Back Matter

Back Matter

Author(s):
International Monetary Fund
Published Date:
September 1979
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Index

An asterisk (*) denotes a table; a dagger (†) denotes a chart; fn. denotes a footnote.

  • Abu Dhabi
    • Lending for supplementary financing facility, 78
    • Oil facility financing, 112*
  • Afghanistan
    • Exchange rate, 98*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 104*
  • Africa
    • Balance of payments, 16*, 27
    • Economic activity, 10
    • International reserves, 23-24, 57*
    • Official holdings of Eurodollars, 59*
    • Output, 11*
    • Prices, 11*
    • Trade, 27
  • Algeria
    • Exchange rate, 98*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • SDRs, 102*, 104*
  • Argentina
    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)
    • Exchange rate, 98*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • International reserves, 48*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 69*, 70*, 102*, 104*
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 75, 110*
    • Trade, 26 (fn.)
  • Articles of Agreement
    • Article IV, 33, 40, 44, 45, 63, 87
    • Article V, 76
    • Article VIII, 55, 64; members accepting obligations of, 64-65, 116*
    • Article XIV, 63-64
    • Article XVIII, 65
    • Article XXII, 55
    • Second Amendment, 60, 63, 65, 69
  • Asia
    • Balance of payments, 16*, 27
    • Economic activity, 10
    • International reserves, 23-24, 57*
    • Official holdings of Eurodollars, 59*
    • Output, 11*
    • Prices, 11*
    • Trade, 27
  • Australia
    • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85
    • Economic activity and policies, 12
    • Exchange rate, 98*
    • Quota increase, 116*
    • SDRs, 102*, 104*
  • Austria
    • Balance of payments, 20
    • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85
    • Exchange rate, 18, 98*
    • International reserves, 48*, 57*
    • Lending for supplementary financing facility, 74, 78
    • Oil facility financing, 112*
    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 104*
    • Trade, 20
  • Bahamas
    • Exchange rate, 98*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 102*, 104*
  • Bahrain
    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)
    • Exchange rate, 98*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • SDRs, 102*, 104*
  • Balance of Payments
    • Adjustment, 2, 12, 17, 23, 29, 31, 32, 33, 39, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 52-53, 54-55; gradual approach to, 7, 30;
    • key policy issues, 29-32
    • Current account balances: distribution of, 19-20; for 1973-79, 15*
    • Domestic economic policies, effect on,33
    • Effect of: countries’ demand management policies on, 39, 43; domestic economic policies on, 44; exchange arrangements on, 42, 45; exchange rate variability on, 19, 39; export growth on, 43; import substitution on, 43; oil price increases on, 24
    • Exchange rate changes, effect on, 38
    • Financing, 1, 23, 24, 29, 31, 49, 52-53
    • Global pattern, 13-15
    • Global summary, 1975-78, 16*
    • See aglso individual countries
  • Bangladesh
    • Exchange rate, 98*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 69*, 102*, 104*
    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*
    • Use of oil facility, 85*
    • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*
  • Bank for International Settlements
    • (BIS), 87; holder of SDRs, 67
  • Barbados
    • Exchange rate, 98*
    • Gold purchase from Fund, 81
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • SDRs, 102*, 104*
  • Belgium
    • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85
    • Exchange rate, 18, 98*
    • General Arrangements to Borrow, 111*
    • International reserves, 48*, 57*
    • Lending for supplementary financing facility, 78
    • Oil facility financing, 112*
    • Participation in European Monetary System, 40 (fn.), 101* (fn.)
    • SDRs, 102*, 104*
  • Benin
    • Exchange rate, 98*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • SDRs, 102*, 104*
  • Board of Governors
    • Committee on Reform of the International Monetary System and Related Issues (Committee of Twenty), 56
    • Interim Committee on the International Monetary System (Interim Committee), 60, 61-62, 65, 67, 80, 86; communiqués, 140-45
    • Joint Ministerial Committee of the Bank and the Fund on the Transfer of Real Resources to Developing Countries (Development Committee), 61,74, 140 (fn.)
    • Resolutions on: allocations of SDRs, 60; Seventh General Review, 54; Sixth General Review, 61
  • Bolivia
    • Exchange rate, 98*
    • Gold purchase from Fund, 81
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Quota increase, 62
    • SDRs, 102*, 104*
  • Botswana
    • Exchange rate, 98*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Quota increase, 62
    • SDRs, 102*, 104*
  • Brazil
    • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85
    • Exchange rate, 98*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • International reserves, 48*
    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 104*
    • Trade, 26 (fn.)
  • Budget of Fund, 153
  • Buffer Stock Financing by Fund, 54, 61,71†, 72, 74, 108*
  • Burma
    • Balance of payments, 43
    • Economic policies, 43
    • Exchange rate, 43, 98*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 104*
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 73, 110*
    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*
  • Burundi
    • Exchange rate, 98*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 104*
  • Cameroon
    • Exchange rate, 98*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 102*, 104*
    • Use of oil facility, 85*
    • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*
  • Canada
    • Balance of payments, 17†, 20, 21*
    • Capital flows, 22
    • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85
    • Economic activity, 5†, 6, 7, 8†, 9, 18, 19†, 37
    • Exchange rate, 17, 18, 34, 35†, 36†, 37, 98*
    • General Arrangements to Borrow, 111*
    • International reserves, 22, 57*
    • Lending for supplementary financing facility, 78
    • Oil facility financing, 112*
    • Output, 3*
    • Prices 3*
    • SDRs,’68, 69*, 70*, 102*, 104*
  • Cape Verde
    • Exchange rate, 98*
    • Membership in Fund, 90, 116* (fn.)
    • Quota established, 90
    • SDRs, 102*, 104*
  • Capital Markets, 22, 25, 29, 37, 52-53, 71; borrowing in, 23, 24, 29, 31
  • Central African Empire
    • Exchange rate, 98*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 102*, 104*
    • Use of oil facility, 85*
    • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*
  • Chad
    • Exchange rate, 98*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 102*, 104*
  • Chile
    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)
    • Exchange rate, 98*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 70, 109*
    • SDRs, 69*, 70, 102*, 104*
  • China, Republic of
    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)
    • Exchange rate, 98*
    • Proposed gold distribution from Fund, 81 (fn.)
    • Quota increase, exception to proposal, 61
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 102*, 104*
    • Trade, 26 (fn.)
  • Colombia
    • Exchange rate, 98*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 104*
  • Committee of Twenty
    • See Board of Governors
  • Comoros
    • Exchange rate, 98*
    • SDRs, 102*, 104*
  • Compensatory Financing by Fund, 54, 71†, 72, 74, 108*
  • Conditionality on Use of fund Resources,31, 55, 62, 136-38
  • Congo, People’s Republic of the
    • Exchange rate, 98*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 102*, 104*
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 73, 110*
    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*
  • Consultations with Fund Members,63, 64
  • Costa Rica
    • Exchange rate, 98*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 102*, 104*
  • Cyprus
    • Exchange rate, 98*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 102*, 104*
  • Denmark
    • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85*
    • Exchange rate, 18, 98*
    • International reserves, 48*, 57*
    • Participation in European Monetary System, 40 (fn.), 101* (fn.)
    • Quota increase, 62
    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 104*
  • Developing Countries
    • See Primary Producing Countries
  • Development Committee
    • See Board of Governors
  • Djibouti
    • Exchange rate, 98*
    • Membership in Fund, 90, 116* (fn.)
    • Quota established, 90
    • SDRs, 102*, 104*
  • Dominica
    • Exchange rate, 98*
    • Membership in Fund, 90, 116* (fn.)
    • Quota established, 90
    • SDRs, 102*, 104*
  • Dominican Republic
    • Exchange rate, 98*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 104*
  • Economic Uncertainty, Pervasiveness of, 29-32
  • Ecuador
    • Exchange rate, 98*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Quota increase, 62
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 104*
  • Egypt
    • Exchange rate, 98*
    • Extended arrangement with Fund, 73, 112*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 104*
    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*
    • Use of oil facility, 85*
    • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*
  • El Salvador
    • Exchange rate, 98*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Quota increase, 62
    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 104*
  • Equatorial Guinea
    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)
    • Exchange rate, 98*
    • Gold purchase from Fund, 81
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Quota increase, 116*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 102*, 104*
  • Ethiopia
    • Exchange rate, 98*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 104*
    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*
  • Euromarkets
    • Discussion of possible measures to control growth of, 53
    • Eurocurrency deposits, 22, 53
    • Group of Ten agreement of 1971, 53
    • Growth of, 52–53
    • Official borrowing in, 53
    • Official holdings of Eurocurrencies, 51, 52*, 53, 58*, 59*
    • Use in increasing official reserves, 53
  • Europe
    • Economic activity, 1
    • Output, 3*, 11*
    • Prices, 3*, 11*
  • European Community (EC), 40
  • European Currency Unit (ECU), 40, 46
  • European Monetary System (EMS)
    • Establishment, 18, 37, 40
    • Exchange rates, 18
    • Foreign exchange holdings of participants, 46
    • Participants, 47*, 101*
  • Exchange Markets
    • Comparison with other financial markets 37
    • Conditions in, 1–2, 17–18, 20, 30, 31, 33, 34
    • Effect of speculative capital flows on, 17, 20
    • Forward markets, 20, 37, 42
    • Official intervention, 17, 30, 33, 40, 45–46, 49, 51
  • Exchange Rates
    • Arrangements, 33, 34, 41, 42, 55, 64
    • Attitudes toward flexibility, 33, 34, 38, 39, 40, 43
    • Balance of payments, effect on, 14–15
    • Effect of: balance of payments on, 15, 17, 34, 37; capacity utilization on, 34, 37; geographic concentration of trade on, 41; inflation rate on, 43; underlying economic and financial conditions on, 34, 37, 40
    • Effective rates, 17, 20, 30, 34, 36t, 41, 42; for major industrial countries, 17†
    • European common margins arrangement (“snake”), 18, 40
    • European Monetary System (EMS), 18, 37, 40, 101* (fn.)
    • Expectations, 20, 37, 40, 51–52
    • List as of June 30, 1979, 98*–101*
    • Policies, 40, 43, 44, 45–46, 64
    • Relative costs and prices, effect on, 38
    • Role in international adjustment process, 33, 38, 39
    • Terms of trade, effect on, 17
    • Uncertainty, 37
    • Variability, 33, 34, 35t, 37, 39, 41, 42, 44, 45–46, 51†, 55
    • Variables related to exchange rate changes, 38*
    • See also individual countries
  • Exchange Restrictions, 21, 43, 44, 45
  • Executive Board
    • Agreement on terms and conditions of gold sales, 60
    • Approval of stand-by arrangements, 63
    • Changes in membership, 149–52
    • Establishment of supplemental surveillance procedure, 64
    • Extension of period of consent to quotas, 61
    • Forthcoming review of supplementary financing facility, 75
    • Guidelines for use of Fund resources, 60, 62
    • List of Executive Directors and voting power, 146–48
    • Proposals for quota increases under Seventh General Review, 61
    • Review and adjustment of terms and conditions for gold auctions by Fund, 79, 80
    • Review of compensatory financing facility, 74
    • Review of extended Fund facility, 74
    • Review of early repurchase guidelines, 75
    • Review of method of calculating quotas, 62
    • Review of principles and procedures of designation in transfer of SDRs, 69
    • Review of rule on setting SDR interest rate, 82
    • Review of SDR’s role in General Resources Account, 76
    • Review of surveillance procedures, 64
    • Review of technical assistance services, 87
    • Review of world economic outlook, 64
    • Role in Article IV consultations, 64
    • Special surveillance of United States, 64
    • Work on new uses for SDR, 67
    • Work on substitution account, 60
  • Executive Board Decisions
    • Conditionality guidelines, 136–38
    • Definition of freely usable currencies, 69
    • Early repurchase guidelines, 138–39
    • Halving of SDR reconstitution obligation, 56
    • Interest rate on SDRs, rate of remuneration, and rates of periodic charges, 128–29
    • Meaning of “net creditor position in Fund,” 136
    • Permission granted for transfer of repayment claims under General Arrangements to Borrow, 78
    • Repurchase requirements for members, 81
    • Review of Decision on Trust Fund investment diversification, 87
    • Seventh General Review of Quotas, 118–23
    • SDRs: additional uses of, 56, 130–34; allocation for third basic period, 66, 123–28; allocation to new participants, 129; interest rate increased, 56; reconstitution, 67, 129–30
    • Subsidy Account, rate of subsidy, 85
    • Surveillance procedures, 136
    • Suspension of Democratic Kampuchea’s right to use SDRs, 71 (fn.)
    • Transferability of claims under oil facility, 135
    • Trust Fund, 86, 87, 134
  • Extended Fund Facility, 54, 63, 72, 73, 75, 108*, 112*, 113*; use with supplementary financing facility, 55, 74
  • Fiji
    • Exchange rate, 98*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • SDRs, 69*, 102*, 104*
  • Financial Markets
    • See Capital Marketsand Exchange Markets
  • Financial Programs Agreed with Fund, 63
  • Financial Statements of Fund, 155–77
  • Finland
    • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85
    • Economic activity and policies, 12
    • Exchange rate, 98*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 69*, 70*, 102*, 104*
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 75
  • Foreign Exchange Markets
    • See Exchange Markets
  • Foreign Exchange Reserves
    • See International Reserves
  • Foreign Investment
    • See International Investment
  • Foreign Trade
    • See International Trade
  • France
    • Balance of payments, 17†, 20, 21*
    • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85
    • Economic activity, 5†, 6†, 8†, 9†, 19†, 82†
    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)
    • Exchange rate, 17, 19, 34, 35†, 36†, 37*,98*
    • Foreign exchange holdings, 49
    • General Arrangements to Borrow, 111*
    • International reserves, 48*, 57*
    • Official French franc claims on, 58*, 59*
    • Output, 3*
    • Participation in European Monetary System, 40 (fn.), 101* (fn.)
    • Prices, 3*
    • Purchases from Fund, 77
    • SDRs, 69, 70*, 102*, 104*
    • Trade, 20
  • Gabon
    • Exchange rate, 98*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 104*
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 73, 110*
  • Gambia, The
    • Exchange rate, 98*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 104*
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 110*
  • General Arrangements to Borrow (GAB), 71, 72*, 76, 77, 83, 111
  • General Resources Account Transactions
    • Borrowing by Fund, 61, 72*, 77, 84*
    • Charges, 81–82, 83, 84*, 113*; payment in SDRs, 68*, 69
    • Gold sales: in auctions, 80
    • Holdings of: gold, 72*; members’ currencies, 83; SDRs, 68*, 69, 70, 71, 72*, 76, 83, 84*, 103*; usable currencies, 72*, 76, 77
    • Inclusion of SDRs and currencies in operational budget, 76
    • Operations and transactions with participants, 69
    • Purchases by members, 61, 68*, 69, 71, 72*, 73, 83
    • Quota payments by members, 68*
    • Receipt of SDRs, 103*, 104*–106*
    • Remuneration paid to members, 68*, 82, 83, 84*
    • Repurchases by members, 61, 68*, 69, 71, 72*, 75, 83, 138–39
    • SDR as unit of account, 67
    • Use of currencies, 69
    • Use of SDRs, 69, 103*, 104*–106*
  • Germany, Federal Republic of
    • Balance of payments, 15, 17†, 19, 20, 21*,38*
    • Capital flows, 20
    • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85
    • Economic activity and policies, 3–4, 5†, 6, 8†, 9†, 17–18, 19t, 40, 46, 82†
    • Exchange rate, 17, 34, 35†, 36†, 37*, 38*, 99*
    • Foreign exchange holdings, 49
    • General Arrangements to Borrow, 111*
    • International reserves, 18, 20, 46, 48*, 57*
    • Lending for supplementary financing facility, 78
    • Official deutsche mark claims on, 58*, 59*
    • Output, 3*
    • Participation in European Monetary System, 40 (fn.), 101* (fn.)
    • Prices, 3*
    • Role of deutsche mark as reserve currency, 55
    • SDRs, 68, 69*, 70*, 102*, 104*
    • Trade, 19
  • Ghana
    • Economic policies, 43
    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)
    • Exchange rate, 43, 99*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 69*, 70*, 102*, 104*
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 73, 110*
    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*
  • Gold
    • ECUs issued in exchange for, 46
    • Holdings, 46, 47, 48, 58*
    • Price, 46, 48
    • Sales by Fund: distribution of profits, 71–72, 79, 87, 114*; for distribution, 46, 60, 72, 78–79, 80; in auctions, 60, 72*,78–80
  • Greece
    • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85*
    • Exchange rate, 99*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 102*, 104*
  • Grenada
    • Exchange rate, 99*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 69*, 102*, 105*
    • Use of Subsidy Account, 86
  • Group of Ten, 53, 78
  • Guatemala
    • Eligibility for Trust Fund assistance, 86
    • Exchange rate, 99*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Lending for supplementary financing facility, 74, 78 SDRs, 102*, 105*
  • Guinea
    • Exchange rate, 99*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 102*, 105*
    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*
  • Guinea-Bissau
    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)
    • Exchange rate, 99*
    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*
  • Guyana
    • Exchange rate, 99*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 73, 110*
  • Haiti
    • Exchange rate, 99*
    • Extended arrangement with Fund, 73–74, 112*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 69*, 102*, 105*
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 110*
    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*
    • Use of oil facility, 85*
    • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*
  • Honduras
    • Exchange rate, 99*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*
    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*
  • Hong Kong
    • Trade, 26 (fn.)
  • Iceland
    • Economic activity, 12
    • Exchange rate, 99*
    • Quota increase, 62
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 102*, 105*
  • Income and Expenses of Fund, 61, 83, 84*, 154*
  • India
    • Balance of payments, 43
    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)
    • Exchange rate, 43, 99*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 76, 109*
    • SDRs, 69, 70*, 102*, 105*
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 75
    • Trade, 26 (fn.)
    • Use of oil facility, 85*
    • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*
  • Indonesia
    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)
    • Exchange rate, 99*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Quota increase, 62
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*
  • Industrial Countries
    • Balance of payments, 1, 2, 13, 14, 15–29, 31, 51
    • Capital flows, 22, 31
    • Consumer prices, 5†
    • Cyclical economic developments, 14–15
    • Domestic demand, 4†
    • Economic activity and policies, 1, 3–5, 6, 7, 9–10, 12, 18, 20, 22, 23, 24, 26–27, 30,31,40, 45
    • Eurocurrency deposits, 22
    • Exchange rates, 1, 13, 14, 15, 17–19, 21,30, 31,34, 41*, 42*
    • Fiscal balances, 8†
    • Foreign exchange holdings, 46, 52
    • Gross national product, 6†
    • Interest rates, 9†, 82†
    • International banking regulation, 54
    • International reserves, 21, 47, 57*
    • Lending for oil facility, 54
    • Manufactured goods, 39
    • Monetary expansion, 8†
    • Official holdings of Eurodollars, 59*
    • Output, 3*, 4†
    • Prices, 3*
    • Purchases and repurchases from Fund, 71
    • Receipts from third gold distribution, 71
    • Relative prices of manufactures, 19†
    • Trade, 12, 13, 15*, 19, 28
    • See also individual countries
  • Interim Committee
    • See Board of Governors
  • International Adjustment Process, 1, 2, 12, 15, 20, 21, 31–32, 45, 53, 55, 63; role of Fund, 54, 55; speed of, 33, 38
  • International Investment
    • Direct investment, 39
    • Effect of: exchange rate changes on, 39; exchange rate uncertainty on, 37; international disparities in interest rates on, 39; relative costs on, 39
    • Primary producing countries, 41
    • Uncertainties and risks of, 21
  • International Organizations
    • Fund relations with, 88–90
  • International Reserves
    • Adequacy, 33, 45–46, 49, 51, 52–53, 54, 55, 65
    • Borrowed from capital markets, 22, 23, 24, 29,31,45, 65
    • Changes in countries’ holdings of, 48*
    • Changes in 1978, 46
    • Composition, 45, 46, 52–53, 55, 56, 65
    • Composition of reserve change, 58*
    • Distribution, 22, 23, 45–46, 52–53, 57*
    • Foreign exchange holdings, 22, 45–46, 47–48, 49, 50t, 51, 52*, 55, 58*, 59*
    • Global stock, 52–53
    • Gold holdings, 46, 47, 48, 58*
    • Growth, 33, 47–48, 51
    • Management by monetary authorities, 55
    • Official holdings, 46, 50†, 51†
    • Relative value of reserve assets, 55
    • Reserve positions in Fund, 46, 47–48, 58*
    • SDRs, 47*, 55, 58*, 65
    • Use in exchange rate intervention, 18, 33
    • See also individual countries
  • International Sugar Agreement (1977), 61,72, 74
  • International Trade
    • Competitive positions of countries, 19
    • Effect of: exchange rate variability on, 37, 39, 41, 42, 44–45; international investment on, 39; relative price changes on, 39, 44–45
    • Export promotion, 43
    • Growth, 23
    • Import demand, 14
    • Import substitution, 43
    • Inflation of trade prices, 12
    • Manufactured goods, 39
    • Multilateral Trade Negotiations (MTN), 27
    • Prices of oil and manufactures, 141
    • Protectionism, 9, 26–27
    • Restrictions, 42, 43
    • Subsidies, 43
    • Summary, 1962–78, 13*
    • Terms of trade, 12, 14, 15*, 19, 20, 23, 28, 29
    • Trade prices, 15*, 23
    • Unit value, 13*
    • Value, 12
    • Volume, 12, 13*, 19
    • World imports, value of, 48
    • World trade model, 39
  • Iran
    • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85*
    • Economic activity, 11, 28
    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)
    • Exchange rate, 99*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Oil facility financing, 112*
    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*
    • Trade, 28
  • Iraq
    • Exchange rate, 99*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Quota increase, 116*
    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*
  • Ireland
    • Economic activity and policies, 12
    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)
    • Exchange rate, 99*
    • Participation in European Monetary System, 40 (fn.), 101* (fn.)
    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*
  • Israel
    • Exchange rate, 99*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 70, 109*
    • SDRs, 69*, 70, 102*, 105*
    • Trade, 26 (fn.)
  • Italy
    • Balance of payments, 4, 15, 17†, 20, 21*
    • Charges paid to Fund, 70
    • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85
    • Economic activity, 4, 5, 6†, 8†, 9†, 19†
    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)
    • Exchange rate, 17, 18–19, 34, 35†, 36†, 37*, 99*
    • General Arrangements to Borrow, 111*
    • International reserves, 48*, 57*
    • Output, 3*
    • Participation in European Monetary System, 40 (fn.), 101* (fn.)
    • Prices, 3*
    • Purchases and repurchases from Fund, 70, 71, 73, 75, 77, 78, 109*
    • SDRs, 69, 70*, 102*, 105*
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 72, 75, 77, 110*
    • Trade, 4, 20
  • Ivory Coast
    • Exchange rate, 99*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 102*, 105*
    • Use of oil facility, 85*
    • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*
  • Jamaica
    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)
    • Exchange rate, 99*
    • Extended arrangement with Fund, 73, 112*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 69*, 70*, 102*, 105*
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 110*
  • Japan
    • Balance of payments, 4, 15, 17t, 19, 21, 38*
    • Capital flows, 20–21
    • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85
    • Economic activity and policies, 1, 3–4, 5†, 6†, 7, 8†, 9†, 17–18, 19†, 20, 40, 46, 82†
    • Exchange rate, 17, 19, 20, 34, 35†, 36†, 37*, 38*, 99*
    • Foreign exchange holdings, 49
    • General Arrangements to Borrow, 111*
    • International reserves, 18, 20–21, 46, 48*, 57*
    • Lending for supplementary financing facility, 78
    • Output, 3*
    • Prices, 3*
    • Remuneration paid by Fund, 71
    • SDRs, 68, 69*, 70*, 102*, 105*
    • Trade, 4, 19
  • Jordan
    • Exchange rate, 99*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Quota increase, 116*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 102*, 105*
  • Kampuchea, Democratic
    • Exchange rate, 99*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Proposed gold distribution from Fund, 81 (fn.)
    • Proposed quota increase, 61, 90, 116* (fn.); exception to proposal, 61–62
    • SDRs, 71 (fn.), 102*, 105*, 106*
    • Suspension of right to use SDRs, 71 (fn.)
  • Kenya
    • Balance of payments, 43
    • Exchange rate, 43, 99*
    • Extended arrangement with Fund, 73, 112*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 69*, 70*, 102*, 105*
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 73, 110*
    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*
    • Use of oil facility, 85*
    • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*
  • Korea
    • Exchange rate, 99*
    • Gold sales, 114*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 69*, 70*, 102*, 105*
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 75, 110*
    • Trade, 26 (fn.)
  • Kuwait
    • Exchange rate, 99*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Lending for supplementary financing facility, 78
    • Oil facility financing, 112*
  • Lao Peoples Democratic Republic
    • Exchange rate, 99*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*
  • Latin America and Caribbean
    • Balance of payments, 16*, 27
    • Economic activity, 10
    • International reserves, 57*
    • Official holdings of Eurodollars, 59*
    • Output, 11*
    • Prices, 11*
    • Trade, 27
  • Lebanon
    • Exchange rate, 99*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Participation in Special Drawing Rights Department, 65, 90
    • SDRs, 102*, 105*
  • Lesotho
    • Exchange rate, 99*
    • Gold purchase from Fund, 81
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • SDRs, 102*, 105*
    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*
  • Less Developed Countries
    • See Primary Producing Countries
  • Liberia
    • Exchange rate, 99*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 73, 110*
    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*
  • Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
    • Exchange rate, 99*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Participation in Special Drawing Rights Department, 65, 90 SDRs, 102*, 105*
  • Luxembourg
    • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85
    • Exchange rate, 99*
    • International reserves, 57*
    • Participation in European Monetary System, 40 (fn.), 101* (fn.)
    • SDRs, 102*, 105*
  • Madagascar
    • Exchange rate, 99*
    • Gold purchase from Fund, 80
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 69*, 102*, 105*
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 110*
  • Malawi
    • Exchange rate, 99*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Quota increase, 62
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 102*, 105*
    • Use of Subsidy Account, 85
  • Malaysia
    • Exchange rate, 99*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Quota increase, 62
    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*
  • Maldives
    • Exchange rate, 99*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 66, 102*, 105*
  • Mali
    • Exchange rate, 99*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*
    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*
    • Use of oil facility, 85*
    • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*
  • Malta
    • Exchange rate, 99*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • SDRs, 102*, 105*
  • Mauritania
    • Exchange rate, 99*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Quota increase, 116*
    • SDRs, 102*, 105*
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 110*
    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*
    • Use of oil facility, 85*
    • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*
  • Mauritius
    • Eligibility for Trust Fund assistance, 86
    • Exchange rate, 99*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*
    • Stand-by arrangements with Fund, 110*
  • Membership in Fund, 90
  • Mexico
    • Exchange rate, 99*
    • Extended arrangement with Fund, 73, 112*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 76, 109*
    • SDRs, 69*, 70*, 102*, 105*
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 75
    • Trade, 26 (fn.)
  • Middle East
    • Balance of payments, 16*, 27
    • International reserves, 57*
    • Official holdings of Eurodollars, 59*
    • Output, 11*
    • Prices, 11*
    • Trade, 27
  • Morocco
    • Exchange rate, 99*
    • Gold purchase from Fund, 81
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • SDRs, 69*, 70*, 105*, 112*
    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*
    • Use of Subsidy Account, 85
  • Nepal
    • Exchange rate, 99*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Quota increase, 62
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*
    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*
  • Netherlands
    • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85
    • Economic policies, 73
    • Exchange rate, 73, 99*
    • General Arrangements to Borrow, 111*
    • International reserves, 48*, 57*
    • Lending for supplementary financing facility, 78
    • Oil facility financing, 112*
    • Participation in European Monetary System, 40 (fn.), 101* (fn.)
    • Purchases from Fund, 71, 73
    • SDRs, 68, 69*, 70*, 102*, 105*
  • New Zealand
    • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85
    • Economic activity and policies, 12
    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)
    • Exchange rate, 99*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 69*, 102*, 105*
  • Nicaragua
    • Exchange rate, 99*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*
  • Niger
    • Exchange rate, 99*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • SDRs, 102*, 105*
  • Nigeria
    • Exchange rate, 99*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • International reserves, 48*
    • Oil facility financing, 112*
    • SDRs, 102*, 105*
  • Nonindustrial Countries
    • See Primary Producing Countries
  • Norway
    • Balance of payments, 20
    • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85
    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)
    • Exchange rate, 99*
    • International reserves, 57*
    • Oil facility financing, 112*
    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*
    • Trade, 20
  • Official Development Assistance (ODA), 31
  • Oil Facility in Fund
    • Borrowing by Fund, 54, 72*, 112*
    • Charges, 113*
    • Interest payments by Fund, 84
    • Purchases under, 72*, 85*
    • Repayment by Fund, 54, 71, 76, 77, 78, 112*, 135, 136
    • Repurchases under, 71, 75, 83, 85, 109*–110*
    • Use of Fund resources, 71†
    • See also Subsidy Account
  • Oman
    • Exchange rate, 99*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Oil facility financing, 112*
    • Quota increase, 116*
    • SDRs, 102*, 105*
  • Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), 2, 28; contributions of members to Trust Fund, 86, 87
  • Pakistan
    • Exchange rate, 99*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 69*, 102*, 105*
    • Use of oil facility, 85*
    • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*
  • Panama
    • Exchange rate, 100*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 69*, 102*, 105*
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 73, 110*
  • Papua New Guinea
    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)
    • Exchange rate, 100*
    • Gold purchase from Fund, 80
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 69*, 102*, 105*
    • Use of Subsidy Account, 85
  • Paraguay
    • Eligibility for Trust Fund assistance, 86
    • Exchange rate, 100*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Quota increase, 62
    • SDRs, 102*, 105*
  • Peru
    • Economic activity and policies, 73
    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)
    • Exchange rate, 100*
    • Gold purchase from Fund, 81
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • SDRs, 69*, 70*, 102*, 105*
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 73, 110*
  • Philippines
    • Exchange rate, 100*
    • Extended arrangement with Fund, 73, 112*
    • Gold purchase from Fund, 80
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Quota increase, 62
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*
    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*
    • Use of buffer stock facility, 74
    • Use of Subsidy Account, 85
  • Portugal
    • Balance of payments, 29
    • Economic activity and policies, 12, 29
    • Exchange rate, 29, 100*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 102*, 105*
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 73, 110*
    • Trade, 29
  • Primary Producing Countries
    • Balance of payments, 24–27, 41, 42, 43
    • Borrowing from capital markets, 24, 29
    • Economic activity and policies, 10, 30, 41,42, 43
    • Effect of exchange rate variability on, 41
    • Effect of floating exchange rates on, 40
    • Exchange rates, 33–34, 42, 43
    • Forward exchange facilities and markets, 42
    • Purchases from Fund, 73
    • Stand-by arrangements with Fund, 72
    • Trade, 20, 24, 40, 41, 42, 43
    • See also individual countries
    • Less Developed Countries
      • Major Oil Exporting Countries
        • Balance of payments, 2, 13, 15*, 16*, 27–28, 49
        • Capital flows, 22
        • Commodity prices, 14†
        • Deposits in private banks, 52
        • Economic activity and policies, 10, 11–12, 28
        • Eurocurrency deposits, 52
        • Exchange arrangements, 41*
        • Foreign exchange holdings, 49
        • International reserves, 47, 52, 57*
        • Official holdings of Eurodollars, 59*
        • Oil facility financing, 54
        • OPEC price increases of June 1979, 2
        • Output, 11*
        • Prices, 11*
        • Trade, 2, 12–13, 15*, 27–28
        • See also Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
      • Non-Oil Developing Countries
        • Balance of payments, 1, 2, 13, 15*, 16*, 22–23, 25–26, 27, 31, 43
        • Borrowing from private banks, 23, 31
        • Capital flows, 22–23, 31
        • Debt and debt service, 26†, 27†
        • Economic activity and policies, 2, 10–11, 30–31
        • Exchange arrangements, 41*
        • Export earnings, 24†
        • Import volume, 24†
        • International reserves, 47, 57*
        • Official holdings of Eurodollars, 59*
        • Output, 11*
        • Prices, 11*
        • Trade, 1, 2, 12–13, 15*, 22–23, 24–27, 31
        • Use of official financing, 25
  • More Developed Countries
    • Balance of payments, 2, 13–14, 15*, 16*, 28–29
    • Economic activity and policies, 2, 10, 12, 28–29, 30
    • Exchange arrangements, 41*
    • Exchange rates, 12, 29, 30
    • International reserves, 46–47, 57*
    • Official holdings of Eurodollars, 59*
    • Output, 11*
    • Prices, 11*
    • Trade, 2, 12, 13, 15*, 28–29
  • Publications of Fund, 117*
  • Qatar
    • Exchange rate, 100*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • SDRs, 102*, 105*
  • Quotas of Fund Members
    • Increases in, 33, 60, 61, 116*
    • Seventh General Review, 32, 54, 56, 60, 61, 65, 118–23
    • Sixth General Review, 54, 60, 61, 77, 90
  • Romania
    • Exchange rate, 100*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Lending to Trust Fund, 86
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 110*
  • Rwanda
    • Exchange rate, 100*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Quota payment to Fund, 70
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 102*, 106*
  • St. Lucia
    • Application for Fund membership, 90
  • St. Vincent
    • Application for Fund membership, 90
  • São Tomé and Principe
    • Exchange rate, 100*
    • SDRs, 102*, 106*
  • Saudi Arabia
    • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85*
    • Exchange rate, 100*
    • Foreign exchange holdings, 47
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • International reserves, 47, 48*
    • Oil facility financing, 112*
    • Participation in Special Drawing Rights Department, 65, 90
    • SDRs, 102*, 106*
  • Senegal
    • Exchange rate, 100*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 106*
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 73, 110*
    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*
    • Use of oil facility, 85*
    • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*
  • Seychelles
    • Exchange rate, 100*
    • SDRs, 102*, 106*
  • Sierra Leone
    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)
    • Exchange rate, 100*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 102*, 106*
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 110*
    • Use of oil facility, 85*
    • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*
  • Singapore
    • Exchange rate, 100*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Participation in Special Drawing Rights Department, 65, 90
    • Quota increase, 61, 90
    • SDRs, 102*, 106*
    • Trade, 26 (fn.)
  • Solomon Islands
    • Exchange rate, 100*
    • Membership in Fund, 90, 116* (fn.)
    • Quota established, 90
    • Quota payment to Fund, 70
    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 106*
  • Somalia
    • Exchange rate, 100*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • SDRs, 102*, 106*
  • South Africa
    • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85
    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)
    • Exchange rate, 100*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 70, 109*
    • SDRs, 69*, 70, 102*, 106*
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 75
  • Spain
    • Balance of payments, 29
    • Capital flows, 29
    • Charges paid to Fund, 70
    • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85
    • Economic activity and policies, 12, 29
    • Exchange rate, 100*
    • International reserves, 29, 48*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 70, 102*, 106*
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 75, 110*
  • Special Drawing Rights
    • Allocation, 23, 33, 48, 55, 58, 60, 65, 104*–106*, 129; for third basic period, 66, 123–28
    • Characteristics, 33, 55, 65
    • Currencies pegged to, 41
    • Currencies transferred for, 69, 107*
    • Holdings: by General Resources Account, 58*, 68*, 69, 76, 84*, 103*; by “other holders,” 67; by participants, 46, 47*, 48, 58*, 66, 104*–106*
    • Inclusion in operational budget, 76
    • Interest, charges, and assessments, 68*, 70, 83, 84*,103*, 104*–106*, 129
    • Interest rate on, 65, 66, 82, 128
    • Priority sales by Fund, 76
    • Private market for, 67
    • Purchases and repurchases by members, 69, 76, 103*, 108*
    • Quota payments in, 68*
    • Reconstitution of participants’ holdings, 65, 66, 68,71, 103*, 129–30
    • Remuneration paid to members, 70–71, 82†, 103*; rate of, 128–29
    • Replenishment of participants’ currencies, use in, 103*
    • Role as reserve asset, 46, 55, 65, 66–67
    • Role in international monetary system, 33
    • Transactions and operations, summary of, 104*–106*
    • Transfers: by agreement, 67, 68, 69*, 103*, 104*–106*, 107*; to and from General Resources Account, 68*, 69, 71, 103*, 104*–106*; total, 68*, 103*; with designation, 68, 69, 70*, 76, 103*, 104*–106*, 107*
    • Uses, 33, 55, 65, 67–68, 130–34
    • See also individual countries
  • Special Drawing Rights Department
    • Participants, 60, 65, 66, 90
    • Transactions and operations, 68
    • See also Special Drawing Rights
  • Sri Lanka
    • Balance of payments, 43
    • Exchange rate, 43, 100*
    • Extended arrangement with Fund, 73–74, 112*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 110*
    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*
    • Use of oil facility, 85*
    • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*
    • Staff of Fund, 91
  • Stand-By Arrangements for Fund Members, 63, 72, 73, 75, 83, 108*, 110*, 111*; use of supplementary financing facility under, 55, 74
  • Subsidy Account, 84–86
  • Substitution Account, 33, 55, 56, 60
  • Sudan
    • Exchange rate, 100*
    • Extended arrangement with Fund, 75
    • Gold purchase from Fund, 80
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 69*, 70*, 102*, 106*
    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*
    • Use of oil facility, 85*
    • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*
    • Use of supplementary financing facility, 75
  • Supplementary Financing Facility
    • Borrowing by Fund, 54, 74, 78
    • Charges, 75, 81, 113*
    • Establishment, 60, 74
    • Extended arrangements, use with, 55
    • Interest rate payable by Fund, 78
    • Main features, 74
    • Purchases by members, 74, 81
    • Purposes, 54–55, 63
    • Repayment, 136
    • Repurchases by members, 74
    • Stand-by arrangements, use with, 55
  • Suriname
    • Acceptance of Article VIII obligations, 65
    • Exchange rate, 100*
    • Membership in Fund, 116* (fn.)
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 102*, 106*
  • Surveillance over Exchange Rate Policies
    • Applicability, 45
    • Article IV authority for, 44
    • Executive Board review of procedures, 64, 136
    • Fund’s approach to, 32, 34, 44
    • Supplemental surveillance procedure, 44, 64, 136
    • United States, 64
  • Swaziland
    • Exchange rate, 100*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Purchases from Fund, 73
    • SDRs, 102*, 106*
    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*
  • Sweden
    • Balance of payments, 20
    • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85
    • Exchange rate, 100*
    • General Arrangements to Borrow, 111*
    • International reserves, 57*
    • Oil facility financing, 112*
    • Quota increase, 62
    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 106*
    • Trade, 20
  • Switzerland
    • Association with General Arrangements to Borrow, 77
    • Balance of payments, 20
    • Borrowing by Fund, 72*, 77
    • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85
    • Economic activity and policies, 5, 17—18, 40, 46
    • Exchange rate, 17, 34, 35†, 36†, 37*
    • Foreign exchange holdings, 49
    • International reserves, 46, 48*, 57*
    • Oil facility financing, 112*
    • Repayment by Fund, 76, 77, 83
  • Syrian Arab Republic
    • Exchange rate, 100*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Quota increase, 116*
    • SDRs, 102*, 105*
  • Tanzania
    • Economic policies, 43
    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)
    • Exchange rate, 43, 100*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 69*, 70*, 102*, 106*
    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*
    • Use of oil facility, 85*
    • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*
  • Technical Assistance and Training by Fund, 87–88
  • Thailand
    • Balance of payments, 43
    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)
    • Exchange rate, 43, 100*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Purchases from Fund, 73
    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 106*
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 73, 110*
    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*
  • Togo
    • Exchange rate, 100*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 102*, 106*
    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*
  • Trinidad and Tobago
    • Exchange rate, 100*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Oil facility financing, 112*
    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 106*
  • Trust Fund
    • Disbursements, 60, 71—72, 86, 115*
    • Gold auctions, 80, 86—87
    • Investments, 87, 134
    • Members eligible for assistance, 60, 86
    • SDR as unit of account, 67
    • Terms and conditions of loans, 86
    • Trust Instrument, 134
  • Tunisia
    • Exchange rate. 100*, 114*
    • SDRs, 102*, 106*
  • Turkey
    • Balance of payments, 29
    • Economic activity and policies, 12, 29
    • Exchange rate, 29, 100*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 69*, 70*, 102*, 106*
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 110*
  • Uganda
    • Exchange rate, 100*
    • Gold purchase from Fund, 80
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 69*, 102*, 106*
  • United Arab Emirates
    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)
    • Exchange rate, 100*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Participation in Special Drawing Rights Department, 65, 90
    • SDRs, 102*, 106*
  • United Kingdom
    • Balance of payments, 15, 17†, 20, 21*
    • Charges paid to Fund, 70
    • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85
    • Economic activity and policies, 5, 6†, 7,8†, 9, 19t, 82†
    • Exchange rate, 17, 19, 34, 35†, 36†,37*,100*
    • Foreign exchange holdings, 49, 52
    • General Arrangements to Borrow, 111*
    • International reserves, 47, 48*, 57*
    • Membership in European Monetary System, 40 (fn.)
    • Official sterling claims on, 58*, 59*
    • Output, 3*
    • Prices, 3*
    • Purchases and repurchases from Fund, 70, 71, 73, 75, 76, 77, 78, 109*
    • Role of sterling as reserve currency, 55
    • SDRs, 69, 70*, 102*, 106*
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 72, 75, 77, 110*
    • Trade, 20
  • United States
    • Balance of payments, 15, 17†, 19, 21*,30, 38*, 51, 52, 53, 76
    • Economic activity and policies, 1, 3–6,7, 8t, 9, 17–18, 19†, 20, 24, 30, 37,39_40, 46, 68, 73, 82†
    • Exchange rate, 17, 18, 20, 30, 36†, 37,38*, 49*, 50†, 100*
    • Foreign exchange holdings, 46
    • General Arrangements to Borrow, 111*
    • International reserves, 18, 46, 48* (fn.),57*
    • Official claims on, 52*, 58*, 59*
    • Oil price increases in, 2
    • Output, 3*
    • Prices, 3*
    • Purchases from Fund, 61, 71, 73, 76, 77, 78
    • Remuneration paid by Fund, 71
    • Repayment by Fund, 77
    • Role of dollar as reserve currency, 55
    • SDRs, 66, 68, 69*, 70*, 102*, 106*
    • Trade, 19, 55
  • Upper Volta
    • Exchange rate, 100*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • SDRs, 102*, 106*
  • Uruguay
    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)
    • Exchange rate, 100*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*
    • SDRs, 69*, 70*, 102*, 106*
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 73, 75, 110*
  • Venezuela
    • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85
    • Exchange rate, 100*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • International reserves, 48*
    • Oil facility financing, 112*
    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 106*
  • Viet Nam
    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)
    • Exchange rate, 100*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • SDRs, 102*, 106*
  • Western Samoa
    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)
    • Exchange rate, 100*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 110*
    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 106*
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 110*
    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*
    • Use of oil facility, 85* Use of Subsidy Account, 85*
  • World Trade
    • See International Trade
  • Yemen Arab Republic
    • Exchange rate, 100*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 106*
  • Yemen, People’s Democratic Republic of
    • Exchange rate, 100*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 110*
    • SDRs, 69*, 102*, 106*
    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*
    • Use of oil facility, 85*
    • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*
  • Yugoslavia
    • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85
    • Contribution to Trust Fund, 86, 87
    • Exchange rate, 101*
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Quota payment to Fund, 70
    • Repurchases from Fund, 110*
    • SDRs, 69*, 70*, 102*, 106*
  • Zaïre
    • Economic policies, 43
    • Exchange arrangements, 41
    • Exchange rate, 43, 101*
    • Gold purchase from Fund, 80
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Repurchases from Fund, 110*
    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 106*
    • Use of Subsidy Account, 85
  • Zambia
    • Economic policies, 43
    • Eligibility for Trust Fund assistance, 86
    • Exchange rates, 43, 101*
    • Gold purchase from Fund, 81
    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*
    • Purchases and repurchases from Fund,73, 110*
    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 106*
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 73,110*
    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*
    • Use of Subsidy Account, 85

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