Back Matter

Back Matter

Author(s):
International Monetary Fund
Published Date:
May 2006
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References

Overview

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Chapter 1

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Chapter 2

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Chapter 3

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    Overseas Development Institute. 2005. “From Pledges to Cash—Where Is the Extra $25 Billion a Year (2010) for Africa Coming from and Going to? A Consistency Check and Emerging International Architecture Implications.”Draft Issues PaperU.K. Department for International Development.

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    PatrickStewart.2006. “Weak States and Global Threats: Assessing Evidence of Spillovers.”Working Paper 73Center for Global DevelopmentWashington, DC.

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    RajanRaghuram and ArvindSubramanian.2005b. “What Undermines Aid’s Impact on Growth?”Working Paper WP/05/126International Monetary FundWashington, DC.

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    RogersonAndrew.2005. “Aid Harmonisation and Alignment: Bridging the Gaps between Reality and the Paris Reform Agenda.”Development Policy Review23 (5): 5312.

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    RoodmanDavid.2005. “An Index of Donor Performance.”CGD Working Paper 67Washington, DC.

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Chapter 4

    ADB (Asian Development Bank). 2004. “Action Plan on Managing for Development Results.”

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    DollarDavid and VictoriaLevin.2004. “The Increasing Selectivity of Foreign Aid, 1984–2002.”World BankWashington, DC.

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    World Bank. 2004. “Implementation of the Agenda on Managing for Results: Progress Report and Annexes.”

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Part II Introduction

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    SvenssonJakob.2005. “Eight Questions about Corruption.”Journal of Economic Perspectives19(3) (Summer): 1942.

    SwaroopVinaya and Andrew SunilRajkumar.2002. “Public Spending and Outcomes: Does Governance Matter?”World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 2840May7.

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    YangDean.2005. “Integrity for Hire: An Analysis of a Widespread Program for Combating Customs Corruption.”Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich.

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Chapter 5

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    GelbAlanBrianNgo and XiaoYe.2004. “Implementing Performance-Based Aid in Africa: The Country Policy and Institutional Assessment.”World Bank Africa Region Working Paper Series #77November.

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    GrayCherylJoelHellman and RandiRyterman.2004. Anticorruption in Transition 2—Corruption in Enterprise-State Interactions in Europe and Central Asia 1999–2002.

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    GrindleMerilee.2004. “Good Enough Governance: Poverty Reduction and Reform in Developing Countries.”Governance17(4) (October): 52548.

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    KaufmannDanielAartKraay and MassimoMastruzzi.2005. “Governance Matters IV: Governance Indicators for 1996–2004.”World Bank Policy Research Paper Series # 3630.

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Chapter 6

    AdseràAlíciaCarlosBoix and MarkPayne.2003. “Are You Being Served? Political Accountability and Governmental Performance.”Journal of Law Economics and Organization19 (October): 44590.

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    BarkanJoelLadipoAdamolekun and YongmeiZhou.2004. “Emerging Legislatures: Institutions of Horizontal Accountability.” In Building State Capacity in Africaed.BrianLevy and SahrKpundeh.Washington, DC: World Bank Institute.

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    BellverAna and DanielKaufmann.2005. “Transparenting Transparency.”Mimeo, World BankWashington, DCSeptember. Available at www.worldbank.org/wbi/governance/wp-transparency.html.

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    BesleyTimothy and RobinBurgess.2002. “The Political Economy of Government Responsiveness: Theory and Evidence from India.”Quarterly Journal of Economics117 (4): 141551.

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    DFID (U.K. Department for International Development). 2005. A Platform Approach to Improving Public Financial Management. Available at www.dfid.gov.uk/aboutdfid/organisation/pfma/pfma-briefingplatform.pdf.

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    Di TellaRafael and ErnestoSchargrodsky.2003. “The Role of Wages and Auditing during a Crackdown on Corruption in the City of Buenos Aires.”Journal of Law and Economics46 (1): 595619.

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    DorotinskyBillGregKisunko and ShilpaPradhan.2005. “Public Expenditure Management System Performance in Heavily Indebted Countries, 2002–2004.”PREM NoteWorld BankWashington, DC.

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Chapter 7

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Annex

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Statistical Annex
A.Millennium Development Goals
Goal 1:Poverty (US$1 a day headcount ratio, %)
Share of consumption to poorest quintile (%)
Goal 2:Primary education completion (gross intake to final primary grade, %)
Secondary enrollment (gross, %)
Goal 3:Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary school (%)
Women in nonagricultural sector (% of total nonagricultural employment)
Goal 4:Child mortality (under-5 mortality rate per 1,000)
Measles immunization (% of children ages 12–23 months)
Goal 5:Maternal mortality ratio (modeled estimate, per 100,000 live births)
Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)
Goal 6:HIV prevalence (% of population ages 15–49)
Incidence of tuberculosis (per 100,000 people)
Goal 7:Access to an improved water source (% of population)
Access to improved sanitation facilities (% of population)
Goal 8:Fixed-line and mobile phone subscribers (per 1,000 people)
Internet users (per 1,000 people)
B.Measures of Governance Performance
Overall governance performance
Control of Corruption (KK, TI, ICS)
Policy outcome (CPIA cluster A–C average)
Aggregate public institutions (CPIA cluster D)
Business transactions costs (DB, ICS)
Bureaucratic capability
Budget and financial management (CPIA 13)
Public administration (CPIA 15)
Checks and balances institutions
Voice and accountability (KK)
Justice and rule of law (KK, CPIA 12)
Executive constraints (Polity IV)
C.Overall Trade Restrictiveness Index (OTRI)
D.Official Development Assistance (ODA)
Net Official Development Assistance by DAC and non-DAC Countries
Net Official Development Assistance Receipts
CPIA: Country Policy and Institutional Assessment; DB: Doing Business indicators; ICS: Investment Climate Surveys; KK: Kaufmann and Kraay; OTRI: Overall Trade Restrictiveness Index; TI: Transparency International.
CPIA: Country Policy and Institutional Assessment; DB: Doing Business indicators; ICS: Investment Climate Surveys; KK: Kaufmann and Kraay; OTRI: Overall Trade Restrictiveness Index; TI: Transparency International.
TABLE A.1Millennium Development Goals
Goal 1

Eradicate extreme poverty
Goal 2

Achieve universal primary education
Goal 3

Promote gender equality
Goal 4

Reduce child mortality
Goal 5

Improve maternal health
Goal 6

Combat HIV/AIDS and other diseases
Goal 7

Ensure environmental sustainability
Goal 8

Develop a global partnership for development (new technologies)
Poverty (US$1 a day headcount ratio, %)Share of consumption to poorest quintile (%)Primary education completion (gross intake to final primary grade, %)Secondary enrollment (gross, %)Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary school (%)Women in nonagricultural sector (% of total nonagricultural employment)Child mortality (under-5 mortality rate per 1,000)Measles immunization (% of children ages 12–23 months)Maternal mortality ratio (modeled estimate, per 100,000 live births)Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)HIV prevalence (% of population ages 15-19)Incidence of tuberculosis (per 100,000 people)Access to an improved water source (% of population)Access to improved sanitation facilities (% of population)Fixed-line and mobile phone subscribers (per 1,000 people)Internet users (per 1,000 people)
1998–2004a1998–2004a2001–4a2004200420032004200420002000–4a200320042002200220042004
Afghanistan......1334....61..14..333138....
Albania<29.199789740.319965598..22978943824
Algeria....94819915.54081140960.154879221526
Angola......17....260641,700453.925950302911
Argentina7.03.21029910347.6189582990.743....579133
Armenia<28.51079110347.0329255970.178928426050
Australia....1001549848.96938..0.161001001,359646
Austria..8.6..1009644.55744..0.3141001001,438477
Azerbaijan<212.296839748.590989484<0.175775533349
Bangladesh36.09.0735110624.2777738013..2297548372
Belarus<28.51019410055.9119935100..60100..424163
Belgium..8.5..16010644.458210..0.213....1,333403
Benin30.97.4492671..15285850661.98768323812
Bhutan............808742037..10762705322
Bolivia23.21.5100899836.56964420670.1217854526939
Bosnia and Herzegovina..9.5........158831100<0.153989350758
Botswana....927410247.0116901009437.3670954139634
Brazil7.52.611111010346.93499260960.7608975587120
Bulgaria<28.797999752.2158132990.136100100966283
Burkina Faso27.26.930127615.2192781,000381.81915112374
Burundi54.65.1331282..190751,000256.03437936123
Cambodia....82268552.614180450322.65103416403
Cameroon17.15.6724487..14964730625.517963487410
Canada..7.2..10510049.26956980.351001001,053626
Central African Republic......12....193351,1004413.53227527182
Chad....301558..200561,100144.8279348146
Chile<23.397889937.3895311000.3169592799267
China16.64.7100709939.5318456960.1101774449973
Hong Kong, China....111859546.9........0.175....1,733506
Colombia7.02.5947510448.82192130860.750928642780
Comoros....503584..707348062..4694232614
Congo, Dem. Rep. of......23....20564990614.23664629111
Congo, Rep. of....663287..10865510..4.93774691029
Costa Rica2.23.9926810139.5138843980.6149792533235
Côte d’Ivoire14.85.243256820.219449690687.039384408617
Croatia<28.3918810146.37968100<0.141....996293
Cuba....93939837.7799331000.11091987513
Czech Republic....1029710145.849791000.111....1,392470
Denmark....10312710348.35965..0.28100..1,599696
Djibouti....292275..12660730612.973480504312
Dominican Republic2.53.9916810534.93279150981.091935739691
Ecuador17.73.31016110041.12699130..0.3131867247248
Egypt, Arab Rep. of3.18.693879421.636978469<0.127986823554
EI Salvador19.02.784609831.12893150920.754826340287
Eritrea....44287335.08284630282.72715791412
Estonia<26.71039610051.5896631001.146....1,260497
Ethiopia23.09.1512873..1667185064.435322682
Finland..9.610212710650.649761000.191001001,407629
France....9911010047.058617..0.412....1,299414
Gabon....6650....9155420868.1280873638829
Gambia, The59.34.8..3485..12290540551.223382539933
Georgia6.55.686829945.2458632..0.182768333739
Germany..8.5971009946.45928..0.18100..1,525500
Ghana44.85.6654291..11283540472.220679589317
Greece..6.7..9610141.15889..0.219....1,465177
Guatemala13.52.970499138.74575240411.177956135061
Guinea....492673..15573740563.22405113155
Guinea-Bissau....271865..203801,10035..1995934817
Guyana....9590116..6488170862.51408370329193
Haiti53.92.4........11754680245.630671346459
Honduras20.73.479....50.54192110561.877906815332
Hungary<29.59710310047.1899161000.12699951,217267
India34.78.984528817.58556540430.916886308532
Indonesia7.58.4101629830.83872230720.1245785218467
Iran, Islamic Rep. of<25.19582100..389676900.12793842708
Iraq....744578....90..72<0.11328180....
Ireland..7.410110910347.468151000.111....1,425265
Israel..5.7101939948.969617..0.19100..1,499471
Italy..6.5103999941.25845..0.57....1,541501
Jamaica<26.7848410148.0208087971.2793801,021403
Japan......10210040.849910..<0.1301001001,176587
Jordan<26.7978810124.9279941100<0.159193407110
Kazakhstan<27.4110989848.77399210..0.2151867235127
Kenya....89489438.5120731,000426.761962488545
Korea, Dem. Rep. of............55956797..17810059410
Korea, Rep. of<27.91059110041.269920..<0.19092..1,303657
Kuwait....919010424.112975....26....1,015244
Kyrgyz Republic<28.9938810144.06899110990.1122766010652
Lao PDR27.08.1744684..8336650190.11564324484
Latvia<26.698959953.4129942..0.668....937350
Lebanon....9489102..3196150..0.11110098429169
Lesotho....7136104..112705506028.9696763710924
Liberia............23542760515.9310622630
Libya......104103..209997..0.320729715636
Lithuania<26.81051039850.0898131000.163....1,235282
Macedonia, FYR<26.197859942.214962399<0.130....64278
Madagascar61.04.945......12359550511.72184533195
Malawi....59299912.5175801,8006114.24136746254
Malaysia....957010538.0129541970.410395..766397
Mali....442274..219751,200411.92814845364
Mauritania25.96.2432096..125641,000570.628756421355
Mauritius....1008010338.515982499..6410099700146
Mexico4.54.3977910237.4289683950.3329177545135
Moldova22.07.8837410354.6289636..0.2138926839196
Mongolia27.05.6969310849.4529611099<0.1192625918480
Morocco<26.567478826.24395220630.11108061357117
Mozambique....291182..152771,0004812.24604227277
Myanmar....723899..10678360571.21718073101
Namibia....815810550.863703007621.3717803020637
Nepal24.16.071469017.47673740150.51848427227
Netherlands..7.61001229845.769616..0.281001001,393614
New Zealand......11910751.37857..0.111....1,189788
Nicaragua45.15.67464103..3884230670.263816617723
Niger....25871..259741,600161.21574612132
Nigeria70.85.0763584..19735800355.429060387914
Norway..9.610311410149.148816..0.15100..1,396390
Oman....91869825.6139887950.111798941397
Pakistan17.09.3..27738.710167500230.118190546313
Panama6.52.5977010144.02499160930.945917238894
Papua New Guinea....55268735.49344300410.623339451429
Paraguay16.42.289659842.02489170770.571837834925
Peru12.53.296909737.22989410590.51788162223117
Philippines15.55.4988410241.1348020060<0.1293857344654
Poland<27.51001059747.7897131000.129....777236
Portugal......10910246.959551000.442....1,384281
Puerto Rico..........40.1....25....5....974221
Romania<28.1908510045.320974999<0.11465751673208
Russian Federation<26.1..9310050.1219867991.11159687508111
Rwanda51.7..3714100..203841,400315.13717341184
São Tomé and Principe......3994..11891..76..107792479131
Saudi Arabia....62689214.5279723....40....53766
Senegal....451990..13757690580.824572527242
Serbia and Montenegro....968910144.9159611930.2339387910147
Sierra Leone......2671..283642,00042..4435739192
Singapore..5.0......47.839430..0.240....1,350571
Slovak Republic....1019210052.19983990.1191001001,027423
Slovenia<29.11021129947.4494171000.115....1,278476
Solomon Islands......3091..5672130....597031176
Somalia............225401,10025..41129258825
South Africa10.73.59691101..6781230..15.6718876747378
Spain..7.0..11710240.75974..0.725....1,321336
Sri Lanka5.68.3..8110243.2149692960.160789116514
Sudan....49338818.99159590872.322069345832
Swaziland....61429631.3156703707438.81,226525211932
Sweden..9.1..13711150.94942..0.141001001,750756
Switzerland..7.696939646.95827..0.471001001,560474
Syrian Arab Rep.....107639418.21698160..<0.141797726943
Tajikistan7.47.992828952.3938910071<0.11775853461
Tanzania57.87.357......126941,500467.03477346329
Thailand<26.3..779846.9219644991.51428599537109
Togo....663973..14070570614.135551344837
Trinidad and Tobago....948410141.32095160963.2991100745123
Tunisia<26.0947710225.3259512090<0.122828048084
Turkey3.45.3..858520.632817083..289383751142
Turkmenistan..6.1........103973197<0.1657162828
Uganda..5.9571997..13891880394.14025641447
Ukraine<29.291939953.61899351001.4101989954579
United Arab Emirates....756610214.489454....17..1001,128321
United Kingdom..6.1..17011649.96..13..0.212....1,584628
United States..5.4..9510048.889317..0.651001001,223630
Uruguay<25.09410610546.3179527..0.3289894465198
Uzbekistan..9.298959841.5699824960.111789577934
Venezuela, R. B. de8.34.7897210341.5198096940.742836845089
Vietnam..7.5101749451.82397130900.4176734118471
West Bank and Gaza....9894103........97..23947638046
Yemen, Republic of15.77.46248636.111176570270.1896930929
Zambia75.86.1662693..182847504315.668055452920
Zimbabwe....80369621.8129801,100..24.667483575563
World......669338.17976410601.11398254476139
Low-income....74468623.312264682402.122475367624
Middle-income....97759840.53787142870.7114836148690
Lower-middle-income....98729839.94086153860.3114815743874
Upper-middle-income....96879844.1289192952.61129381564159
Low- and middle-income....86619236.18674450601.2162795031262
East Asia and Pacific....99699839.73782117860.2138784943574
Europe and Central Asia....94929647.3349358940.7839182536138
Latin America and the Caribbean....978710243.73192194870.7648975499115
Middle East and North Africa....886790..5592183720.154887521942
South Asia....82498718.19261564360.817784357626
Sub-Saharan Africa....623084..16864921427.236358366519
High-income......10510146.079314..0.41799..1,306545
European Monetary Union......10810044.858910..0.313....1,430443
Source: 2006 World Development Indicators database.Figures in italics refer to periods other than those specified.

Data are for the most recent year available.

.. Not available.
Source: 2006 World Development Indicators database.Figures in italics refer to periods other than those specified.

Data are for the most recent year available.

.. Not available.
TABLE A.2Measures of Governance Performance
Overall governance performanceaBureaucratic capabilityaChecks and balances institutionsa
Control of corruptionPolicy outcomeAggregate public institutionsBusiness transaction costsBudget and financial managementPublic administrationVoice and accountabilityJustice and rule of lawExecutive constraints
KK Control of CorruptionbTI Corruption Perceptions IndexcICS—unofficial payments for firms to get things done (% of sales)dCPIA cluster A–C averageeCPIA cluster DeDoing Business 2005—dealing with licenses (time required, days)fICS—senior management time spent dealing with requirements of regulations (%)dCPIA 13eCPIA 15eKK Voice and AccountabilitybKK Rule of LawbCPIA 12ePolity IV 2004—executive constraintsg
Est. 2004S.E.Est. 2005S.E.Est. 2004S.E.Est. 2004S.E.
Afghanistan-1.330.212.51.09..............-1.350.14-1.810.17....
Albania-0.720.162.40.351.61334410.4230.030.11-0.800.1536
Algeria-0.490.142.80.726.0....244......-0.910.15-0.730.13..5
Angola-1.120.152.00.22..55326..44-1.020.15-1.330.1443
Argentina-0.440.132.80.60......288......0.490.14-0.710.12..6
Armenia-0.530.142.90.470.7111763.021-0.660.11-0.580.1425
Australia2.020.138.80.82......121......1.400.161.820.13..7
Austria2.100.158.70.48......195......1.250.161.760.13..7
Azerbaijan-1.040.122.20.462.7132125.213-0.970.10-0.850.1232
Bangladesh-1.090.141.70.522.1131853.723-0.690.15-0.860.1335
Belarus-0.910.152.61.390.5....3543.6....-1.540.11-1.310.14..2
Belgium1.530.157.40.93......184......1.350.161.470.13..7
Benin-0.340.192.91.33..12335..130.300.16-0.470.1735
Bhutan0.690.226.91.75..11....21-1.180.190.270.2312
Bolivia-0.780.152.50.53..13187..22-0.010.15-0.550.1347
Bosnia and Herzegovina-0.540.142.90.380.3124764.323-0.140.11-0.760.143..
Botswana0.860.155.91.40......160......0.730.140.730.13..7
Brazil-0.150.133.70.46......4607.2....0.340.14-0.210.12..6
Bulgaria-0.040.124.01.091.0....2122.8....0.580.110.050.12..7
Burkina Faso-0.350.203.40.74..12241..12-0.380.15-0.620.1733
Burundi-1.160.242.30.32..34302..44-1.130.18-1.500.214..
Cambodia-0.970.192.30.484.6352478.644-0.890.16-0.980.1744
Cameroon-0.780.172.20.37..23444..23-1.180.15-1.000.1442
Canada1.990.148.40.95......87......1.380.161.750.13..7
Central African Republic-1.360.242.40.42..45237..44-1.200.18-1.440.1842
Chad-1.140.191.70.61..24199..24-1.090.16-1.150.1642
Chile1.440.137.30.91......191......1.090.141.160.12..7
China-0.510.123.20.601.6....36318.5....-1.540.15-0.470.12..3
Hong Kong, China1.570.138.31.14......230......0.210.171.420.13....
Colombia-0.160.134.00.83......150......-0.470.14-0.700.12..6
Comoros-1.140.262.6....55....44-0.140.19-1.040.2547
Congo, Dem. Rep. of-1.310.152.10.37..35306..34-1.640.15-1.740.144
Congo, Rep. of-1.020.182.30.44..34174..34-0.790.17-1.180.1742
Costa Rica0.780.144.20.85......120......1.110.140.570.13..7
Côte d’Ivoire-1.010.171.90.26..44569..44-1.460.15-1.420.144..
Croatia0.080.133.40.400.3....2782.7....0.460.110.070.12..6
Cuba-0.620.173.81.58..............-1.880.15-1.120.14..1
Czech Republic0.300.124.31.390.4....2452.1....1.030.110.690.11..7
Denmark2.380.149.50.32......70......1.590.161.910.13..7
Djibouti-0.940.262.6....24....34-0.850.19-0.610.2143
Dominican Republic-0.500.153.00.81......150......0.270.15-0.540.13..6
Ecuador-0.750.152.50.584.9....14913.4....-0.190.14-0.710.13..6
Egypt, Arab Rep. of-0.210.143.40.808.0....263......-1.040.15-0.020.12..3
El Salvador-0.390.174.21.061.1....1447.2....0.260.14-0.340.15..5
Eritrea-0.640.222.61.340.2431873.843-1.960.17-0.780.2032
Estonia0.820.126.41.080.2....1162.3....1.130.110.910.12..7
Ethiopia-0.850.162.20.41..221332.122-1.110.14-1.000.1433
Finland2.530.159.60.20......56......1.500.161.970.13..7
France1.440.147.50.85......185......1.240.161.330.13..6
Gabon-0.580.152.90.97..............-0.710.15-0.510.13..2
Gambia, The-0.610.182.70.70..34....43-0.590.16-0.320.1732
Georgia-0.910.132.30.470.2122823.023-0.340.11-0.870.1325
Germany1.900.148.20.57......165......1.380.161.660.13..7
Ghana-0.170.133.50.78..11127..220.390.14-0.160.1226
Greece0.560.154.30.78......176......0.910.160.750.13..7
Guatemala-0.740.152.50.572.6....29412.4....-0.390.13-0.960.13..6
Guinea-0.810.231.70.04..34278..33-1.120.17-1.090.1843
Guinea-Bissau-0.710.224.43.30..35....44-0.620.17-1.260.1942
Guyana-0.350.242.50.36..13....230.620.19-0.480.2035
Haiti-1.490.221.80.48..35186..44-1.500.15-1.660.184..
Honduras-0.710.152.60.621.71219910.222-0.020.15-0.610.1425
Hungary0.650.125.00.530.5....2134.0....1.160.110.850.11..7
India-0.310.122.90.47..1127012.9120.270.15-0.090.1227
Indonesia-0.900.122.20.431.1122244.012-0.440.13-0.910.1246
Iran, Islamic Rep. of-0.590.152.90.76......668......-1.360.15-0.830.13..2
Iraq-1.450.182.20.98......210......-1.710.15-1.970.15....
Ireland1.610.147.40.97......181......1.300.161.620.13..7
Israel0.790.146.31.24......219......0.460.160.770.13..7
Italy0.660.155.00.75......284......1.060.160.740.13..7
Jamaica-0.520.163.60.26......242......0.540.15-0.320.14..7
Japan1.190.137.31.18......87......0.980.161.390.13..7
Jordan0.350.145.71.04......122......-0.680.140.300.13..3
Kazakhstan-1.100.132.60.850.7....2583.1....-1.210.10-0.980.12..2
Kenya-0.890.132.10.462.91217011.723-0.340.13-0.980.1236
Korea, Dem. Rep. of-1.460.231.50.31......60......-2.050.15-1.150.16..1
Korea, Rep. of0.170.125.00.68..............0.730.150.670.12..6
Kuwait0.710.174.70.99......149......-0.480.160.650.14..3
Kyrgyz Republic-0.920.132.30.352.4141526.134-1.060.11-1.040.1344
Lao PDR-1.150.193.31.97..35208..44-1.550.18-1.270.1733
Latvia0.230.134.20.650.5....1602.9....0.960.110.480.12..7
Lebanon-0.510.163.10.44......275......-0.810.15-0.320.14....
Lesotho-0.050.183.40.76..12254..330.280.18-0.030.1627
Liberia-0.860.302.20.15..............-1.240.16-1.760.24....
Libya-0.910.182.50.72..............-1.790.15-0.650.14..1
Lithuania0.360.124.80.570.8....1515.1....0.970.110.600.12..7
Macedonia, FYR-0.520.142.70.680.4....2148.2....-0.020.11-0.440.13..7
Madagascar-0.150.212.81.250.91235620.8320.070.17-0.300.1725
Malawi-0.830.142.80.89..22205..32-0.500.14-0.290.1326
Malaysia0.290.125.11.19......226......-0.360.130.520.12..4
Mali-0.520.172.91.212.9112607.5130.350.15-0.340.1525
Mauritania0.020.244.90.97..23152..33-1.160.19-0.620.2033
Mauritius0.330.154.21.22......132......0.940.160.840.14..7
Mexico-0.270.133.50.45......222......0.360.14-0.260.12..6
Moldova-0.860.132.91.060.8231223.634-0.470.11-0.650.1227
Mongolia-0.510.203.00.84..2396..230.450.160.180.1737
Morocco-0.020.143.20.67......217......-0.550.14-0.050.13..3
Mozambique-0.790.142.80.61..23212..33-0.130.15-0.600.1334
Myanmar-1.490.191.80.25..............-2.190.15-1.620.15..2
Namibia0.180.154.30.96......169......0.470.140.220.13..5
Nepal-0.610.162.50.74..13147..23-1.000.14-0.820.1431
Netherlands2.080.158.60.52......184......1.490.161.780.13..7
New Zealand2.380.159.60.15......65......1.470.161.930.13..7
Nicaragua-0.340.162.60.361.81219213.0220.060.13-0.650.1437
Niger-0.870.232.40.29..23165..23-0.120.17-0.920.1835
Nigeria-1.110.131.90.29..44465..34-0.650.13-1.440.1245
Norway2.110.158.90.56......97......1.530.161.950.13..7
Oman0.780.176.31.481.0....271......-0.900.160.980.14..2
Pakistan-0.870.142.10.741.6122188.722-1.310.14-0.780.1232
Panama-0.060.143.50.77......128......0.540.16-0.040.13..6
Papua New Guinea-0.900.152.30.46..33218..23-0.030.15-0.820.1447
Paraguay-0.990.152.10.35......273......-0.230.15-1.090.14..7
Peru-0.350.143.50.61......201......-0.040.14-0.630.12..7
Philippines-0.550.122.50.601.2....1976.9....0.020.15-0.620.12..6
Poland0.160.123.40.950.4....3223.0....1.130.110.510.11..7
Portugal1.230.156.51.17......327......1.310.161.160.13..7
Puerto Rico0.880.276.30.87......137......1.020.220.740.23....
Romania-0.250.123.00.860.6....2911.1....0.360.11-0.180.12..7
Russian Federation-0.720.122.40.341.0....5286.3....-0.810.11-0.700.11..5
Rwanda-0.360.243.11.72..22252..22-1.090.17-0.900.1933
São Tomé and Principe-0.660.262.6....43....330.550.20-0.550.253..
Saudi Arabia0.150.173.40.99......131......-1.630.150.200.13..1
Senegal-0.400.153.20.610.211185..220.190.14-0.200.1326
Serbia and Montenegro-0.480.142.80.670.6122128.0120.120.11-0.720.1436
Sierra Leone-0.880.222.40.49..24236..23-0.490.15-1.100.1845
Singapore2.440.139.40.22......129......-0.130.151.820.12..3
Slovak Republic0.390.124.30.950.4....2723.0....1.100.110.490.12..7
Slovenia0.970.126.11.160.1....2073.7....1.120.110.930.12..7
Solomon Islands-1.230.24......44....440.100.20-1.150.2437
Somalia-1.580.302.10.38..............-1.580.16-2.310.24....
South Africa0.480.124.50.640.1....1769.2....0.860.140.320.11..7
Spain1.450.147.00.74......277......1.170.161.120.13..7
Sri Lanka-0.160.143.20.750.1121673.512-0.160.14-0.030.1325
Sudan-1.300.172.10.24..45....44-1.810.15-1.590.1541
Swaziland-0.950.192.70.67..............-1.450.18-0.950.16..2
Sweden2.200.149.20.27......116......1.520.161.850.13..7
Switzerland2.170.159.10.30......152......1.490.161.980.13..7
Syrian Arab Rep.-0.740.173.41.07......13410.3....-1.720.15-0.400.14..3
Tajikistan-1.110.152.10.371.024..3.344-1.120.11-1.180.1443
Tanzania-0.570.132.90.471.31131314.412-0.350.14-0.490.1223
Thailand-0.250.123.80.64......1471.3....0.240.15-0.050.12..7
Togo-0.920.232.70.03..45273..44-1.220.17-1.010.1842
Trinidad and Tobago0.020.163.80.97..............0.490.160.170.14..7
Tunisia0.290.144.91.06......154......-1.110.150.240.13..2
Turkey-0.230.133.50.961.0....23210.8....-0.150.150.040.12..7
Turkmenistan-1.340.151.80.24..............-1.900.12-1.430.14..1
Uganda-0.710.132.50.511.3121553.813-0.640.13-0.790.1223
Ukraine-0.890.122.60.321.4....2658.1....-0.620.10-0.830.12..5
United Arab Emirates1.230.176.21.37......125......-1.010.160.850.14..3
United Kingdom2.060.148.60.51......115......1.370.161.710.13..7
United States1.830.137.61.05......70......1.210.161.580.13..7
Uruguay0.500.155.90.56......146......1.000.150.420.13..7
Uzbekistan-1.210.132.20.200.624..2.534-1.750.10-1.300.1241
Venezuela, R. B. de-0.940.132.30.20......276......-0.460.13-1.100.12..5
Vietnam-0.740.122.60.590.5121435.822-1.540.14-0.590.1233
West Bank and Gaza-0.600.342.60.49......144......-1.250.21-0.950.28....
Yemen, Republic of-0.840.162.70.54..24131..33-0.990.14-1.110.1442
Zambia-0.740.132.60.491.12316513.033-0.360.14-0.540.1235
Zimbabwe-1.010.142.60.77..55481..44-1.480.13-1.530.1342
Sources: Various indicators as labeled for individual columns.

Though shown only for KK and TI, all indicators, as discussed in the text, have margins of error.

KK Governance scores lie between -2.5 and 2.5, with higher scores corresponding to better outcomes (http://www.worldbank.org/wbi/governance/pdf/GovMatters_IV_main.pdf).

Transparency International’s Corruption Perpections Index (CPI) score relates to perceptions of the degree of corruption as seen by businesspeople and country analysts and ranges between 10 (highly clean) and 0 (highly corrupt) (http://ww1.transparency.org/cpi/2005/cpi2005.sources.en.html).

The CPIA 2004 data are grouped from strong (1) to weak (5), with the number of groups depending on the distribution of the data.

Polity IV 2004 Executive Constraints scores lie between 1 and 7, with higher scores corresponding to better outcomes (http://www.cidcm.umd.edu/inscr/polity/index.htm).

.. Not available.
Sources: Various indicators as labeled for individual columns.

Though shown only for KK and TI, all indicators, as discussed in the text, have margins of error.

KK Governance scores lie between -2.5 and 2.5, with higher scores corresponding to better outcomes (http://www.worldbank.org/wbi/governance/pdf/GovMatters_IV_main.pdf).

Transparency International’s Corruption Perpections Index (CPI) score relates to perceptions of the degree of corruption as seen by businesspeople and country analysts and ranges between 10 (highly clean) and 0 (highly corrupt) (http://ww1.transparency.org/cpi/2005/cpi2005.sources.en.html).

The CPIA 2004 data are grouped from strong (1) to weak (5), with the number of groups depending on the distribution of the data.

Polity IV 2004 Executive Constraints scores lie between 1 and 7, with higher scores corresponding to better outcomes (http://www.cidcm.umd.edu/inscr/polity/index.htm).

.. Not available.
TABLE A.3Overall Trade Restrictiveness Index (OTRI), 2005
OTRIOTRI for agricultural sectorMarket access OTRIMarket access OTRI for agricultural sector
Albania7.17.715.532.0
Algeria40.848.712.10.0
Argentina17.720.323.744.5
Australia10.135.521.453.5
Bahrain8.619.311.152.8
Bangladesh18.823.017.724.7
Belarus14.131.612.530.8
Bhutan25.450.521.761.1
Bolivia14.735.822.240.8
Brazil23.538.116.144.7
Brunei Darussalam8.412.717.10.0
Burkina Faso13.038.527.035.1
Cameroon17.624.09.917.5
Canada6.018.512.045.4
Central African Republic19.628.28.518.6
Chad16.223.312.016.8
Chile9.525.314.930.7
China12.524.76.127.3
Hong Kong, China1.114.610.927.2
Colombia21.744.418.634.8
Costa Rica4.611.915.539.3
Côte d’Ivoire36.651.423.040.8
Czech Republic4.46.88.246.4
Ecuador14.735.618.327.7
Egypt, Arab Rep. of39.979.116.163.5
El Salvador12.815.722.647.2
Equatorial Guinea15.924.35.941.3
Estonia5.07.816.539.3
Ethiopia16.614.423.942.6
Gabon16.921.21.911.8
Ghana15.431.29.421.1
Guatemala12.738.923.933.1
Honduras5.613.121.030.2
Hungary8.122.611.745.1
Iceland5.018.18.915.2
India24.265.418.148.6
Indonesia9.431.514.035.8
Japan11.135.97.90.0
Jordan20.321.39.925.9
Kazakhstan14.333.316.358.8
Kenya9.731.419.035.0
Kyrgyz Republic4.08.616.937.5
Lao PDR23.427.317.931.6
Latvia9.732.417.034.8
Lebanon14.346.215.736.6
Lithuania5.918.121.940.3
Madagascar13.318.120.637.7
Malawi13.525.625.940.9
Malaysia23.039.28.827.4
Mali13.127.96.723.5
Mauritius20.737.716.251.7
Mexico26.957.97.725.2
Moldova6.818.522.739.8
Morocco44.373.111.828.2
Mozambique13.329.222.237.4
Nepal11.710.716.528.7
New Zealand14.132.821.437.1
Nicaragua10.337.828.343.5
Nigeria47.075.75.915.1
Norway7.969.99.130.7
Oman12.955.07.816.9
Pakistan15.134.821.964.2
Papua New Guinea7.222.621.235.9
Paraguay17.137.024.836.5
Peru15.639.817.945.7
Philippines20.550.29.761.3
Poland8.325.714.333.1
Romania17.838.412.029.2
Russian Federation20.326.89.949.3
Rwanda11.313.817.153.0
Saudi Arabia10.615.23.144.4
Senegal35.863.214.217.2
Slovenia11.544.813.364.7
South Africa7.112.312.246.7
Sri Lanka7.517.818.223.4
Sudan47.348.922.351.0
Switzerland8.250.49.429.6
Tanzania38.482.923.842.0
Thailand9.237.713.669.3
Trinidad and Tobago6.324.327.565.7
Tunisia33.583.714.138.9
Turkey11.337.711.937.3
Uganda6.510.914.028.4
Ukraine21.647.014.448.4
United States7.821.610.847.6
Uruguay20.236.126.940.5
Venezuela, R. B. de21.547.06.437.3
Vietnam35.252.522.353.1
Zambia11.129.421.945.5
Zimbabwe18.446.919.134.8
Low-income20.229.718.237.1
Middle-income16.633.312.139.4
High-income11.228.612.634.9
European Union11.937.511.937.3
Source: World Bank staff estimates.Note: OTRI and Market Access OTRI are estimated using the most recent available tariff schedules (2004–5) and ad-valorem equivalents of nontariff barriers (about 2001). The OTRI measures the restrictiveness of a country’s own trade policies. It is defined as the uniform tariff that would keep aggregate imports at their observed level. The Market Access OTRI measures the restrictiveness of other countries’ trade policies on the export bundle of each country. For a detailed methodology on the estimation of the OTRI and the Market Access OTRI see Kee, Nicita, and Olarreaga (2006). For Algeria, Brunei Darussalam, and Japan the Market Access OTRI for agriculture was not estimated owing to their limited agricultural exports.
Source: World Bank staff estimates.Note: OTRI and Market Access OTRI are estimated using the most recent available tariff schedules (2004–5) and ad-valorem equivalents of nontariff barriers (about 2001). The OTRI measures the restrictiveness of a country’s own trade policies. It is defined as the uniform tariff that would keep aggregate imports at their observed level. The Market Access OTRI measures the restrictiveness of other countries’ trade policies on the export bundle of each country. For a detailed methodology on the estimation of the OTRI and the Market Access OTRI see Kee, Nicita, and Olarreaga (2006). For Algeria, Brunei Darussalam, and Japan the Market Access OTRI for agriculture was not estimated owing to their limited agricultural exports.
TABLE A.4Net Official Development Assistance (ODA) by DAC and non-DAC Countries
20012004
of which:
ODA (current US$ millions)ODA (percent of GNI)ODA (current US$ millions)Technical Co-operation GrantsDebt Forgiveness GrantsFood and Emergency Aid GrantsOther Bilateral ODAaContributions to MultilateralsODA (percent of GNI)
DAC Donors
Austria6330.3467813311760133250.23
Belgium8670.3714634142111031335610.50
Denmark16341.032037112958938350.85
Finland3890.32655127531532930.35
France41980.3184732340196061428729060.41
Germany49900.27753424868142304537120.28
Greece2020.1746519613771610.23
Ireland2870.3360712393301980.39
Italy16270.15246214011510827817570.15
Luxembourg1390.76236426137640.83
Netherlands31720.824204663231341118915340.73
Portugal2680.2510311145187241580.63
Spain17370.30243734019810967010370.24
Sweden16660.7727221122638414376460.78
United Kingdom45790.327883751759523279825440.36
EU Members, Total263880.33428867947443827179164167310.35
Australia8730.251460692102072162700.25
Canada15330.222599414743239716080.27
Japan98470.2389061914241370521429880.19
New Zealand1120.25212462872530.23
Norway13460.8021992872618716620.87
Switzerland9080.34154511783456883590.41
United States114290.111970573471413916384334550.17
DAC Members, Total524350.2279512187647084850116039251260.26
Non-DAC Donors
Czech Republic260.051081111929450.11
Hungary5521350.06
Iceland100.13211650.18
Kuwait730.1920918524
Korea2650.064235413247930.06
Latvia8080.06
Lithuania29180.04
Other Bilateral Donors76492468240.11
Poland360.0211825930.05
Saudi Arabia4900.2717341691430.69
Slovak Republic80.042811170.07
Turkey640.043391854527470.11
United Arab Emirates127181181
Non-DAC Countries, Total11780.133726249116729004410.17
Source: OECD DAC Database.

Other Bilateral ODA is Bilateral ODA - special purpose grants (technical cooperation, debt forgiveness, food and emergency aid) and administrative costs (not shown).

Note: DAC countries also gave $5600 million in 2001 and $8500 in 2004 to countries in transition and more advanced developing countries. These flows are not classified by OECD-DAC as Official Development Assistance and they are not included in the totals.
Source: OECD DAC Database.

Other Bilateral ODA is Bilateral ODA - special purpose grants (technical cooperation, debt forgiveness, food and emergency aid) and administrative costs (not shown).

Note: DAC countries also gave $5600 million in 2001 and $8500 in 2004 to countries in transition and more advanced developing countries. These flows are not classified by OECD-DAC as Official Development Assistance and they are not included in the totals.
TABLE A.5Net Official Development Assistance (ODA) Receipts
20012004
of which:
ODA (current US$ millions)ODA (current US$ millions)Technical Co-operationDebt Forgiveness GrantsFood and Emergency Aid GrantsOther ODAODA per capita (in current US$)ODA (percent of GNI)
Afghanistan4082190459430130138.0
Albania2703621559198116.334.7
Algeria22431318927979.670.4
Angola28911447121685773.856.6
Argentina15191661242.370.1
Armenia198254992812783.948.1
Azerbaijan23217670317521.192.3
Bangladesh1030140421527114277610.092.4
Benin2743789084819646.239.3
Bhutan61782305587.0511.9
Bolivia73576724250836-2085.149.1
Bosnia and Herzegovina639671146447474171.637.7
Botswana29393412222.050.5
Brazil3492853282-461.550.0
Burkina Faso392610105381445347.5812.7
Burundi13735128713817748.2054.6
Cambodia4204781571630634.6410.3
Cameroon4877621524231017747.515.4
Central African Republic6710534865726.348.0
Chad18731944158717333.7611.8
Chile5849672-203.040.1
China14761661883137651.280.1
Colombia381509478837-1411.330.5
Comoros272513201042.526.9
Congo, Dem. Rep. of263181514477825963432.5028.6
Congo, Rep. of75116325146529.873.5
Costa Rica213292-173.060.1
Côte d’Ivoire1701547811963-1078.621.0
Croatia1131217773627.240.4
Cuba5490367488.00
Djibouti586430062982.158.9
Dominican Republic10887639159.920.5
Ecuador1731601501316-1812.270.6
Egypt, Arab Rep. of125714582011505110220.071.9
EI Salvador238211138363831.201.4
Eritrea2812603212210661.4428.6
Ethiopia11161823179151456103726.0623.0
Gabon9384473-1727.890.6
Gambia, The546310234742.6316.0
Georgia3003151028113269.725.9
Ghana6441358142129225-10162.6815.4
Guatemala227218125326117.730.8
Guinea2822797270479030.327.3
Guinea-Bissau597616625349.3628.2
Guyana971452527686193.2719.3
Haiti171243891906328.906.7
Honduras679642115763741391.099.1
India1724691400642280.640.1
Indonesia14718443055-4000.390.0
Iran, Islamic Rep. of1171898010462.820.1
Iraq1224658396989613202
Jamaica54753612101828.360.9
Jordan43358110912113348106.805.0
Kazakhstan148265120214217.670.7
Kenya463635212249031018.974.0
Korea, Dem. Rep. of12019655119228.76
Kyrgyz Republic1892581102512350.6612.2
Lao PDR2452707701018246.6211.5
Lebanon243265110777874.851.3
Lesotho5610214038556.736.3
Liberia39210271483564.8053.3
Macedonia, FYR24824810504139122.144.7
Madagascar3741236975342857668.2428.8
Malawi404476111492329237.7525.9
Malaysia2729064222311.650.3
Mali354567121117332643.2012.2
Mauritania2681804085213360.4011.1
Mauritius22382201630.790.6
Mexico751211393-211.170.0
Moldova12211858134727.984.0
Mongolia2122627429159104.1916.4
Morocco51970638171530323.671.4
Mozambique9331228209177293063.2221.4
Myanmar12712140430482.42
Namibia11017972510289.093.1
Nepal39442711812428616.066.4
Nicaragua931123210686135230229.1628.2
Niger257536602032125139.7117.5
Nigeria185573255222964.450.9
Oman255804721.710.2
Pakistan19481421135425611889.341.5
Panama28384601-911.970.3
Papua New Guinea20326618717946.087.6
Paraguay610490-490.000.0
Peru453487292254013117.670.7
Philippines574463236381885.670.5
Rwanda29946897205030152.6925.8
São Tomé and Principe3833151116215.7455.8
Senegal41310522184981731992.3913.9
Serbia and Montenegro130811702966108760143.614.9
Sierra Leone34536037177922667.4634.4
Solomon Islands5912297520261.9247.7
Somalia1501911011305023.98
South Africa428617241337313.560.3
Sri Lanka313519774939426.732.7
Sudan18588278468311824.834.5
Swaziland29117116739104.484.9
Syrian Arab Republic155110703735.920.5
Tajikistan170241514514537.4812.1
Tanzania1271174617527665123046.4016.2
Thailand281-216118-180-0.030.0
Timor-Leste19515382467165.4731.7
Togo446135811710.193.0
Tunisia378328142118533.021.2
Turkey16925714725853.580.1
Turkmenistan723728187.760.6
Uganda79311592138615570541.6617.3
Uruguay152217056.400.2
Uzbekistan15324610351389.392.1
Venezuela, R. B. de454936581.880.0
Vietnam14501830313124149222.274.1
West Bank and Gaza8701136154505477323.82
Yemen, Rep. of46125252165113412.402.1
Zambia34910811443872752394.1721.2
Zimbabwe16418656676314.384.0
East Asia & Pacific73276790306254603263
Europe & Central Asia469654561860107242862
Latin America & Caribbean59606793344015455911216
Middle East & North Africa494810563201628319686296
South Asia5943712816103149254280
Sub-Saharan Africa141592594146345342389912065
Unspecified by region880915298386220629375
Low-income countries226903395463956525417816856
Middle-income countries17857238238370961296911522
Unallocated1129720192572012348110980
Developing Countries, Total521537830820581