture
  • 2 Ministry of Lands & Natural Resources
  • 3 Ministry of Trade & Industry
  • 4 Ministry of Tourism
  • 5 Ministry of Energy
  • 6 Ministry of Environment, Science & Technology
  • 7 Ministry of Water Resources, Works & Housing
  • 8 Ministry of Transport
  • 9 Ministry of Roads & Highways
  • 10 Ministry of Communications
  • 11 Ministry of Education
  • 12 Ministry of Youth and Sports
  • 13 Ministry of Employment and Social Welfare
  • 14 Ministry of Health
  • 15 Ministry of Women and Children’s Affairs
  • 16 Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development
  • 17 Office of Government Machinery
  • 18 Office of Parliament
  • 19 Audit Service
  • 20 Public Services Commission
  • 21 District Assemblies Common Fund
  • 22 Electoral Commission
  • 23 Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Regional Cooperation
  • 24 Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning
  • 25 National Commission for Civic Education
  • 26 Ministry of Chieftaincy & culture
  • 27 National Media Commission
  • 28 Ministry of Information
  • 29 National Development Planning Commission
  • 30 National Labour Commission
  • 31 Ministry of Justice & Attorney-General’s Department
  • 32 Ministry of Defence
  • 33 Commission on Human Rights & Administrative Justice
  • 34 Judicial Service
  • 35 Ministry of Interior

3.4 Resource Requirement

The policies and strategies that underline the activities in each thematic area are summarized in the Policy Matrix of the GSGDA, 2010 – 2013. These are categorized under the seven main thematic areas, namely:

  • Ensuring and sustaining macroeconomic stability;
  • Enhanced competitiveness of Ghana’s private sector;
  • Accelerated agricultural modernization and natural resource management;
  • Oil and gas development;
  • Infrastructure and human settlements development;
  • Human development, employment and productivity; and
  • Transparent and accountable governance.

The total costs for implementing the GSGDA over the period 2010 – 2013 is estimated at US$23,891.459 million (GH¢34,642.616 million), which amounts to about US$5,972 million per annum. About 54.5% of the total resource requirement is expected to go into the implementation of activities related to the provision of economic and social infrastructure, human settlements development, as well as the development of the oil and gas industry. Resources to implement activities related to human development, productivity and employment constitutes 25.2%, while those to enhancing the competitiveness of Ghana’s private sector and also for promoting agriculture modernization and efficient natural resource management constitute about 12%. Resources allocated to ensuring and sustaining macroeconomic stability constitute the least of about 2%, while those for promoting transparent and accountable governance constituted 6.4% (Figure 3.1).

FIGURE 3.1:ALLOCATION OF RESOURCES UNDER THE GSGDA, 2010 – 2013

(PERCENT)

Source: MTEF Database, MOFEP, 2010

The resource flow is expected to be evenly distributed, particularly during the outer years with an average resource requirement of about 28.7% per annum. The resource requirement for 2010 is expected to be the lowest, constituting about 14%, and increasing gradually to 29.9% in 2013 (Figure 3.2).

FIGURE 3.2:PATTERN OF RESOURCE FLOW OF EACH THEMATIC, 2010 - 2013

(PERCENT)

Source: MTEF Database, MOFEP, 2010

Ensuring and sustaining macroeconomic stability

In order to ensure and sustain macroeconomic stability, total cost of implementing policies and strategies is estimated at US$502.873 million over the period 2010 – 2013 (Table 3.1). About 87.1% of this amount is expected to be spent on interventions related to ensuring efficient fiscal policy management, and 8.2% to efficient management of monetary and financial policies. Resources for ensuring effective economic policy management including strengthening economic planning and forecasting, constitute 2.4%, while those for promoting international trade and integration to the ECOWAS constitute 2.3%. Resource requirement in this thematic area is expected to be evenly distributed over the plan period, with about 22.1% required in 2010 and increasing gradually to 26.8% in 2013.

TABLE 3.1:ESTIMATED COST FOR IMPLEMENTING THE GSGDA, 2010 – 2013 (PERCENT)
Expenditure Summary
THEME AREA2010201120122013Total
Value (in Million US$)%Value (in Million US$)%Value (in Million US$)%Value (in Million US$)%Value (in Million US$)%
I. ENSURING AND SUSTAINING MACROECONOMIC STABILITY111.1293.34126.5791.92130.3711.91134.7951.89502.8732.10
II. ENHANCING COMPETITIVENESS IN GHANA’S PRIVATE SECTOR21.4670.65507.5137.71643.2989.41733.93310.261,906.2117.98
III. AGRICULTURE MODERNIZATION AND NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT90.7552.73292.6164.44285.1024.17237.8823.33906.3543.79
IV. INFRASTRUCTURE AND HUMAN SETTLEMENTS1,493.71444.962,497.37637.932,568.20537.572,859.12039.999,418.41539.42
V. ENERGY, OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY281.6998.481,257.94819.111,182.37117.30879.42112.303,601.43815.07
VI. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT, PRODUCTIVITY AND EMPLOYMENT1,109.41033.391,441.49521.891,577.15323.071,890.69026.446,018.74825.19
VII. TRANSPARENT AND ACCOUNTABLE GOVERNANCE214.0766.44460.7117.00448.4176.56414.2165.791,537.4196.44
GRAND TOTAL3,322.250100.006,584.238100.006,834.916100.007,150.056100.0023,891.459100.00
Source: MTEF Database, MOFEP, 2010
Source: MTEF Database, MOFEP, 2010

Enhancing the competitiveness of Ghana’s private sector

In the area of enhancing the competitiveness of Ghana’s private sector, total resource requirement amounts to US$1,906.211 million (Table 3.1), of which about 95.6% is expected to be spent on activities related to developing the industrial base of the economy. This entails ensuring rapid industrialization driven by strong relationship to agriculture, and transforming the extractive industry for economic development including implementing the Eastern corridor counterpart industrial mineral processing initiative as well as the salt-based and bauxite driven industries initiative. The remaining 4.4% is expected to be spent on activities related to promoting the development of the private sector, good corporate governance, tourism industry and the creative industry. The resource flow is expected to be evenly distributed, particularly during the outer years, with about 1.1% required in 2010 and increasing gradually to 38.5% in 2013.

Agriculture modernization and natural resource management

Total resource requirement for implementing interventions related to the agriculture modernization and natural resource management thematic area over the plan period amounts to US$906.354 million (Table 3.1). About 80% of this amount is expected to go into implement activities aimed at modernizing agriculture including minimizing production and distribution risks and bottlenecks, increasing agricultural competitiveness and enhance integration into domestic and international markets, and promoting selected crop development for food security, export and industry. The remaining 20% is expected to go into activities aimed at ensuring efficient natural resource management and environmental governance. Nearly 10% of the resource in this thematic area is expected to be spent in 2010, while 32.3% and 31.5% are required for the 2011 and 2012 respectively. The resource required for 2013 is estimated at 26.2%.

Infrastructure and human settlements

In the infrastructure and human settlements thematic area, about US$9,418.415 million is required to implement policies and programmes over the plan period, of which 55.2% is expected to be spent on activities related to the provision of efficient and integrated transport infrastructure including the rehabilitation of the central and western railway lines, modernization of Takoradi Harbour, re-construction of the Eastern and Western corridor roads, development of a new deep sea port to serve the oil and gas industry, and improvement of the domestic and national airport as well as the air strips.

About 20.5% is also estimated to be spent on activities related to the provision of improved water and adequate sanitation, while 11.9% is estimated for the accelerated development of affordable housing and shelter. The remaining 12.4% is estimated to be spent on activities related to science and technology development, development of information communication technology, human settlement development and provision of recreational infrastructure. Resource requirement in this thematic area is expected to be evenly distributed over the plan period, with about 16% required in 2010 and increasing to 30.4% in 2013.

Energy, oil and gas

Total resource requirement for the energy, oil and gas thematic area over the plan period is estimated at US$3,601.438 million (Table 3.1). The resource requirement for the development of the necessary infrastructure and human resource to support the development of the oil and gas industry, including developing the relevant local capacity to take advantage of the local content law, constitutes about 21.5% of total resource requirement of the thematic area. The remaining 78.5% of the resources in this thematic area, is however, expected to be spent on activities related to the provision of a reliable and adequate energy supply to households and industry. This will entail rehabilitation and expansion of existing energy infrastructure, diversifying of the national energy mix, development of selected small river dams, and integrating energy infrastructure with sub-regional infrastructure. Nearly 8% of the resource in this thematic area is expected to be spent in 2010, while about 68% is required during the 2011 and 2012. The resource required for 2013 is estimated at 24.4%.

Human resource, productivity and employment

Total resource requirement for the human resource, productivity and employment thematic area over the plan period is estimated at US$6,018.748 million (Table 3.1), of which about 61.3% is expected to be spent on activities related to the provision of quality health care and nutrition, especially improving access to quality maternal, child and adolescent health services, as well as bridging equity gaps in access to health care. On the other hand, 33.6% is expected to be spent on activities related to the provision of quality education, while the remaining 5% goes into programmes aimed at improving productivity and employment, developing the youth and sports, population management, and social protection and expansion of safety net. Resource requirement in this thematic area is expected to be evenly distributed over the plan period, with about 18.4% required in 2010 and increasing gradually to 31.4% in 2013.

Transparent and accountable governance

In the transparent and accountable governance thematic area, total resource requirement for implementing interventions over the plan period is estimated at US$1,537.419 million (Table 3.1), of which 26.8% is expected to be spent on activities related to public policy management and public sector reforms, 20.6% to public safety and security and 19.8% to the promotion of the practice of democracy and institutional reforms. In order to implement policies aimed at reducing regional development gaps and income inequalities about 8% of the resources in this thematic area is expected to go into promoting the special development areas initiatives, while 6.6% is expected to be allocated to the promotion of local governance and decentralization. About 6.7% is expected to be spent on interventions aimed at ensuring evidence-based decision making, while the remaining 18.2% is expected to be spent on activities related to promoting women empowerment, development communication, rule of law and justice, national culture in development, international relations and partnerships, access to right and entitlements, and fighting corruption and economic crimes. Nearly 13.9% of the resource is expected to be spent in 2010, while 30% and 29.2% are required for the 2011 and 2012 respectively. The resource required for 2013 is estimated at 26.9%.

Chapter Four The Resource Envelope and the Financing Gap

4.1 Resource Envelope

The resource envelope comprises both domestic and external sources of financing. In each of the four years of the GSGDA implementation period, budgetary spending excluding net lending is projected at an average of 40.3% of annual GDP. Domestic revenue sources including oil revenue make up some 31.8% of GDP, while grants from bilateral and multilateral sources constitute about 4.3% of GDP on the average. The remaining 4.2% of GDP is expected to come from programme loans and exceptional financing arrangements (Tables 4.1 & 4.2).

Table 4.1:REVENUE(Million Ghana Cedis)
2010

Budget

Estimate
2011

Budget

Estimate
2012

Projected

Estimate
2013

Projected

Estimate
TAXES ON INCOME & PROPERTY2,235.3863,334.7994,471.3765,056.159
Personal938.8111,334.2001,478.2001,842.480
Self employed103.736119.050138.950152.480
Companies881.7561,128.9001,355.9401,514.398
Oil Revenue0.000198.448813.498697.398
Others311.083554.202684.787849.404
Other direct taxes /1249.193416.224520.347667.324
o/w Royalties from Oil0.000123.406199.877213.944
o/w Mineral Royalties0.000192.9400.0000.000
NRL (Arrears)0.0000.0000.0000.000
NFSL / (Arrears)35.08097.47817.5808.790
Airport tax26.81040.500146.860173.290
TAXES ON DOMESTIC GOODS444.305455.400534.633609.705
Excise Duty91.905125.400147.510177.020
Petroleum tax352.400330.000387.123432.685
TAXES ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE1,141.4441,335.8641,436.1341,563.938
Imports1,089.6221,273.6771,361.5101,478.620
Import duty1,089.6221,273.6771,361.5101,478.620
Special tax0.0000.0000.0000.000
Other taxes/20.0000.0000.0000.000
Exports51.82262.18774.62485.318
Cocoa51.82262.18774.62485.318
Lumber0.0000.0000.0000.000
VAT1,675.3501,937.6502,309.6002,650.780
Domestic609.400829.2501,009.9801,211.980
External1,065.9501,108.4001,299.6201,438.800
National Health Insurance Levy (NHIL)480.908477.673565.132644.306
CEPS Collection216.710226.300259.920287.800
VATS Collection121.820161.600202.000242.400
SSNIT Contribution142.37889.773103.212114.106
Other revenue measures132.9900.0000.0000.000
Import Exemptions237.228260.838292.105320.522
Tax Revenue6,072.2437,712.4519,505.76810,731.304
Non-tax revenue1,916.4031,355.6681,659.0611,899.685
TOTAL REVENUE8,264.0139,299.52111,441.28112,952.985
GRANTS1,364.5151,301.6011,306.8731,489.123
Project grants832.880784.183736.211838.411
Programme grants296.205281.387318.928385.398
HIPC Assistance (multilaterals)131.595128.746135.227132.487
Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI)103.835107.286116.508132.826
International Monetary Fund0.0000.0000.0000.000
World Bank93.93097.440105.995112.667
African Development Bank9.9059.84610.51320.159
TOTAL REVENUE & GRANTS9,628.52710,601.12312,748.15414,442.108
Source: Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning, 2010
Source: Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning, 2010
Table 4.2:EXPENDITURE(Million Ghana Cedis)
2010

Budget

Estimate
2011

Budget

Estimate
2012

Projected

Estimate
2013

Projected

Estimate
Recurrent7,625.0498,924.86110,059.79510,471.373
Non-interest expenditure6,278.8917,093.5618,643.6458,950.523
Wages & Salaries3,112.9503,732.7624,740.6076,020.571
Goods & Services635.082604.230717.867802.355
o/w Administration408.608400.604473.792529.555
o/w Service226.474203.626244.075272.801
Transfers1,972.5592,352.6882,685.3951,569.000
Pensions254.153282.300358.864455.757
Gratuities103.73694.400105.861118.320
Social Security233.406363.300461.261585.802
National Health Fund (NHF)480.908477.673565.132644.306
o/w Social Intervention Programmes0.00093.6240.0000.000
Other transfers900.3571,107.7661,194.2781,376.179
Retention of Internally-generated funds (IGFs)595.700818.118866.9801,016.322
Safety net for deregulation41.4940.0000.0000.000
Lifeline consumers of electricity25.93428.81035.19339.335
Tax Expenditure (Exemptions)237.228260.838292.105320.522
Subsidies to utility companies0.00027.2500.0000.000
o/w TOR for under-recovery/Debt0.00027.2500.0000.000
Reserve Fund558.300403.881499.776558.596
0.0000.0000.0000.000
Interest Payments1,346.1571,831.3001,416.1501,520.850
Domestic1,038.3001,372.2001,090.9831,180.050
External (Due)307.857459.100325.167340.800
Capital expenditure2,839.4983,745.9033,645.3664,427.882
Capital (domestic financed)1,311.0711,587.5032,349.3182,656.410
Development1,311.0711,587.5032,349.3182,656.410
Education Trust Fund326.693376.880449.225515.586
o/w Social Intervention Programmes0.000101.7570.0000.000
Road Fund145.230154.300176.950197.776
Petroleum Related Fund5.1876.1007.0397.867
Dist. Ass. Common Fund434.485530.738610.261706.994
o/w Social Intervention Programmes0.000159.2210.0000.000
Other cash expenditure399.476257.300633.474708.030
Oil-financed Expenditure0.000262.185472.369520.157
o/w transfer to GNPC0.000262.185472.369520.157
Capital (foreign financed)1,528.4272,158.4001,296.0481,771.472
HIPC financed expenditure209.3120.000250.212246.334
MDRI financed expenditure103.8350.000116.508132.826
Financing1,945.0502,336.9141,667.5011,189.458
Foreign (net)553.211998.952768.150481.039
Borrowing1,110.9471,618.7161,377.0941,099.376
Project loans695.5471,374.2171,210.779933.061
Programme loans415.400244.499166.315166.315
Amortisation (due)-557.736-619.764-608.944-618.337
Exceptional financing130.045118.175114.985113.847
HIPC Relief (Cologne terms)130.045118.175114.985113.847
Domestic (net)1,261.7941,219.787784.367594.573
Other Financing0.0000.0000.0000.000
Memorandum items
Taxes on income and property8.610.712.712.9
Taxes on domestic goods1.71.51.51.6
Taxes on international trade4.44.34.14.0
Tax revenue23.424.827.027.3
Nontax revenue7.44.44.74.8
Domestic revenue31.929.832.532.9
Grants5.34.23.73.8
Total revenue and grants37.134.036.236.7
Total Oil Revenue0.000584.0391,485.7451,431.498
Recurrent29.428.628.626.6
Goods and services2.419.42.02.0
Subvention0.00.00.00.0
Transfers7.675.57.64.0
Interest payments5.258.84.03.9
Capital10.9120.210.411.3
Total expenditure & net lending (% of GDP)41.640.740.038.8
TOTAL EXP. & NET LENDING10,777.69412,670.76414,071.88115,278.414
Total Non Salary Recurrent and Investment3,547.8413,251.3254,447.7855,038.907
Total Non Salary Recurrent and Investment in US Dollars2,481.0082,242.2933,067.4383,475.108
Exchange Rate1.431.451.451.45
Source: Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning, 2010
Source: Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning, 2010

About 86.5% of total receipts over the period of implementation of the GSGDA are expected to be generated from domestic sources (i.e. domestic tax and non-tax sources). Revenue from oil and gas over the plan period is expected not to be less than 6% of the domestic receipt.

The greater proportion of investments under GSGDA is expected to be funded through programme and project loans, special bilateral financing arrangements and public-private partnership arrangements in view of the large capital requirements of major economic and social infrastructure projects envisaged under the GSGDA which the national budget cannot support. About 54.8% of capital investment envisaged under the GSGDA is expected to be financed through the traditional domestic and foreign financed arrangements. The remaining 45.2% is expected to be financed through special financing arrangements including the Sino-Ghana Bilateral Investment Initiatives, Korea-Ghana Bilateral Initiative and Public-Private Partnerships.

Traditional foreign finance capital investment is expected to average, at least, US$1,168.228 million per annum during the planned period, while domestic financed capital expenditure (excluding statutory expenditure) is estimated at US$1,365.972 million per annum. HIPC and MDRI financed expenditure is expected to average US$182.59 million per annum, while Programme and Project loans on the other hand is expected to average, at least, US$897.609 million per annum during the planned period (Table 4.2).

4.2 The Resource Gap

The estimated total resources required to finance the GSGDA is US$23,891.459 million (GH¢34,642.616 million) over the period 2010-2013. This cost excludes wages and salaries expenses associated with project and programme implementation. A comparison of the projected resource inflows to the estimated cost of implementing the GSGDA provides an indication of the resource gap that must be filled to ensure full implementation of the programmes and projects identified under the GSGDA.

Over the period, total revenue and grants is expected to rise by an average of 17.9% per annum from US$6,088.545 million in 2010 to US$9,960.074 million in 2013. The GOG budgetary resources allocated for expenditures in Services and Investment is estimated to rise at average of 15.2% per annum from US$2,271.403 million in 2010 to US$3,418.921 million in 2013, thereby accounting for 47.7% of the total resource requirement over the period.

Table 4.3:Resource Gap Analysis
Amount (in million US$)
2010201120122013Total
1. SERVICES285.740276.279326.753365.2101,253.982
2. INVESTMENT1,985.6632,583.3812,514.0453,053.71110,136.801
- Domestic Financed(excluding statutory)916.8331,094.8291,620.2191,832.0075,463.889
-Foreign Financed1,068.8301,488.552893.8261,221.7054,672.913
3. SERVICES + INVESTMENT2,271.4032,859.6602,840.7983,418.92111,390.783
4. ESTIMATED COST OF THE3,322.2506,584.2386,834.9167,150.05623,891.459
GSGDA
5. RESOURCE GAP1,050.8473,724.5773,994.1183,731.13412,500.676
Source: Derived from data, 2010
Source: Derived from data, 2010

Based on the projected total revenue and expenditures in Investments and Service over the period, overall resource gap of US$12,500.676 million (GH¢18,125.980 million) and an average of US$3,125.169 million per annum was estimated. This represents an overall financing gap of about 52.3% over the period 2010-2013, which is expected to be filled by:

  • identifying new financing sources including targeted bilateral partnerships in state-to-state arrangements, vigorous promotion of Public-Private Partnership, etc;
  • introducing new domestic revenue enhancing measures to widen the revenue base;
  • scaling-up donor inflows; and
  • accelerate the capacity expansion of the domestic financial markets and targeted support and incentives for the capital market

New Financing Sources/Bilateral State-to-State Partnerships: Inadequate budgetary as well as financial market resources to fund large infrastructural projects have been a big constraint to the national develop effort. In other to fully finance the GSGDA it is important to diversify from the traditional sources of funding to more innovative ones. This will create the necessary fiscal space for investments in the large economic and social infrastructure required for economic and social transformation.

Bilateral partnerships will be forged to focus on state-to-state initiatives in specific areas of the economy. About 45.2% of capital investment envisaged under the GSGDA is expected to be financed through special financing arrangements including the Sino-Ghana Bilateral Investment Initiatives, Korea-Ghana Bilateral Initiative and Public-Private Partnerships.

Many of the interventions outlined in the GSGDA lend themselves easily to private sector involvement. To complement the traditional sources for funding GSGDA, the necessary space will be created for private sector participation through the vigorous promotion of Public Private Partnership (PPP). This will involve access to technology and technical know-how and large financing, as well as risk-sharing to reduce the pressure on the nation’s budgetary resources.

Scaling-up Donor Inflows: An analysis of ODA inflows to Ghana shows that aid inflows have increased from US$578.96 million in 2001 in nominal terms to US$1,698.21 million in 2009, constituting an average annual increment of about 23% during the period. The Multi-Donor Budgetary Support (MDBS) which currently constitute about 30% of donor inflows in Ghana, has improved commitment and predictability of aid inflows. However in real terms, ODA inflows have stagnated between 2002 and 2009. With the shift of most of the Development Partners from Project Support and Sector-Wide Project (SWP) approach to the Programme/Budget Support approach, and the adoption of the Multi-Donor Budgetary Support (MDBS) System by the GOG, there are positive prospects for mobilizing more DPs resources for the effective implementation of the GSGDA. The country financial management and mechanisms for value for money will be strengthened to increase the confidence of Development Partners in the country systems.

Introducing new revenue enhancing measures: With the medium term objective of increasing government revenue through a number of revenue enhancing mechanisms, the prospect for scaling-up GOG resources in support of the implementation of the GSGDA is high. Revenue enhancing mechanisms including introduction of a single revenue authority, improving VAT collection, taxation of natural resources, reduction of tax exemptions, etc will be pursued.

Expansion of Domestic Financial Markets: To expand domestic financial market for increase availability and pace of domestic resource mobilisation to support investments by the private sector, the financial sector reforms and capacity strengthening will be accelerated. The banking sector capitalisation will be increased to expand banks’ risk capacity and their capability to fund the private sector in order to ensure they can take advantage of existing and emerging opportunities in the economy to grow and create jobs. In addition, the incentive mechanism for the Ghana Stock Exchange and investors on the exchange will be deepened to encourage the private sector to access long-term capital.

Appendices
Appendix 1: Indicative Cost for Implementing the GDGSD, 2010 – 2013, By Focus Area

I. Ensuring and Sustaining Macroeconomic Stability

Expenditure Summary
Theme / Key Focus Area2010201120122013TOTAL
Value (in Million US$)%Value (in Million US$)%Value (in Million US$)%Value (in Million US$)%Value (in Million US$)%
1. Monetary Policy and Financial Management8.3987.5610.0787.9610.9508.4011.8528.7941.2788.21
2. Fiscal Policy Management97.06787.35110.41887.23113.18486.82117.23686.97437.90587.08
3. Economic Policy Management2.9232.632.9632.343.0672.353.1362.3312.0892.40
4. International Trade Management and ECOWAS Community Development2.7412.473.1192.463.1702.432.5711.9111.6012.31
Sub-total111.129100.00126.579100.00130.371100.00134.795100.00502.873100.00

II. Enhancing Competitiveness of Ghana’s Private Sector

Expenditure Summary
Theme / Key Focus Area2010201120122013TOTAL
Value (in Million US$)%Value (in Million US$)%Value (in Million US$)%Value (in Million US$)%Value (in Million US$)%
1. Private Sector Development5.91327.546.2991.2412.6271.9613.0761.7837.9151.99
2. Good Corporate Governance7.84936.567.9741.576.6251.036.7830.9229.2311.53
3. Industrial Development3.21014.95489.55396.46620.21496.41710.21096.771,823.18695.64
4. Developing the Tourism Industry3.99718.623.1720.623.2380.503.1880.4313.5950.71
5. Promoting the Creative Industry for Economic Development0.4992.320.5150.100.5940.090.6760.092.2840.12
Sub-total21.467100.00507.513100.00643.298100.00733.933100.001,906.211100.00

III. Agriculture Modernization and Natural Resource Management

Expenditure Summary
Theme / Key Focus Area2010201120122013TOTAL
Value (in Million US$)%Value (in Million US$)%Value (in Million US$)%Value (in Million US$)%Value (in Million US$)%
1. Accelerated Modernization of Agriculture76.19783.96235.25580.40232.67281.61184.35377.50728.47880.37
2. Effective Natural Resource Management and Environmental Governance14.55716.0457.36019.6052.43018.3953.52922.50177.87719.63
Sub-total90.755100.00292.616100.00285.102100.00237.882100.00906.354100.00

IV. Infrastructure and Human Settlements

Expenditure Summary
Theme / Key Focus Area2010201120122013TOTAL
Value (in Million US$)%Value (in Million US$)%Value (in Million US$)%Value (in Million US$)%Value (in Million US$)%
1. Human Settlements Development131.4838.80153.3366.14198.1667.72110.8023.88593.7876.30
2. Accelerated Housing and Shelter Development124.5378.34249.2749.98342.04813.32409.08714.311,124.94611.94
3. Institutional arrangement for implementing human settlements development0.5500.040.7080.030.4060.020.4480.022.1110.02
4. Water and Environmental Sanitation and hygiene383.70125.69486.66219.49461.02117.95603.52621.111,934.91020.54
5. Transport Infrastructure: Road, Rail, Water and Air Transport772.79551.741,441.26557.711,420.87855.331,567.51554.835,202.45455.24
6. Recreational Infrastructure56.5163.78102.5974.11102.5333.99102.5333.59364.1783.87
7. Science, Technology and Innovation to Support Productivity and Development8.0890.5433.8461.3623.8840.9346.3561.62112.1751.19
8. Information Communication Technology Development for real growth16.0431.0729.6881.1919.2700.7518.8540.6683.8540.89
Sub-total1,493.714100.002,497.376100.002,568.205100.002,859.120100.009,418.415100.00

V. Energy, Oil and Gas Industry

Expenditure Summary
Theme / Key Focus Area2010201120122013TOTAL
Value (in Million US$)%Value (in Million US$)%Value (in Million US$)%Value (in Million US$)%Value (in Million US$)%
1. Oil and Gas Development23.0698.19342.22927.21203.83817.24204.69723.28773.83321.49
2. Energy Supply to Support Industries and Households258.63091.81915.71972.79978.53382.76674.72476.722,827.60678.51
Sub-total281.699100.001,257.948100.001,182.371100.00879.421100.003,601.438100.00

VI. Human Development, Productivity and Employment

Expenditure Summary
Theme / Key Focus Area2010201120122013TOTAL
Value (in Million US$)%Value (in Million US$)%Value (in Million US$)%Value (in Million US$)%Value (in Million US$)%
1. Education413.79237.30543.28737.69511.57632.44555.16129.362,023.81633.63
2. Human Resource Development3.7350.3416.7261.1617.4461.1111.7310.6249.6390.82
3. Health645.34358.17789.84854.79990.20062.781,262.50566.773,687.89761.27
4. HIV, AIDS, STDs, and TB2.4820.222.4960.173.8550.244.0140.2112.8470.21
5. Sports Development2.2740.202.2740.163.1330.203.1480.1710.8290.18
6. Productivity and Employment13.6221.2344.0033.0519.4471.2319.2621.0296.3341.60
7. Social Protection and Expansion of6.4830.5819.8671.387.7590.497.7250.4141.8340.70
8. Population Management2.6720.243.1010.220.8050.050.3310.026.9090.11
9. Child Survival, Development and
Protection1.4700.131.4700.101.4700.091.4700.085.8790.10
11. Youth Development and Participation in
National Development14.3451.2914.3451.0015.9071.0119.2971.0263.8951.06
12. Protecting the Social Wellbeing of the
Aged0.1170.010.6010.040.7150.050.8720.052.3030.04
13. Protection and Participation of PWD in
National Development2.0810.192.4820.173.5640.233.8670.2011.9940.20
14. Poverty and income inequalities Reduction0.9940.090.9960.071.2760.081.3070.074.5730.08
Sub-total1,109.410100.001,441.495100.001,577.153100.001,890.690100.006,018.748100.00

VII. Transparent and Accountable Governance

Expenditure Summary
Theme / Key Focus Area2010201120122013TOTAL
Value (in Million US$)%Value (in Million US$)%Value (in Million US$)%Value (in Million US$)%Value (in Million US$)%
1. Practice of Democracy and Institutional Reform Agenda61.08928.5471.88315.6094.24421.0277.82818.79305.04419.84
2. Local Governance and Decentralization20.6459.6426.7215.8029.7946.6423.9375.78101.0976.58
3. Economic growth and Plan coordination in special development areas to reduce poverty/ inequalities11.1175.1933.3527.2432.6217.2745.60311.01122.6937.98
4. Public Policy Management and Public Sector Reforms46.47221.71149.27232.40119.76226.7195.86523.14411.37126.76
5. Development Communication0.2100.100.5560.120.8170.180.7170.172.2990.15
6. Women Empowerment2.0600.962.3860.524.3140.963.9790.9612.7400.83
7. Corruption and Economic Crimes2.2021.0315.3443.3315.3913.4318.1564.3851.0933.32
8. Rule of Law and Justice2.8631.3424.5455.3324.0355.3624.0895.8275.5324.91
9. Public Safety and Security25.20411.7790.85419.7298.84822.04101.25224.44316.15820.56
10. Access to Rights and Entitlement1.7640.823.5460.773.8080.854.3511.0513.4690.88
11. National Culture for Development3.7961.775.7061.245.7071.276.0041.4521.2131.38
12. International Relations (Partnership)
for Development0.4570.210.5170.110.5180.120.6490.162.1410.14
13. Evidence-Based Decision Making36.19816.9136.0307.8218.5574.1411.7862.85102.5716.67
Sub-total214.076100.00460.711100.00448.417100.00414.216100.001,537.419100.00
Appendix II: Indicative Cost For Implementing the GDGSD, 2010 – 2013, By Thematic Area, Focus Area and Policy Objective
Expenditure Summary (in Million US$)
THEME / KEY FOCUS AREA / POLICY OBJECTIVE2010201120122013Total
I. ENSURING AND SUSTAINING MACROECONOMIC STABILITY111.129126.579130.371134.795502.873
1. Monetary Policy and Financial Management8.39810.07810.95011.85241.278
Deepen the capital markets1.5661.8791.9311.9317.307
Create a more diversified financial sector and improve access to financial services6.8338.1999.0199.92133.971
2. Fiscal Policy Management97.067110.418113.184117.236437.905
Improve fiscal resource mobilization63.30567.96268.63570.166270.069
Institute mechanisms to manage external shocks-0.3450.3450.3451.034
Improve public expenditure management33.46541.76643.82546.242165.298
Promote effective debt management0.2960.3450.3790.4831.503
3. Economic Policy Management2.9232.9633.0673.13612.089
Strengthen economic planning and forecasting to ensure synergetic development of strategic sectors2.9232.9633.0673.13612.089
4. International Trade Management and ECOWAS Community Development2.7413.1193.1702.57111.601
Improve export competitiveness2.6322.8952.9242.29910.751
Diversify and increase exports and markets0.1090.1200.1320.1470.508
Accelerate economic integration with other regional and/or sub-regional states-0.1030.1140.1250.342
II. ENHANCING COMPETITIVENESS IN GHANA’S PRIVATE SECTOR21.467507.513643.298733.9331,906.211
1. Private Sector Development5.9136.29912.62713.07637.915
Improving the Investment Climate0.0010.0150.0160.0180.050
Increasing opportunity for the poor0.4300.6500.5200.4692.069
Remove internal value chain constraints0.6340.7020.7720.1392.247
Remove obstacles and improve trade and investment0.2200.2880.3170.3491.175
Ensure consumer safety4.6284.64411.00112.10132.375
2. Good Corporate Governance7.8497.9746.6256.78329.231
Promote an enabling environment and effective regulatory framework for public sector management0.0360.1620.1620.1620.522
Ensure businesses behave as good corporate entities which uphold the tenets of human rights, social responsibility and environmental sustainability7.8127.8126.6256.78321.220
3. Industrial Development3.210489.553620.214710.2101,823.186
Ensure rapid industrialization driven by strong relationship to agriculture2.848306.937355.532405.5321,070.848
Facilitate Technology transfers and research and development to drive industrial transformation0.2802.5264.5834.56911.958
Decentralise industrial development to exploit the resource endowments of Districts0.0820.0900.0990.1090.380
Transforming the Extractive Industry for economic development-180.000260.000300.000740.000
4. Developing the Tourism Industry3.9973.1723.2383.18813.595
Diversify and Expand the tourism industry for revenue generation3.6942.9452.9892.99312.621
Promote Domestic Tourism to foster National Cohesion as well as redistribution of income0.0860.0940.0940.0940.367
Promote sustainable and responsible tourism in such a way to preserve historical, cultural and natural heritage.0.2170.1330.1560.1010.607
5. Promoting the Creative Industry for Economic Development0.4990.5150.5940.6762.284
Develop and strengthen Ghana’s creative arts industry0.4990.5150.5940.6762.284
III. AGRICULTURE MODERNIZATION AND NATURAL RESOURCE90.755292.616285.102237.882906.354
MANAGEMENT
1. Accelerated Modernization of Agriculture76.197235.255232.672184.353728.478
Increase agric productivity through Minimization of production and distribution risks and bottlenecks in agriculture and industry53.767145.840146.999106.864453.470
Improve agriculture productivity7.35070.99366.73959.498204.580
Increase agricultural competitiveness and enhance integration into domestic and international markets0.0201.3833.4110.9525.766
Promote selected crop development for food security, export and industry0.1530.1530.1530.1530.614
Improved Institutional Coordination for Agricultural Development14.90716.88615.36916.88664.048
2. Effective Natural Resource Management and Environmental Governance14.55757.36052.43053.529177.877
Ensure the restoration of degraded natural resources0.03126.75726.92427.08580.797
Promote sustainable natural resource management10.37825.37520.33221.29777.382
Building institutional capacities for sustainable environmental resource management4.1485.2285.1745.14719.698
IV. INFRASTRUCTURE AND HUMAN SETTLEMENTS1,493.7142,497.3762,568.2052,859.1209,418.415
1. Human Settlements Development131.483153.336198.166110.802593.787
Promote a sustainable, spatially integrated and orderly development of human settlements to support socio-economic development0.75911.80314.94518.77746.283
Revamp the spatial/land use planning system in Ghana0.3130.3130.3330.2781.237
Facilitate ongoing institutional, technological and legal reforms under the LAP/TCPD-LUPMP in support of land use planning0.9120.9120.9570.9103.692
Enhance the human and institutional capacities for effective land use planning and management through science and technology.0.21510.36913.43217.37541.391
Promote structured integrated urban development2.2732.2732.4831.7248.753
Promote resilient urban infrastructure development, maintenance and provision of basic services55.92855.92872.43713.807198.100
Promote and facilitate private sector participation in disaster management (e,g, flood control systems and coastal protection)3.4834.1384.1034.13815.862
Create an enabling environment that would enhance the development of the potential of rural areas67.60067.60089.47653.793278.469
2. Accelerated Housing and Shelter Development124.537249.274342.048409.0871,124.946
Increase access to safe, adequate and affordable shelter123.148247.543339.914406.4001,117.005
Improve and accelerate housing delivery in the rural areas1.3891.7322.1342.6877.941
3. Institutional arrangement for implementing human settlements development0.5500.7080.4060.4482.111
Establish an institutional framework for effective coordination of human settlements development0.5500.7080.4060.4482.111
4. Water and Environmental Sanitation and hygiene383.701486.662461.021603.5261,934.910
Accelerate the provision of affordable and safe water358.507453.633436.147578.8311,827.117
Ensure proper management of water resources0.4501.9921.3811.4405.263
Accelerate the provision of adequate and disability friendly sanitation facilites0.0280.1860.1860.1030.503
Improve environmental Sanitation.23.91030.04421.73121.70097.386
Ensure the implementation of health education program as a component of all sanitation programmes0.6550.6551.4241.3004.034
Ensure sustainable financing of environmental sanitation services0.1520.1520.1520.1520.607
5. Transport Infrastructure: Road, Rail, Water and Air Transport772.7951,441.2651,420.8781,567.5155,202.454
Establish Ghana as a Transportation Hub for the West African Sub-Region238.378216.691149.95466.034671.057
Create and sustain an accessible, affordable, reliable, effective and efficient transport system that meets user needs508.4631,190.6561,250.5431,487.3574,437.020
Integrate Land use, transport planning, development planning and service provision4.1794.0344.2284.22816.669
Create a vibrant investment and performance-based management environment that maximise benefits for public and private sector investors2.0691.3101.3790.0344.793
Develop and implement comprehensive and integrated Policy, Governance and5.4058.3795.0912.38721.262
Institutional Frameworks
Ensure Sustainable Development in the Transport Sector8.37614.5606.6504.91734.503
Develop adequate Human Resources and apply New Technology5.9245.6343.0342.55817.150
6. Recreational Infrastructure56.516102.597102.533102.533364.178
Ensure that urban centres incorporate the concept of open spaces, and the creation of green belts or green ways within and around urban communities0.2100.2100.1790.1790.778
Develop recreational facilities and promote cultural heritages and natural conservation in both urban and rural areas56.306102.388102.353102.353363.400
7. Science, Technology and Innovation to Support Productivity and Development8.08933.84623.88446.356112.175
Promote the application of Science, Technology and Innovation in all sectors of the economy8.08933.84623.88446.356112.175
8. Information Communication Technology Development for real growth16.04329.68819.27018.85483.854
Promote rapid development of the national ICT infrastructure13.52626.94316.94316.94374.355
Strengthen the institutional and regulatory framework for managing the ICT0.617
sector0.6980.6170.6172.549
Promote the use of ICT in all sectors of the economy0.7421.0520.8040.5683.166
Facilitate the provision of quality meteorological data and forecast in support of1.076
weather sensitive sectors of the economy1.0760.9060.7263.785
V. ENERGY, OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY281.6991,257.9481,182.371879.4213,601.438
1. Oil and Gas Development23.069342.229203.838204.697773.833
Convert the opportunities offered by the oil and gas sector to create jobs for the populace.20.700339.750200.700200.700761.850
Ensure that the practices of the Oil and Gas Industry are consistent with international standards of environmental sustainability.0.8620.8621.0341.2414.000
Effectively manage the potential revenue from oil and gas production.1.0691.0691.2831.5394.960
Transform the structure of the economy from production and export of primary products to a diversified industrial based economy.0.1280.2380.4480.7691.583
Strengthen institutional capacity.0.3100.3100.3720.4471.440
2. Energy Supply to Support Industries and Households258.630915.719978.533674.7242,827.606
Ensure increased access of households and industries to efficient, reliable and adequate energy supply254.860871.075942.791649.7242,718.449
Diversify the national energy mix including the use of indigenous sources of energy44.6443.77035.74225.000109.156
VI. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT, PRODUCTIVITY AND EMPLOYMENT1,109.4101,441.4951,577.1531,890.6906,018.748
1. Education413.792543.287511.576555.1612,023.816
Increase equitable access to and participation in quality education at all levels362.067480.451443.133482.2601,767.911
Improve quality of teaching and learning14.08614.15516.28516.91661.442
Improve access to quality education for people with disability1.5781.5891.7361.9106.812
Promote science and technical education at all levels2.8036.5996.6036.60322.609
Strengthen linkage between tertiary education and industry0.0460.3860.3900.3901.211
Integrate essential knowledge and life skills into school curriculum to ensure civic responsibility0.4977.3937.4437.49822.831
Improve Management of Education service delivery32.71432.71435.98639.584140.999
2. Human Resource Development3.73516.72617.44611.73149.639
Develop and retain Human Resource capacity at National, Regional and District levels3.73516.72617.44611.73149.639
3. Health645.343789.848990.2001,262.5053,687.897
Bridge the equity gaps in access to health care and nutrition services and63.21483.866159.688168.900475.668
ensure sustainable financing arrangements that protect the poor
Improve governance and strengthen efficiency and effectiveness in health service delivery126.852140.579155.723172.285595.439
Improve access to quality maternal, neonatal, child and adolescent health230.941275.101319.859365.2141,191.115
Prevent and control the spread of communicable and non-communicable disease and promote healthy lifestyles119.939163.454205.634384.361873.388
Expand access to and improve the quality of institutional care, including mental health service delivery104.398126.847149.296171.745552.286
4. HIV, AIDS, STDs, and TB2.4822.4963.8554.01412.847
Ensure the reduction of new HIV and AIDS/STI/TB transmission2.3392.3543.7233.88212.298
Promote reduction of the impact of HIV and AIDS related morbidity and mortality0.1360.1360.1290.1290.530
Enhance management of HIV, AIDS, STI and TB response to promote healthy lifestyles0.0070.0060.0030.0030.019
5. Sports Development2.2742.2743.1333.14810.829
Develop comprehensive sports policy and legislation0.2640.2640.3100.3811.218
Improve sports infrastructure2.0102.0102.8232.7689.611
6. Productivity and Employment13.62244.00319.44719.26296.334
Adopt a national policy for enhancing productivity and income in both formal and informal economies-0.1500.1140.3450.609
Adopt a comprehensive employment Policy-0.032--0.032
Promote decent work in formal and informal economies0.0070.0490.0500.0090.115
Strengthen the legal and institutional framework for labour administration and employment management0.0582.4032.0462.0466.553
Conduct a labour market survey to generate relevant data-0.0240.069-0.093
Implement a functional labour market information and statistics system to support relevant decision making-0.2750.275-0.549
Implement policies and strategies to strengthen tripartism and social dialogue0.5910.6680.4720.9822.713
Bridge the mismatch between training and labour market demand-0.6680.9050.4302.003
7. Social Protection and Expansion of Safety Net6.48319.8677.7597.72541.834
Develop a and implement a comprehensive social policy6.4676.4921.0541.05415.066
Develop a comprehensive care policy for the country0.0170.0490.0500.0190.135
Finalize and implement the National Social Protection Strategy-13.3276.6556.65226.633
8. Population Management2.6723.1010.8050.3316.909
Update demographic data base on population and development2.0782.0780.1450.0264.326
Create awareness on implication of rapid population growth0.0500.0500.0500.0500.199
Minimize the negative impact and optimize the potential0.5440.9740.6110.2552.384
9. Child Survival, Development and Protection1.4701.4701.4701.4705.879
Strengthen policy, legal and institutional frameworks for child survival, development, protection and participation1.4701.4701.4701.4705.879
11. Youth Development and Participation in National Development14.34514.34515.90719.29763.895
Ensure co-ordinated policy and institutional framework for youth development8.8688.8689.95612.21939.911
Enhance youth skills and employment services0.9910.9910.9910.9913.964
Mobilize the youth for accelerated national development2.3952.3952.6793.28710.756
Promote social well being of vulnerable youth2.0912.0912.2822.8009.264
12. Protecting the Social Wellbeing of the Aged0.1170.6010.7150.8722.303
Reduce poverty among older persons0.1170.6010.7150.8722.303
13. Protection and Participation of PWD in National Development2.0812.4823.5643.86711.994
Implement the Disability policy2.0812.4823.5643.86711.994
14. Poverty and income inequalities Reduction0.9940.9961.2761.3074.573
Reduce feminised poverty0.8620.8620.8620.8623.448
Implement preventive, promotional and protection interventions to deal with0.1320.1340.4140.4451.125
chronic poverty, vulnerability and exclusion
VII. TRANSPARENT AND ACCOUNTABLE GOVERNANCE214.076460.711448.417414.2161,537.419
1. Practice of Democracy and Institutional Reform Agenda61.08971.88394.24477.828305.044
Strengthening Arms of governance and independent governance institutions7.63420.58437.62029.69295.530
Enhancing civil society participation in governance0.9111.1961.3421.5815.029
Promoting coordination, harmonization and ownership of the development process1.0491.2511.4481.1834.930
Ensuring true transparency in the electoral process51.33048.34752.98145.140197.797
Foster Civic Advocacy to nurture the culture of democracy0.1660.5060.8530.2321.757
2. Local Governance and Decentralization20.64526.72129.79423.937101.097
Ensure commitment to the implementation of Local Government Service Act1.7581.3901.3011.3015.749
Strengthen the capacity of MMDAs for accountable, effective performance and service delivery4.8418.24411.3155.63730.038
Integrate and Institutionalize district level planning and budgeting through participatory process at all levels0.0280.0240.0240.0240.100
Strengthen functional relationship between assembly members and citizens0.6300.6300.6310.6652.555
Operationalise and strengthen the sub-district structures and ensure consistency in local government laws10.36010.36010.38610.37941.486
Ensure efficient internal revenue generation leading to3.0086.0306.1115.90521.053
Ensure transparency in local resource management0.0200.0440.0260.0260.116
3. Economic growth and Plan coordination in special development areas to reduce poverty/ inequalities11.11733.35232.62145.603122.693
Reducing spatial and income inequalities across the country and among different soci o-economic classes11.11733.35232.62145.603122.693
4. Public Policy Management and Public Sector Reforms46.472149.272119.76295.865411.371
Strengthen the coordination of development planning system for equitable and balanced spatial and socio-economic development0.5460.7561.2461.0463.592
Upgrade the capacity of the public and civil service for transparent, accountable, efficient, timely, effective performance and service delivery37.251137.126107.88288.474370.732
Rationalize and define structures, roles and procedures for state and non state0.0460.0410.0370.0400.164
Deepen on-going Institutionalization and internalization of policy formulation, planning, and M&E system at all levels7.5769.8259.7175.47432.592
Strengthen monitoring and enforcement mechanism of environmental legislation0.8140.8170.1860.1902.007
Enhance policy and regulatory framework and effective coordination among key government agencies to improve the performance of the environment sector0.2400.7070.6940.6422.284
5. Development Communication0.2100.5560.8170.7172.299
Mainstream development communications into national planning system0.0140.1300.1300.1220.397
Promote media and Public Relations accountability for national development0.1130.1130.1130.1130.451
Increased partnership with the media based on a mutual principled relationship
of fairness, objective and truthfulness to promote national cohesion and sustainable development0.0830.3130.5740.4821.451
6. Women Empowerment2.0602.3864.3143.97912.740
Empower women and mainstream gender into the socio-economic development1.4541.5583.4533.1739.638
Introduce and strengthen gender budgeting0.3610.5670.5770.4972.002
Enhance women’s access to economic resources.0.2450.2610.2850.3091.100
7. Corruption and Economic Crimes2.20215.34415.39118.15651.093
Promote transparency and accountability and reduce opportunities for rent seeking1.41214.20614.28716.88246.787
Strengthen and empower anti-corruption institutions0.7901.1381.1041.2744.306
8. Rule of Law and Justice2.86324.54524.03524.08975.532
Increase the capacity of the legal system to ensure speedy and affordable access to justice for all2.0411.0701.1131.1435.366
Strengthen the capacity of judges, lawyers, the police and para-legal staff in both public and private sectors to promote the rule of law0.56221.51221.49321.49665.063
Increase national capacity to ensure safety of life and property0.2611.9631.4291.4505.102
9. Public Safety and Security25.20490.85498.848101.252316.158
Improve the capacity of security agencies to provide internal security for human safety and protection12.88840.70142.47148.393144.453
Strengthen the intelligence agencies to fight social and economic crimes2.83813.53814.0408.12138.537
Increase national capacity to ensure safety of life and property0.5980.5980.6190.6432.458
Forestall external aggression, safeguard territorial integrity and contribute to international peace keeping efforts8.88036.01741.71944.094130.709
10. Access to Rights and Entitlement1.7643.5463.8084.35113.469
Identify and equip the unemployed graduates, vulnerable and excluded with employable skills0.1880.2900.3270.3611.166
Strengthen the Children’s Department to promote the rights of Children.0.9340.9340.9340.9343.738
Effective public awareness creation on laws for the protection of vulnerable and0.2561.0001.3261.4564.037
Create an enabling environment to ensure the active involvement of PWDs in mainstream societies0.1410.1410.1410.1410.563
Strengthen institutions responsible for enforcement of children’s right-0.2210.2140.2030.638
Protect the rights and entitlements of women and children0.2450.4570.3620.7871.851
Entrench culture of respect for Human Rights-0.5030.5030.4691.476
11. National Culture for Development3.7965.7065.7076.00421.213
Strengthen the National House of Chiefs and all regional Houses of Chiefs1.6603.7903.3713.54312.364
Strengthen the regulatory and institutional framework for the development of national culture2.1361.9162.3362.4618.849
12. International Relations (Partnership) for Development0.4570.5170.5180.6492.141
Accelerate economic and social integration with regional and/or sub-regional0.0120.0130.0150.0160.056
Sustain government’s commitment to international peace and security, adherence to international protocols and conventions, and incorporate them into domestic laws0.4450.5040.5040.6332.085
13. Evidence-Based Decision Making36.19836.03018.55711.786102.571
Improve accessibility and use of existing data-base for policy formulation, analysis and decision making36.19836.03018.55711.786102.571
Grand Total3,322.2506,584.2386,834.9167,150.05623,891.459

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