What is development?
The articles in the September 1975 issue of Finance & Development attempt to spotlight current economic problems from the point of view of the writers in this issue.
The division of the world into “developed” and “developing” needs certain clarification especially in the context of the rich culture and historical background of almost all the countries of the “developing” category.
It would appear that the term developed could be used to refer to those countries which have developed the fine art of exploiting the resources of the developing countries through the operation of multinational corporations and purchasing rings in the developed countries.
In this context the term developing country could be used to indicate those countries which are beginning to understand and control the various methods used by the developed countries to exploit the resources of the developing countries.
The crisis at the moment is to save the standard of living of the so-called developed countries at a time when all the developing countries have realized the magnitude of the exploitation. This realization was brought about very forcibly by the OPEC group when they revised the oil prices and obtained a major flow of funds.
The suggestion that the developed countries should contribute 1 per cent of their GNP to help the developing countries should be modified to bridge the trade deficit arising from … the different rates of growth of the index of import prices paid by developing countries for their imports from the developed countries and the index of export prices received by these countries for their exports from the developed countries.
The extent of the disparity could be gauged from the trade statistics maintained by any of the United Nations organizations.
A more equitable method would be to equate the currencies of each country at par on a given date….
Within developing countries the transfer of resources from those who have to those who need is being hampered by the tight control that the foreign lending institutions have on the lending policies of their domestic counterparts, thereby keeping the developing countries in a perpetual state of development….
Lionel F. W. Donnaiah Colombo, Sri Lanka
The article “Population: exploring the food-fertility link” in the December 1975 issue of Finance & Development brought back recollections of the first agricultural loan by the World Bank to India in the late forties, to reclaim huge areas infested by Kans grass in Madhya Pradesh and in Madhya Bharat, for wheat cultivation. End-use supervision of this loan indicated that while the yields anticipated were reached, the quantities marketed fell well below expectations. An observant statistician in the office responsible for the preparation of end-use reports in India noticed, however, that in the areas concerned the natality rate had begun to fall noticeably as soon as wheat production began to increase. In our unscientific way, we merely described the event as: people with full bellies go to sleep earlier.
Benjamin P. Spiro Lausanne, Switzerland
I am writing in regard to the map published on the cover of Volume 12, Number 1 (March 1975) of your journal, in which the Falkland and South Georgia Islands appear as “developed countries.”
May I point out that this qualification is not consistent with the Argentine Republic’s sovereign rights over those archipelagoes, which are not “countries” but rather integral parts of Argentine territory, administratively dependent on the National Territory of Tierra del Fuego, the Antarctic and South Atlantic Islands and illegally occupied by the United Kingdom.
In particular, in regard to the Falkland Islands it should be stressed that the United Nations, through Resolutions 2065 (XX) and 3160 (XXVII), has invited the Governments of the Argentine Republic and of Great Britain to initiate negotiations, which are now under way, to solve the dispute over sovereignty over the Islands.
Rafael M. Vázquez
Ambassador of the Argentine Republic Washington, D. C.
Articles on tourism
A few definitive articles on international tourism and its role in the Third World would, perhaps, be useful. The last I recall was by H. David Davis, whom I met on one of his assignments.
Cedric S. Senaratna Mount Lavinia, Sri Lanka
Thank you for the suggestion. We will bear it in mind for future issues of Finance & Development.
Letters to the Editor should be addressed to the Editor, Finance & Development, IMF Building, Washington, D.C., 20431. Please be brief. The Editor reserves the right to edit letters for reasons of space and clarity.
BALANCE OF PAYMENTS YEARBOOK
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From the World Bank and The Johns Hopkins University Press
Patterns of Development 1950-1970, by Hollis Chenery and Moises Syrquin. Cloth ISBN 0-19-920075-0, £4.50 ($14.50); paper ISBN 0-19-920076-9, £1.50 ($5.00); xvi + 234 pp.; technical and statistical appendixes; index.
Intercountry comparisons play an essential part in understanding the processes of economic development and in the formulation of development policy. Many analyses have been made previously in many fields, but they have been difficult to combine since they have used different methods and data bases. By treating the material within a uniform econometric framework, this book is able to provide a consistent picture of the development process as a whole, to describe a number of interrelated types of structural change, and to identify systematic differences in development patterns among countries following different strategies.
Economy-Wide Models and Development Planning, edited by Charles R. Blitzer, Peter B. Clark, and Lance Taylor. Cloth ISBN 0-19-920073-4, £8.50 ($23.75); paper ISBN 0-19-920074-2, £3.75 ($10.25); xiii + 369 pp.; index.
This volume surveys a large number of economy-wide models built in recent years for application in developing countries, and it discusses their value in relation to the costs of construction. The emphasis is on multisector models that focus on medium- and long-run economic problems. Some chapters deal with the planning process, including the relations among researchers, planners, and policymakers; some are devoted to outstanding methodological issues; some discuss such specific economic problems as foreign trade, employment, project evaluation, and intersectoral consistency.
Again available, in second (revised) printing, Redistribution with Growth, by Hollis Chenery, Montek S. Ahluwalia, C.L.G. Bell, John H. Duloy, and Richard Jolly. Paper (only) ISBN 0-19-920070-X, £2.50 ($6.50).
The World Bank Catalog lists all publications of the World Bank and is available without charge to individuals and institutions having a serious interest in economic and social development. Address requests to: Publications Office, The World Bank, Washington, D.C. 20433, U.S.A., or to the World Bank European Office, 66, avenue d’lèna, 75116 Paris, France.
From the World Bank and The Johns Hopkins University Press
Size Distribution of Income: A Compilation of Data, compiled by Shail Jain. Paper (only) ISBN 0-8018-1831-1, $5.75 (£3.75), xv + 137 pp.; index and bibliography. Income distribution data from 81 countries in a standard format that allows direct comparisons among the results, with a uniform set of inequality indexes.
World Bank Country Economic Reports published during 1975
Kenya: Into the Second Decade. Cloth ISBN 0-8018-1754-4, $18.50 (£10.15); paper ISBN 0-8018-1755-2, $6.95 (£3.50), 7 × 10. xiv + 533 pp.; 6 maps; 6 technical appendixes; agricultural sector survey.
Lesotho: A Development Challenge. Paper (only) ISBN 0-8018-1833-8, $4.75 (£3.10), 8½ x 11. xx + 98 pp.; 1 map; statistical appendixes.
Turkey: Prospects and Problems of an Expanding Economy. Paper (only) ISBN 0-8018-1837-0, $15.00 (£9.75), xxiii + 476 pp.; 4 maps; technical and statistical appendixes.
Yugoslavia: Development with Decentralization. Cloth ISBN 0-8018-1702-1, $18.50 (£8.80); paper ISBN 0-8018-1715-3, $8.50 (£4.25); xiv + 490 pp.; 1 map; appendixes, glossary, and index.
All World Bank Country Economic Reports are now distributed solely by The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, U.S.A.