Chapter

APPENDICES

Author(s):
Ved Gandhi, Liam Ebrill, Parthasarathi Shome, Luis Manas Anton, Jitendra Modi, Fernando Sanchez-Ugarte, and George Mackenzie
Published Date:
June 1987
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APPENDIX I Statistical Tables

Jitendra R. Modi, Somchai Richupan, and Chris Wu

Many of the statistical tables included in this Appendix were prepared in 1984 as background material for the research project and, therefore, cover published data readily available at that time. As the focus of the project was on direct taxes, most tables in the Appendix cover information relating to these taxes only.

List of Tables

Table A1. Selected Industrial and Developing Countries: Total Tax Revenue as Percentage of Gross Do mestic Product, 1980-82

Table A2. Selected Developing Countries: Total Tax Revenue by Type of Tax as Percentage of Gross Domestic Product, Three-Year Averages

Table A3. Selected Developing Countries: Percentage Shares of Type of Tax in Total Tax Revenue, Three-Year Averages

Table A4. Selected Industrial and Developing Countries: Revenue Significance of Individual Income Tax, Five-Year Averages

Table A5. Selected Industrial and Developing Countries: Proportion of Individual Income Taxpayers in Total Population

Table A6. Selected Industrial and Developing Countries: Proportion of Income Assessed to Individual Income Tax in Gross Domestic Product

Table A7. Selected Industrial and Developing Countries: Proportion of Individual Income Tax Collected from Wage and Salary Incomes

Table A8. Selected Industrial and Developing Countries: Proportion of Individual Income Tax Collected Through Tax-Withholding Schemes

Table A9. Selected Developing Countries: Characteristics of the Existing Nominal Income Tax Rate Schedule, Around 1985

Table A10. Selected Developing Countries: Tax Deductions and Exemptions Provided for Promotion of Personal Savings Under Individual Income Tax

Table A11. Selected Developing Countries: Final Withholding Tax Rates Payable on Certain Investment Incomes

Table A12. Selected Developing Countries: Minimum Income at Which Individual Income Tax Applies to a “Representative Taxpayer” in 1985

Table A13. Selected Developing Countries: Nominal Tax Rates Applicable to Corporate Profits

Table A14. Selected Industrial and Developing Countries: Effective Corporate Tax Rates

Table A15. Selected Developing Countries: Incentives Available to Corporate Entities Subject to Profits Tax

Table A16. Selected Industrial and Developing Countries: Export Duties as Percentage of F.o.b. Value of Exports, 1980-82

Table A17. Selected Industrial and Developing Countries: Import Duties as Percentage of C.i.f. Value of Imports, 1980-82

Table A1.Selected Industrial and Developing Countries: Total Tax Revenue as Percentage of Gross Domestic Product, 1980-82
Average
1980198119821980-82
Industrial countries
United States128.79329.22828.90628.975
Canada131.85434.07134.73333.553
Australia129.30630.28031.13030.238
Japan25.94426.79427.17926.639
New Zealand130.93332.13633.14332.071
Austria140.84642.08040.51141.146
Belgium143.54843.49844.72143.922
Denmark145.45645.33144.35145.046
Finland133.02634.74934.43434.070
France140.97441.11141.98241.356
Germany, Fed. Rep. of139.41339.25339.37339.346
Iceland26.11227.52528.57827.405
Ireland133.40534.56136.44234.803
Italy33.34434.18037.27734.933
Luxembourg136.65634.12231.45634.078
Netherlands44.36743.85744.37044.198
Norway146.16647.72046.94746.944
Spain124.36025.00427.47925.615
Sweden148.06549.43648.89248.798
Switzerland130.30430.11030.52930.314
United Kingdom134.53235.58838.27136.131
Maximum48.798
Minimum25.615
Mean36.171
Variance48.839
Standard deviation6.989
Number of observations21
Developing countries
Oil exporting countries
Indonesia121.20621.81319.53520.851
Iran, Islamic Rep. of17.2579.1118.1468.171
Kuwait3.0273.5903.2663.294
Nigeria25.25423.32319.84022.806
Oman10.76213.09611.40711.755
Venezuela21.92630.05423.13525.038
Maximum25.038
Minimum3.294
Mean15.319
Variance77.902
Standard deviation8.826
Number of observations6
Non-oil developing countries
Africa
Benin13.24515.45715.97714.893
Botswana25.09326.49422.61524.734
Burkina Faso13.29813.66813.53813.501
Burundi12.58611.74314.22012.850
Cameroon15.53015.54916.06115.713
Central African Rep.12.41112.28213.54012.744
Congo19.81230.87727.73326.141
Côte d’Ivoire21.92423.92623.27123.040
Djibouti23.67724.36126.07024.702
Ethiopia15.32515.30315.40015.343
Gabon23.63229.64628.55327.277
Gambia, The19.24216.77416.15817.391
Ghana7.9425.0485.1456.045
Kenya121.97222.33422.12222.143
Lesotho28.47025.53326.52226.842
Liberia20.77823.45227.24123.824
Madagascar117.18715.61212.46715.089
Malawi118.14417.37618.52318.014
Mali11.95613.55114.56313.357
Mauritania13.36015.21416.21414.929
Mauritius119.84019.34918.06819.086
Morocco21.49921.67821.80321.660
Niger12.33710.72310.14511.068
Rwanda10.4079.9769.4039.929
Senegal21.95919.90319.62120.494
Sierra Leone14.76415.39211.43313.863
Somalia8.7989.7578.1518.902
Swaziland26.22421.31625.89124.477
Tanzania17.68518.91719.45518.686
Togo27.04122.85825.66725.188
Tunisia124.10524.97126.32425.134
Uganda2.2660.9764.4102.551
Zaïre19.45817.44717.89718.267
Zambia23.14321.55021.58922.094
Zimbabwe19.31322.81627.26323.131
Maximum27.277
Minimum2.551
Mean18.089
Variance39.317
Standard deviation6.270
Number of observations35
Asia
Bangladesh7.1227.4597.1507.244
Burma9.6129.9289.9079.815
Fiji118.65320.56519.21319.477
India115.44716.18116.15415.927
Korea15.58815.73616.13115.818
Malaysia24.19123.36121.35622.969
Maldives4.9596.0119.6306.867
Nepal6.5657.4787.3317.124
Pakistan13.15713.28612.73213.058
Papua New Guinea17.62020.15517.91418.563
Philippines112.30610.89910.49911.235
Singapore17.31918.39519.62618.447
Sri Lanka119.47217.32016.10517.632
Thailand113.63113.69513.09913.475
Maximum22.969
Minimum6.867
Mean14.118
Variance26.245
Standard deviation5.123
Number of observations14
Europe
Cyprus17.38318.50718.98218.290
Greece127.60226.44232.27028.771
Malta27.63327.71627.07727.475
Portugal27.15028.84328.69928.231
Romania112.55412.97112.08312.536
Turkey16.04017.80414.40516.083
Maximum28. 771
Minimum12.536
Mean21.898
Variance50.585
Standard deviation7.112
Number of observations6
Middle East
Bahrain3.5633.9004.3393.934
Egypt30.75628.86429.19129.603
Israel147.43446.91253.08449.144
Jordan16.82818.37718.90818.038
Syrian Arab Rep.10.4318.7829.4159.542
Yemen Arab Rep.17.90818.83420.77819.174
Maximum49.144
Minimum3.934
Mean21.572
Variance259. 750
Standard deviation16.117
Number of observations6
Western Hemisphere
Argentina122.16919.56217.89319.875
Bahamas17.50017.06815.13016.566
Barbados25.03424.06925.33924.814
Belize21.17021.57521.48721.411
Bolivia7.0527.5544.2966.301
Brazil122.83623.02224.55823.472
Chile126.26725.85023.85025.322
Colombia112.39312.02111.58412.000
Costa Rica16.73716.89416.69916.777
Dominican Rep.111.16510.7658.93110.287
Ecuador11.86710.26410.50810.881
El Salvador11.09511.59010.74011.142
Grenada22.22220.98122.65121.951
Guatemala110.5699.5889.0969.751
Guyana25.49730.06331.35528.972
Haiti9.2758.85112.58310.236
Honduras14.05713.20812.84113.369
Jamaica18.76721.44823.02621.080
Mexico117.80517.42617.73517.655
Nicaragua19.29520.95722.63820.963
Panama121.43721.85420.87321.388
Paraguay10.0809.30410.0149.799
Peru18.85316.28815.79716.979
St. Lucia26.35825.86627.58526.603
St. Vincent23.13921.23323.95422.776
Trinidad and Tobago135.36035.86733.88935.039
Uruguay21.02522.14119.43320.866
Maximum35.039
Minimum6.301
Mean18.381
Variance48.237
Standard deviation6.945
Number of observations27
Developing countries
Maximum49.144
Minimum2.551
Mean17.870
Variance56.965
Standard deviation7.548
Number of observations94
All countries
Maximum49.144
Minimum2.551
Mean21.212
Variance105.468
Standard deviation10.270
Number of observations115
Sources: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 1984, Vol. 8 (Washington, 1984), International Financial Statistics (Washington), various issues, and Fund staff estimates; and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Revenue Statistics of OECD Member Countries, 1965-1983 (Paris, 1984).

Including revenue from state and local taxes.

Sources: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 1984, Vol. 8 (Washington, 1984), International Financial Statistics (Washington), various issues, and Fund staff estimates; and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Revenue Statistics of OECD Member Countries, 1965-1983 (Paris, 1984).

Including revenue from state and local taxes.

Table A2.Selected Developing Countries: Total Tax Revenue by Type of Tax as Percentage of Gross Domestic Product, Three-Year Averages
Income Taxes
YearTotal

Taxes
TotalIndividualCorporateOther
Argentina11981-8318.122.470.040.010.76
Bangladesh1978-807.431.141.080.06
Barbados1982-8326.009.173.105.570.51
Belize1980-8221.455.59
Benin1977-7916.332.820.531.720.57
Bolivia19835.520.810.350.270.19
Botswana1981-8324.8311.4011.40
Brazil21981-8323.833.390.171.371.85
Burkina Faso1981-8312.732.411.470.540.41
Burma1980-829.770.46
Burundi1979-8112.862.701.181.340.18
Cameroon1982-8420.0511.001.998.900.11
Central African Rep.198114.962.651.271.380.01
Chad1974-769.331.670.970.70
Chile31982-8423.384.302.282.01
Colombia21979-8112.212.931.341.570.03
Congo198026.8717.132.9514.150.03
Costa Rica1981-8318.263.132.900.23
Côte d’lvoire198020.332.861.381.340.14
Cyprus1981-8319.324.672.921.000.75
Dominican Rep.31981-839.742.350.901.440.02
Ecuador1981-8310.795.664.241.42
Egypt1982-8427.697.00
El Salvador1982-8411.172.421.081.030.31
Ethiopia31978-8014.893.371.281.600.49
Fiji1980-8219.1310.557.552.740.27
Gabon1976-7819.7511.600.6210.810.17
Gambia, The31976-7815.042.230.841.270.12
Ghana1983-846.321.290.750.55
Greece31979-8127.274.923.571.130.21
Grenada1975-7719.684.182.961.22
Guatemala31981-829.341.220.240.970.01
Guinea1982-8322.849.06
Guyana1982-8438.8813.624.529.10
Haiti1982-8410.792.020.371.73
Honduras1979-8113.483.801.322.450.03
Hungary31983-8453.0613.76
India11981-8314.532.400.941.330.14
Indonesia11981-8319.8716.160.4514.780.92
Iran, Islamic Rep. of31981-838.422.150.191.960.01
Note: Components may not add to totals because of rounding; … = data not available;—= negligible.Sources: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 1985, Vol. 9 (Washington, 1985) and International Financial Statistics (Washington), various issues.

Including revenue from state taxes.

Including revenue from state and local taxes.

Including revenue from local taxes.

Unweighted arithmetic mean.

Excluding Belize, Burma, Egypt, Guinea, Hungary, Jordan, Kenya, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Romania, Singapore, Western Samoa, and Yugoslavia.

Excluding Belize, Burma, Egypt, Guinea, Hungary, Kenya, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Romania, Singapore, Western Samoa, and Yugoslavia.

Excluding Egypt and Romania.

Excluding Egypt, Romania, and Yugoslavia.

Domestic Taxes on Goods ami Services
General
sales,Foreign Trade
turnover,Wealth
or value-ImportExportSocialand
Totaladded taxExcisesOtherTotaldutiesdutiesOtherSecurityPropertyOther
8.262.613.700.342.001.110.730.172.421.361.60
2.891.311.490.092.982.740.180.070.220.19
6.114.180.311.624.243.920.080.243.931.301.25
2.361.500.8610.489.790.620.070.990.191.84
2.300.751.100.459.348.580.290.471.570.040.25
2.240.280.771.190.750.520.020.211.310.190.22
0.580.320.2712.7712.710.060.08
11.280.284.256.750.790.480.316.690.391.30
2.401.120.850.435.915.260.250.391.360.170.47
6.706.030.020.432.612.61
3.593.430.165.103.581.510.010.430.960.07
2.831.341.080.414.573.910.650.011.060.350.24
3.420.991.231.216.554.971.560.021.680.070.58
1.470.920.290.275.274.500.770.190.150.65
12.549.182.480.041.921.770.162.410.901.32
4.011.960.781.272.301.500.770.021.420.301.25
2.692.450.170.074.564.440.070.052.070.020.41
5.302.272.960.074.991.313.090.594.710.110.07
5.452.161.841.459.427.132.282.070.470.06
4.613.660.954.734.734.400.630.27
3.452.940.513.112.490.470.150.500.100.24
2.181.460.690.032.742.260.320.160.160.06
5.157.587.585.300.492.18
4.892.492.060.353.050.962.090.760.05
3.871.222.330.116.943.273.680.550.16
2.371.850.526.025.610.410.080.20
1.681.500.070.046.035.280.560.060.07
0.520.130.3311.8010.281.500.020.090.510.05
1.290.161.080.043.731.342.090.30
10.065.593.311.071.411.408.290.961.63
4.201.530.222.458.975.413.290.270.571.76
3.201.971.040.191.791.060.680.061.170.091.87
1.640.601.0411.072.717.480.891.000.010.05
13.389.522.681.184.301.820.082.416.600.680.29
3.390.772.050.573.542.780.760.100.161.59
3.611.002.350.265.803.382.420.010.120.15
19.519.160.133.623.000.6210.693.691.78
8.530.135.080.043.122.980.040.110.150.32
2.271.060.991.010.840.170.310.13
0.890.120.300.472.182.180.012.330.330.54
Note: Components may not add to totals because of rounding; … = data not available;—= negligible.Sources: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 1985, Vol. 9 (Washington, 1985) and International Financial Statistics (Washington), various issues.

Including revenue from state taxes.

Including revenue from state and local taxes.

Including revenue from local taxes.

Unweighted arithmetic mean.

Excluding Belize, Burma, Egypt, Guinea, Hungary, Jordan, Kenya, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Romania, Singapore, Western Samoa, and Yugoslavia.

Excluding Belize, Burma, Egypt, Guinea, Hungary, Kenya, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Romania, Singapore, Western Samoa, and Yugoslavia.

Excluding Egypt and Romania.

Excluding Egypt, Romania, and Yugoslavia.

YearTotal

Taxes
Income Taxes
TotalIndividualCorporateOther
Israel31981-8333.8716.1311.493.351.29
Jamaica1979-8127.238.384.473.92
Jordan1981-8318.803.290.13
Kenya31980-8222.186.61
Korea1982-8416.594.372.322.05
Lesotho198334.903.902.571.33
Liberia1982-8426.5310.237.992.090.15
Madagascar31980-8215.092.581.391.19
Malawi1981-8316.606.202.713.49
Malaysia1981-8322.8110.322.288.05
Mali1982-8314.072.340.591.530.22
Malta1981-8327.0810.255.714.490.04
Mauritania1978-7915.124.894.010.770.12
Mauritius31982-8419.773.282.001.27
Mexico11981-8317.094.982.302.520.09
Morocco1981-8321.744.542.311.990.24
Nepal1980-827.120.530.380.15
Nicaragua1981-8323.622.93
Niger1978-8011.723.620.712.540.37
Nigeria1976-7817.8813.900.0113.89
Oman1982-8411.4810.2810.240.04
Pakistan1981-8312.922.49
Panama31980-8221.416.246.24
Papua New Guinea1981-8318.3910.846.124.68
Paraguay1980-829.801.711.630.08
Peru1980-8217.263.670.393.230.05
Philippines31981-8310.752.401.131.29
Portugal1981-8330.517.422.681.723.02
Romania31981-8312.290.31
Rwanda1978-8011.132.170.821.240.11
Senegal1982-8318.824.192.391.100.71
Seychelles1975-7719.346.213.822.40
Sierra Leone1982-849.342.581.291.270.03
Singapore1981-8319.289.77
Somalia1976-7819.651.641.490.15
South Africa21980-8220.3512.184.657.100.42
Sri Lanka1981-8316.692.700.741.96
Sudan1980-8211.062.040.771.170.10
Suriname198416.666.253.902.36
Swaziland1981-8323.906.773.512.890.36
Note: Components may not add to totals because of rounding; … = data not available;—= negligible.Sources: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 1985, Vol. 9 (Washington, 1985) and International Financial Statistics (Washington), various issues.

Including revenue from state taxes.

Including revenue from state and local taxes.

Including revenue from local taxes.

Unweighted arithmetic mean.

Excluding Belize, Burma, Egypt, Guinea, Hungary, Jordan, Kenya, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Romania, Singapore, Western Samoa, and Yugoslavia.

Excluding Belize, Burma, Egypt, Guinea, Hungary, Kenya, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Romania, Singapore, Western Samoa, and Yugoslavia.

Excluding Egypt and Romania.

Excluding Egypt, Romania, and Yugoslavia.

Domestic Taxes on Goods ami Services
General
sales,Foreign Trade
turnover,Wealth
or value-ImportExportSocialand
Totaladded taxExcisesOtherTotaldutiesdutiesOtherSecurityPropertyOther
9.989.030.780.151.841.710.135.041.27
14.406.456.980.971.341.341.440.571.10
2.371.940.4410.3310.331.711.10
9.206.252.210.645.215.030.190.660.12
8.494.092.511.882.792.790.220.170.55
3.923.400.5226.6625.461.200.010.39
7.530.743.233.568.097.940.090.060.280.40
6.013.441.431.133.643.170.471.880.320.67
5.994.820.890.294.304.300.010.10
4.731.501.801.437.043.853.190.150.150.42
5.622.942.460.223.012.680.290.011.140.591.37
2.101.051.057.197.196.660.780.10
3.822.510.750.566.125.950.160.011.550.18
4.310.742.221.3611.137.663.370.100.690.36
7.162.811.792.543.680.782.902.300.14
8.775.882.210.685.234.940.281.350.541.31
3.151.890.940.322.772.550.220.630.05
11.472.635.952.894.322.360.341.613.101.400.40
2.601.690.810.104.694.040.550.110.620.35
0.570.573.403.390.010.01
0.240.240.800.800.010.16
5.210.994.225.174.760.160.250.05
4.391.881.790.722.812.410.370.036.030.481.47
2.802.680.124.494.180.250.060.27
2.040.551.150.352.191.590.050.551.590.831.44
7.775.482.090.205.133.441.660.020.761.09
4.861.562.061.002.802.690.090.020.430.26
10.664.724.831.121.491.498.800.481.65
0.079.840.351.72
2.122.110.016.063.182.880.510.120.15
5.713.641.710.357.257.100.141.050.500.12
1.921.160.759.479.330.521.23
2.342.250.104.183.510.540.120.040.20
3.881.372.511.461.460.502.810.86
5.002.492.5110.7610.380.380.591.66
6.253.162.630.080.960.900.040.020.301.37
6.764.182.440.146.903.673.210.010.070.26
2.712.390.326.225.840.390.020.07
1.821.160.666.984.491.980.511.180.130.30
0.390.3916.5815.770.800.060.11
Note: Components may not add to totals because of rounding; … = data not available;—= negligible.Sources: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 1985, Vol. 9 (Washington, 1985) and International Financial Statistics (Washington), various issues.

Including revenue from state taxes.

Including revenue from state and local taxes.

Including revenue from local taxes.

Unweighted arithmetic mean.

Excluding Belize, Burma, Egypt, Guinea, Hungary, Jordan, Kenya, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Romania, Singapore, Western Samoa, and Yugoslavia.

Excluding Belize, Burma, Egypt, Guinea, Hungary, Kenya, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Romania, Singapore, Western Samoa, and Yugoslavia.

Excluding Egypt and Romania.

Excluding Egypt, Romania, and Yugoslavia.

YearTotal

Taxes
Income Taxes
TotalIndividualCorporateOther
Syrian Arab Rep.1979-819.962.472.47
Tanzania1979-8117.075.401.653.390.37
Thailand31982-8414.123.031.541.49
Togo1982-8424.4610.092.037.380.68
Trinidad and Tobago31979-8133.8328.394.5922.341.46
Tunisia31980-8225.134.952.172.260.42
Turkey1983-8416.019.167.261.780.13
Uganda31982-846.930.710.040.390.02
Uruguay1982-8418.741.420.281.070.06
Venezuela198425.5817.691.0916.60
Western Samoa198426.827.17
Yemen Arab Rep.1982-8420.492.901.870.950.07
Yugoslavia21979-8132.641.74
Zaïre1981-8317.516.563.183.370.01
Zambia1980-8222.098.433.884.180.38
Zimbabwe31981-8327.8513.547.125.850.56
Maximum53.0628.3911.4922.3411.40
Minimum5.520.31
Mean418.715.852.133.260.49
Variance61.9223.334.6517.162.15
Standard deviation7.874.832.164.141.47
Number of observations9696835835846
Note: Components may not add to totals because of rounding; … = data not available;—= negligible.Sources: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 1985, Vol. 9 (Washington, 1985) and International Financial Statistics (Washington), various issues.

Including revenue from state taxes.

Including revenue from state and local taxes.

Including revenue from local taxes.

Unweighted arithmetic mean.

Excluding Belize, Burma, Egypt, Guinea, Hungary, Jordan, Kenya, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Romania, Singapore, Western Samoa, and Yugoslavia.

Excluding Belize, Burma, Egypt, Guinea, Hungary, Kenya, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Romania, Singapore, Western Samoa, and Yugoslavia.

Excluding Egypt and Romania.

Excluding Egypt, Romania, and Yugoslavia.

Domestic Taxes on Goods ami Services
General
sales,Foreign Trade
turnover,Wealth
or value-ImportSocialand
Totaladded taxExcisesOtherTotaldutiesdutiesOtherSecurityPropertyOther
1.470.111.163.623.310.280.020.510.531.37
8.347.960.220.153.072.070.980.020.050.130.09
7.442.803.290.733.202.790.410.010.350.10
3.922.920.340.668.326.670.171.481.690.360.06
1.730.710.280.742.762.750.010.620.110.22
7.511.632.643.118.428.140.273.080.790.38
4.440.811.122.501.371.230.130.340.69
1.831.360.380.094.380.932.770.67
8.594.843.600.152.371.820.470.085.210.880.28
1.291.250.055.381.264.120.960.210.05
4.193.880.3115.2914.140.141.010.090.08
1.781.160.5912.1012.100.223.49
8.855.773.343.3417.670.130.01
4.143.011.100.035.614.321.280.010.540.020.64
10.923.147.690.101.971.950.020.650.010.10
9.596.442.830.113.593.590.850.28
19.519.527.696.7526.6625.467.484.1217.673.693.49
0.07
4.922.181.830.765.304.340.750.201.690.450.55
12.775.972.331.0015.8914.741.440.308.330.320.45
3.572.441.531.003.993.841.200.552.890.560.67
9694793893896969696969696
Note: Components may not add to totals because of rounding; … = data not available;—= negligible.Sources: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 1985, Vol. 9 (Washington, 1985) and International Financial Statistics (Washington), various issues.

Including revenue from state taxes.

Including revenue from state and local taxes.

Including revenue from local taxes.

Unweighted arithmetic mean.

Excluding Belize, Burma, Egypt, Guinea, Hungary, Jordan, Kenya, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Romania, Singapore, Western Samoa, and Yugoslavia.

Excluding Belize, Burma, Egypt, Guinea, Hungary, Kenya, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Romania, Singapore, Western Samoa, and Yugoslavia.

Excluding Egypt and Romania.

Excluding Egypt, Romania, and Yugoslavia.

Domestic Taxes on Goods ami Services
General
sales,Foreign Trade
turnover,Wealth
or value-ImportSocialand
Totaladded taxExcisesOtherTotaldutiesdutiesOtherSecurityPropertyOther
1.470.111.163.623.310.280.020.510.531.37
8.347.960.220.153.072.070.980.020.050.130.09
7.442.803.290.733.202.790.410.010.350.10
3.922.920.340.668.326.670.171.481.690.360.06
1.730.710.280.742.762.750.010.620.110.22
7.511.632.643.118.428.140.273.080.790.38
4.440.811.122.501.371.230.130.340.69
1.831.360.380.094.380.932.770.67
8.594.843.600.152.371.820.470.085.210.880.28
1.291.250.055.381.264.120.960.210.05
4.193.880.3115.2914.140.141.010.090.08
1.781.160.5912.1012.100.223.49
8.855.773.343.3417.670.130.01
4.143.011.100.035.614.321.280.010.540.020.64
10.923.147.690.101.971.950.020.650.010.10
9.596.442.830.113.593.590.850.28
19.519.527.696.7526.6625.467.484.1217.673.693.49
0.07
4.922.181.830.765.304.340.750.201.690.450.55
12.775.972.331.0015.8914.741.440.308.330.320.45
3.572.441.531.003.993.841.200.552.890.560.67
9694793893896969696969696
Note: Components may not add to totals because of rounding; … = data not available;—= negligible.Sources: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 1985, Vol. 9 (Washington, 1985) and International Financial Statistics (Washington), various issues.

Including revenue from state taxes.

Including revenue from state and local taxes.

Including revenue from local taxes.

Unweighted arithmetic mean.

Excluding Belize, Burma, Egypt, Guinea, Hungary, Jordan, Kenya, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Romania, Singapore, Western Samoa, and Yugoslavia.

Excluding Belize, Burma, Egypt, Guinea, Hungary, Kenya, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Romania, Singapore, Western Samoa, and Yugoslavia.

Excluding Egypt and Romania.

Excluding Egypt, Romania, and Yugoslavia.

Note: Components may not add to totals because of rounding; … = data not available;—= negligible.Sources: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 1985, Vol. 9 (Washington, 1985) and International Financial Statistics (Washington), various issues.

Including revenue from state taxes.

Including revenue from state and local taxes.

Including revenue from local taxes.

Unweighted arithmetic mean.

Excluding Belize, Burma, Egypt, Guinea, Hungary, Jordan, Kenya, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Romania, Singapore, Western Samoa, and Yugoslavia.

Excluding Belize, Burma, Egypt, Guinea, Hungary, Kenya, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Romania, Singapore, Western Samoa, and Yugoslavia.

Excluding Egypt and Romania.

Excluding Egypt, Romania, and Yugoslavia.

Table A3.Selected Developing Countries: Percentage Shares of Type of Tax in Total Tax Revenue, Three-Year Averages
YearTotal

Taxes
Income Taxes
TotalIndividualCorporateOther
Argentina11981-8310013.580.210.034.17
Bangladesh1978-8010015.4114.550.85
Barbados1982-8310035.3211.9621.421.94
Belize1980-8210026.08
Benin1977-7910017.193.2410.473.48
Bolivia198310014.666.264.943.46
Botswana1981-8310045.8345.83
Brazil21981-8310014.220.735.727.77
Burkina Faso1981-8310019.0211.654.213.16
Burma1980-821004.74
Burundi1979-8110021.239.3110.511.41
Cameroon1982-8410053.8010.3342.970.50
Central African Rep.198110017.738.479.210.05
Chad1974-7610018.1610.607.57
Chile31982-8410018.349.748.600.01
Colombia21979-8110023.9710.9512.800.22
Congo198010063.7510.9652.670.11
Costa Rica1981-8310017.1016.021.08
Côte d’Ivoire198010014.056.796.590.67
Cyprus1981-8310024.1415.065.183.89
Dominican Rep.31981-8310024.209.1814.790.22
Ecuador1981-8310052.4039.2413.16
Egypt1982-8410025.21
El Salvador1982-8410021.709.699.242.77
Ethiopia31978-8010022.548.6010.733.21
Fiji1980-8210055.2639.5814.281.39
Gabon1976-7810058.713.1554.700.87
Gambia, The31976-7810014.665.588.360.73
Ghana1983-8410021.5510.5211.03
Greece31979-8110018.0413.084.150.75
Grenada1975-7710021.4015.096.31
Guatemala31981-8210013.042.5210.440.08
Guinea1982-8310038.01
Guyana1982-8410035.0211.6223.40
Haiti1982-8410018.612.9015.75
Honduras1979-8110028.089.7918.110.19
Hungary31983-8410025.94
India11981-8310017.016.629.470.92
Indonesia11981-8310081.222.3074.284.64
Iran, Islamic Rep. of31981-8310025.272.2322.950.10
Israel31981-8310047.5033.929.713.87
Jamaica1979-8110030.5616.2914.27
Jordan1981-8310017.510.69
Kenya31980-8210029.80
Korea1982-8410026.3613.9712.39
Note: Components may not add to totals because of rounding; … = data not available;—= negligible.Sources: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 1985, Vol. 9 (Washington, 1985) and International Financial Statistics (Washington), various issues.

Including revenue from state taxes.

Including revenue from state and local taxes.

Including revenue from local taxes.

Unweighted arithmetic mean.

Excluding Belize, Burma, Egypt, Guinea, Hungary, Jordan, Kenya, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Romania, Singapore, Western Samoa, and Yugoslavia.

Excluding Belize, Burma, Egypt, Guinea, Hungary, Kenya, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Romania, Singapore, Western Samoa, and Yugoslavia.

Excluding Egypt and Romania.

Excluding Egypt, Romania, and Yugoslavia.

Domestic Taxes on Goods ami Services
General
sales,Foreign Trade
turnover,Wealth
or value-ImportExportSocialand
Totaladded taxExcisesOtherTotaldutiesdutiesOtherSecurityPropertyOther
45.4714.3420.451.8511.176.074.180.9213.367.548.87
38.9317.6720.111.1640.0936.792.390.913.032.55
23.5116.051.216.2516.2915.050.320.9215.105.004.78
10.997.003.9948.8845.662.910.314.590.868.59
14.034.526.742.7757.3352.681.772.889.670.251.54
40.565.0713.9921.5013.589.470.313.8123.833.393.98
2.361.291.0751.4951.260.230.31
47.331.1517.8728.323.322.021.3028.041.625.47
18.908.716.793.4146.2641.181.993.0910.781.303.74
68.5861.710.206.6726.6726.67
28.1826.921.2639.0127.7711.190.063.447.580.55
14.366.805.522.0423.3619.923.380.065.411.831.24
22.876.618.208.0743.7933.2110.450.1211.240.483.89
15.729.793.122.8156.6648.298.372.081.516.78
53.5939.2010.630.168.237.560.4510.303.915.63
32.8516.086.4110.3718.8412.326.330.1911.642.4510.25
9.999.120.620.2516.9616.520.270.177.690.091.53
28.7011.9916.350.3627.677.2517.313.1125.740.630.41
26.8210.649.077.1146.3235.0911.2310.182.530.29
23.8718.954.9224.4924.470.0222.823.281.39
35.5430.305.2431.6025.564.521.525.121.082.47
20.1813.506.420.2725.3921.012.941.451.450.58
18.6427.3727.3719.161.757.87
43.7222.0918.483.1527.298.5418.730.026.880.40
25.758.1115.520.7247.0022.1124.843.611.10
12.399.682.7131.4029.272.130.421.01
8.507.580.350.5730.5526.742.860.941.110.01
3.410.832.1878.8368.6010.120.110.593.230.35
25.882.5122.860.5152.5019.4030.422.680.010.06
36.8920.5012.143.915.135.1230.443.515.98
21.207.781.2412.1846.0327.8117.001.222.928.44
34.3421.1711.142.0319.1011.287.220.6112.530.9720.02
6.052.343.7150.4712.5433.884.055.180.060.23
34.4324.506.893.0411.074.660.216.2016.961.760.75
32.327.8019.195.3333.1426.017.140.991.4913.45
26.827.4417.421.9643.1225.1317.940.050.871.10
36.7717.270.136.825.651.1820.166.963.36
57.690.9436.490.2622.3421.250.290.801.001.96
11.505.365.015.044.210.821.590.66
10.681.413.575.7026.0826.020.0627.643.896.44
29.6026.762.330.445.495.020.4714.873.540.01
53.1023.7425.743.624.924.925.232.104.08
12.6010.272.3355.0055.009.085.82
41.4628.029.413.0325.2124.580.632.980.55
51.1624.6815.1211.3616.8016.801.331.053.30
Note: Components may not add to totals because of rounding; … = data not available;—= negligible.Sources: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 1985, Vol. 9 (Washington, 1985) and International Financial Statistics (Washington), various issues.

Including revenue from state taxes.

Including revenue from state and local taxes.

Including revenue from local taxes.

Unweighted arithmetic mean.

Excluding Belize, Burma, Egypt, Guinea, Hungary, Jordan, Kenya, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Romania, Singapore, Western Samoa, and Yugoslavia.

Excluding Belize, Burma, Egypt, Guinea, Hungary, Kenya, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Romania, Singapore, Western Samoa, and Yugoslavia.

Excluding Egypt and Romania.

Excluding Egypt, Romania, and Yugoslavia.

YearTotal

Taxes
Income Taxes
TotalIndividualCorporateOther
Lesotho198310011.197.383.81
Liberia1982-8410038.5930.147.870.57
Madagascar31980-8210017.019.197.82
Malawi1981-8310037.3216.3121.01
Malaysia1981-8310045.269.9835.270.01
Mali1982-8310016.644.2410.811.59
Malta1981-8310037.8621.0716.640.15
Mauritania1978-7910032.2226.345.060.82
Mauritius31982-8410016.6910.166.52
Mexico11981-8310024.0813.4414.740.52
Morocco1981-8310020.8610.619.151.10
Nepal1980-821007.405.312.09
Nicaragua1981-8310012.34
Niger1978-8010030.976.0921.723.16
Nigeria1976-7810077.200.0777.13
Oman1982-8410089.5489.180.36
Pakistan1981-8310019.29
Panama31980-8210029.1229.12
Papua New Guinea1981-8310058.7633.3925.15
Paraguay1980-8210017.4416.610.83
Peru1980-8210020.892.2818.340.27
Philippines31981-8310022.3510.5212.010.02
Portugal1981-8310024.288.775.679.85
Romania31981-831002.50
Rwanda1978-8010019.527.3411.200.97
Senegal1982-8310022.2512.695.853.71
Seychelles1975-7710032.1119.7612.36
Sierra Leone1982-8410027.9414.0313.670.23
Singapore1981-8310050.66
Somalia1976-781008.597.820.77
South Africa21980-8210059.9122.8035.012.09
Sri Lanka1981-8310016.244.4511.80
Sudan1980-8210018.446.9610.620.87
Suriname198410037.5423.3914.14
Swaziland1981-8310028.6414.8712.221.55
Syrian Arab Rep.1979-8110025.1925.19
Tanzania1979-8110031.639.6219.832.18
Thailand31982-8410021.4510.8710.58
Togo1982-8410041.348.3430.192.80
Trinidad and Tobago31979-8110083.8213.6066.054.18
Note: Components may not add to totals because of rounding; … = data not available;—= negligible.Sources: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 1985, Vol. 9 (Washington, 1985) and International Financial Statistics (Washington), various issues.

Including revenue from state taxes.

Including revenue from state and local taxes.

Including revenue from local taxes.

Unweighted arithmetic mean.

Excluding Belize, Burma, Egypt, Guinea, Hungary, Jordan, Kenya, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Romania, Singapore, Western Samoa, and Yugoslavia.

Excluding Belize, Burma, Egypt, Guinea, Hungary, Kenya, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Romania, Singapore, Western Samoa, and Yugoslavia.

Excluding Egypt and Romania.

Excluding Egypt, Romania, and Yugoslavia.

Domestic Taxes on Goods ami Services
General
sales,Foreign Trade
turnover,Wealth
or value-ImportExportSocialand
Totaladded taxExcisesOtherTotaldutiesdutiesOtherSecurityPropertyOther
11.239.741.5076.4172.963.450.041.13
28.362.7912.1813.3930.4829.930.340.211.041.53
40.0123.039.507.4923.9220.753.1712.592.114.36
36.1129.055.331.7325.9125.910.060.61
20.736.557.896.3030.8416.9013.940.650.661.86
39.8520.9317.341.5821.4319.092.050.298.124.209.75
7.783.903.8826.5326.5324.602.870.36
25.2216.655.013.5640.7139.531.120.0710.351.23
21.763.5411.326.9156.2038.5517.150.503.501.85
42.7916.5710.5715.5221.174.5416.6313.480.81
40.3527.0710.173.1224.0422.751.296.202.506.04
44.1826.4813.234.4838.9435.813.138.830.65
48.6011.2425.3512.0218.2110.231.636.3513.225.921.71
22.2614.436.960.8740.0134.384.700.925.262.98
3.333.3319.4119.370.040.05
2.071.376.986.940.041.41
40.357.6932.6639.9936.871.231.880.350.02
20.508.768.363.3813.1111.261.710.1328.172.246.86
15.2714.600.6724.5122.821.380.301.47
20.795.6111.703.4922.4016.260.565.5816.258.4714.65
45.2031.8312.201.1729.7020.119.450.144.416.30
45.2014.4919.129.2726.0025.040.800.164.032.42
34.9315.4815.803.654.904.890.0128.891.585.42
0.5780.072.8913.97
19.2119.070.1454.2328.8125.424.611.101.34
30.3419.419.081.8638.5237.740.760.035.612.650.63
9.876.013.8648.8948.182.666.46
25.1724.011.1644.1937.395.641.160.442.27
20.137.1113.027.577.572.5914.554.50
26.1915.1713.0153.9551.991.962.908.37
30.7015.4812.950.384.694.410.190.091.466.73
40.5025.0314.640.8341.2921.9819.250.050.431.53
24.3521.502.8556.3852.853.530.210.62
10.906.963.9441.8826.9611.873.057.080.781.83
1.651.6568.9765.263.710.270.47
14.801.0113.7936.3333.322.760.255.155.2313.29
48.8146.591.330.9017.9812.145.740.100.280.780.51
52.6919.8123.325.1422.6419.672.890.082.490.73
16.0411.911.402.7333.9727.220.726.036.921.480.25
5.162.120.842.208.188.160.031.850.320.66
Note: Components may not add to totals because of rounding; … = data not available;—= negligible.Sources: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 1985, Vol. 9 (Washington, 1985) and International Financial Statistics (Washington), various issues.

Including revenue from state taxes.

Including revenue from state and local taxes.

Including revenue from local taxes.

Unweighted arithmetic mean.

Excluding Belize, Burma, Egypt, Guinea, Hungary, Jordan, Kenya, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Romania, Singapore, Western Samoa, and Yugoslavia.

Excluding Belize, Burma, Egypt, Guinea, Hungary, Kenya, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Romania, Singapore, Western Samoa, and Yugoslavia.

Excluding Egypt and Romania.

Excluding Egypt, Romania, and Yugoslavia.

YearTotal

Taxes
Income Taxes
TotalIndividualCorporateOther
Income Taxes
YearTotal TaxesTotalIndividualCorporateOther
Tunisia31980-8210019.698.648.971.67
Turkey1983-8410056.8545.1911.270.39
Uganda31982-8410010.900.695.700.39
Uruguay1982-841007.541.545.670.32
Venezuela198410069.154.2464.90
Western Samoa198410026.72
Yemen Arab Rep.1982-8410014.159.134.650.36
Yugoslavia21979-811005.33
Zaïre1981-8310037.4418.2019.210.03
Zambia1980-8210038.1017.5518.841.71
Zimbabwe31981-8310048.8925.6721.162.06
Maximum10089.5445.1989.1845.83
Minimum1002.50
Mean410029.4010.9216.982.49
Variance330.4781.86332.6043.41
Standard deviation18.189.0518.246.59
Number of observations9696835835846
Note: Components may not add to totals because of rounding; … = data not available;—= negligible.Sources: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 1985, Vol. 9 (Washington, 1985) and International Financial Statistics (Washington), various issues.

Including revenue from state taxes.

Including revenue from state and local taxes.

Including revenue from local taxes.

Unweighted arithmetic mean.

Excluding Belize, Burma, Egypt, Guinea, Hungary, Jordan, Kenya, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Romania, Singapore, Western Samoa, and Yugoslavia.

Excluding Belize, Burma, Egypt, Guinea, Hungary, Kenya, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Romania, Singapore, Western Samoa, and Yugoslavia.

Excluding Egypt and Romania.

Excluding Egypt, Romania, and Yugoslavia.

Domestic Taxes on Goods ami Services
General
sales,Foreign Trade
turnover,Wealth
or value-ImportExportSocialand
Totaladded taxExcisesOtherTotaldutiesdutiesOtherSecurityPropertyOther
29.926.5010.5112.4433.4532.351.1012.273.161.51
27.245.606.6814.969.478.890.581.964.48
27.1019.925.881.3061.9614.6138.558.810.04
45.8725.8619.230.7812.669.732.480.4527.804.661.47
5.064.880.1821.044.9316.113.740.830.19
15.6214.481.1557.0152.710.533.770.340.30
8.685.692.8959.1259.121.0616.99
27.2017.7810.1510.1554.160.410.03
23.6317.186.270.1832.0924.687.360.043.100.093.65
49.5114.2434.820.468.918.830.082.960.050.47
34.3823.0310.190.4012.6212.623.081.04
68.5861.7136.4928.3278.8372.9638.5516.1180.0714.5520.02
0.57
26.9411.4510.954.2630.2924.255.041.008.032.403.23
225.26134.5172.6525.36325.39268.2463.475.23153.046.5317.25
15.0111.608.525.0418.0416.387.972.2912.372.564.15
9694793893896969696969696
Note: Components may not add to totals because of rounding; … = data not available;—= negligible.Sources: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 1985, Vol. 9 (Washington, 1985) and International Financial Statistics (Washington), various issues.

Including revenue from state taxes.

Including revenue from state and local taxes.

Including revenue from local taxes.

Unweighted arithmetic mean.

Excluding Belize, Burma, Egypt, Guinea, Hungary, Jordan, Kenya, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Romania, Singapore, Western Samoa, and Yugoslavia.

Excluding Belize, Burma, Egypt, Guinea, Hungary, Kenya, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Romania, Singapore, Western Samoa, and Yugoslavia.

Excluding Egypt and Romania.

Excluding Egypt, Romania, and Yugoslavia.

Note: Components may not add to totals because of rounding; … = data not available;—= negligible.Sources: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 1985, Vol. 9 (Washington, 1985) and International Financial Statistics (Washington), various issues.

Including revenue from state taxes.

Including revenue from state and local taxes.

Including revenue from local taxes.

Unweighted arithmetic mean.

Excluding Belize, Burma, Egypt, Guinea, Hungary, Jordan, Kenya, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Romania, Singapore, Western Samoa, and Yugoslavia.

Excluding Belize, Burma, Egypt, Guinea, Hungary, Kenya, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Romania, Singapore, Western Samoa, and Yugoslavia.

Excluding Egypt and Romania.

Excluding Egypt, Romania, and Yugoslavia.

Table A4.Selected Industrial and Developing Countries: Revenue Significance of Individual Income Tax, Five-Year Averages(In percent)
Ratio of Individual

Income Tax
YearTo GDPTo total

tax revenue
Industrial countries
United States1978-829.5548.51
Canada1977-816.4241.22
Australia1978-8213.3555.19
Japan1977-814.1236.72
New Zealand1977-8119.0464.61
Austria1977-816.0118.78
Belgium1977-8113.9933.92
Denmark1978-8211.4236.62
Finland1977-817.6028.47
France1978-824.8913.07
Germany. Fed. Rep. of1977-814.2816.00
Iceland1977-812.419.21
Ireland1977-8110.4332.08
Italy1977-817.8024.91
Luxembourg1977-8110.1028.94
Netherlands1978-8211.5426.23
Norway1977-815.2314.45
Spain1976-803.3215.43
Sweden1978-825.7917.46
Switzerland1977-812.3012.57
United Kingdom1978-8210.9035.40
Maximum19.0464.61
Minimum2.309.21
Average8.1229.04
Variance17.85210.44
Standard deviation4.2214.51
Number of observations2121
Developing countries
Oil exporting countries
Indonesia1977-810.432.35
Iran, Islamic Rep. of1977-810.181.97
N igeria1974-780.040.18
Venezuela1978-820.994.40
Non-oil developing countries
Africa
Burundi1977-810.998.04
Cameroon1978-822.4413.23
Central African Rep.19811.278.47
Chad1973-760.9810.16
Congo1976-802.258.96
Côte d’lvoire19801.396.74
Ethiopia1974-781.1610.29
Gabon1973-760.663.27
Ghana1978-820.8612.65
Kenya1973-771.247.37
Lesotho1973-771.919.33
Liberia1977-813.9917.47
Mauritania1975-793.7622.05
Mauritius1977-812.6112.64
Morocco1977-811.826.01
Niger1976-800.676.70
Rwanda1976-800.746.70
Senegal1977-812.0410.72
Sierra Leone1977-811.097.09
Somalia1974-781.297.73
South Africa1976-804.7725.19
Sudan1976-800.473.97
Tanzania1977-811.206.69
Togo1977-801.375.17
Tunisia1977-812.234.01
Uganda1977-810.071.91
Zaïre1977-813.2219.48
Zambia1977-814.5119.72
Zimbabwe1977-815.8228.36
Asia
Fiji1977-817.4840.54
India1977-811.1610.92
Korea1977-812.3214.25
Malaysia1977-812.109.48
Nepal1977-810.385.79
Pakistan1976-800.988.45
Papua New Guinea1977-814.7228.60
Philippines1977-811.5113.48
Sri Lanka1977-810.733.81
Thailand1978-821.179.19
Europe
Cyprus1977-812.3214.21
Grecce1974-782.8110.66
Malta1976-804.7918.97
Portugal1976-802.088.08
Turkey1977-817.8945.54
Middle East
Jordan1975-790.723.84
Yemen Arab Rep.1977-810.703.86
Western Hemisphere
Argentina1977-810.020.18
Barbados1977-815.6622.68
Bolivia1978-820.7610.88
Brazil1977-810.170.98
Chile1978-822.7511 .29
Colombia1975-791.6715.29
Dominican Rep.1977-810.927.98
El Salvador1978-821.119.42
Guyana1975-793.6912.20
Honduras1977-811.329.93
Jamaica1975-774.6119.93
Mexico1977-812.4918.29
Paraguay1975-790.040.37
Pern1977-810.472.95
Suriname1973-761.988.50
Trinidad and Tobago1977-814.1012.46
Maximum7.8945.54
Minimum0.020.18
Average2.0311.19
Variance3.0974.11
Standard deviation1.768.61
Number of observations6666
Source: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 1983, Vol. 7 (Washington, 1983).
Source: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 1983, Vol. 7 (Washington, 1983).
Table A5.Selected Industrial and Developing Countries: Proportion of Individual Income Taxpayers in Total Population(In percent)
YearProportion of Taxpayers

in Total Population
industrial countries
United States198040.84
Canada197957.64
Australia1979/8039.03
Japan198028.57
New Zealand197649.87
Austria197650.39
Belgium197734.88
Denmark198077.80
Finland197970.54
Germany, Fed. Rep. of197834.25
Ireland1979/8024.91
Netherlands197541.49
Norway197952.60
United Kingdom1978/7943.53
Maximum77. 80
Minimum24.91
Average46.17
Variance226.02
Standard deviation15.03
Number of observations14
Developing countries
Brazil19815.89
Cyprus198010.00
India19780.30
Indonesia19730.14
Kenya19780.56
Korea19813.73
Malaysia19796.95
Papua New Guinea19793.79
Philippines19796.33
Singapore19802.18
Thailand19804.39
Turkey197611.88
Maximum11.88
Minimum0.14
Average4.68
Variance14.03
Standard deviation3.75
Number of observations12
Sources: Computed from annual reports of the taxation departments of various countries; International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics (Washington), various issues; and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Tax Elasticities of Central Government Personal Income Tax Systems: A Report by the Committee on Fiscal Affairs (Paris, 1984).
Sources: Computed from annual reports of the taxation departments of various countries; International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics (Washington), various issues; and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Tax Elasticities of Central Government Personal Income Tax Systems: A Report by the Committee on Fiscal Affairs (Paris, 1984).
Table A6.Selected Industrial and Developing Countries: Proportion of Income Assessed to Individual Income Tax in Gross Domestic Product(In percent)
YearProportion of Income

Assessed to GDP
Industrial countries
United States198062.52
Canada197965.38
Australia1979/8059.95
Japan198040.42
New Zealand197656.07
Austria197648.45
Belgium197747.66
Denmark198084.32
Finland197956.31
Germany, Fed. Rep. of197847.39
Ireland1979/8054.15
Netherlands197549.61
Norway197952.13
Sweden197965.25
United Kingdom1978/7963.42
Maximum84.32
Minimum40.42
Average56.87
Variance112.87
Standard deviation10.62
Number of observations15
Developing countries
Brazil19813.15
Cyprus198023.39
India19704.36
Korea198123.58
Singapore198027.61
Thailand19758.83
Turkey19766.32
Maximum27.61
Minimum3.14
Average13.89
Variance110.24
Standard deviation10.50
Number of observations7
Sources: Computed from annual reports of the taxation departments of various countries; International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics (Washington), various issues; and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Tax Elasticities of Central Government Personal Income Tax Systems: A Report by the Committee on Fiscal Affairs (Paris, 1984).
Sources: Computed from annual reports of the taxation departments of various countries; International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics (Washington), various issues; and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Tax Elasticities of Central Government Personal Income Tax Systems: A Report by the Committee on Fiscal Affairs (Paris, 1984).
Table A7.Selected Industrial and Developing Countries: Proportion of Individual Income Tax Collected from Wage and Salary Incomes(In percent)
YearProportion of Tax
Industrial countries
Canada198082.05
Japan198181.54
Luxembourg198168.36
Netherlands198282.02
Sweden198293.86
United Kingdom198181.68
United States198283.64
Average81.88
Developing countries
Benin197992.96
Cameroon198216.82
Chad197663.44
Côte d’lvoire198044.23
Cyprus198073.23
Djibouti198099.02
Gabon197692.84
India197825.28
Indonesia1973/7469.46
Israel198059.82
Kenya197695.32
Korea197557.73
Mali198133.57
Mauritania197958.18
Mexico198174.96
Morocco198176.33
Niger198062.31
Romania1976100.00
Rwada1980100.00
Singapore198269.12
Thailand197578.04
Togo198048.16
Turkey197667.40
Upper Volta198084.99
Zaïre198194.78
Zambia198194.78
Average72.41
Sources: Computed from annual reports of the taxation departments of various countries; and International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 1983, Vol. 7 (Washington, 1983).
Sources: Computed from annual reports of the taxation departments of various countries; and International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 1983, Vol. 7 (Washington, 1983).
Table A8.Selected Industrial and Developing Countries: Proportion of Individual Income Tax Collected Through Tax-Withholding Schemes(In percent)
YearProportion of

Withholding Taxes
Industrial countries
United States197891.00
Australia197889.00
Denmark197887.00
Finland197883.00
France197863.001
Ireland197890.00
Netherlands197895.00
Norway197895.00
Sweden197891.00
United Kingdom197889.00
Average85.80
Developing countries
Brazil198180.88
Greece197860.00
India1978/7937.06
Jamaica1981/8293.09
Kenya197875.10
Korea198159.58
Philippines197977.51
Portugal197854.00
Thailand198276.65
Turkey197669.80
Average68.37
Sources: Computed from annual reports of the taxation departments of various countries; and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Income Tax Collection Lags: A Report by the Committee on Fiscal Affairs (Paris, 1983).

Including prepayments and monthly withholding.

Sources: Computed from annual reports of the taxation departments of various countries; and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Income Tax Collection Lags: A Report by the Committee on Fiscal Affairs (Paris, 1983).

Including prepayments and monthly withholding.

Table A9.Selected Developing Countries: Characteristics of the Existing Nominal Income Tax Rate Schedule, Around 1985

(Tax rates in percent; income levels in U.S. dollars and as multiples of per capita gross domestic product in parentheses)1,2

MinimumIncome LevelMedianIncome LevelMaximumIncome Level
Tax Hateup to3Tax Rate4ExceedingTax RateExceeding
Argentina75,180(2.9)2630,210(13.5)4564,750(29.0)
Brazil01.546(0.9)306,418(3.7)6048,992(28.5)
Chile03,120(1.8)2521,840(12.8)5046,600(27.5)
Colombia10917(1.2)(…)4937,747(…)
Côte d’ Ivoire0795(1.1)357,000(9.9)6026,730(37.9)
Cyprus02,968(0.8)308,905(2.4)6029,670(8.1)
Egypt02,860(3.0)4085,800(89.6)65286,000(298.5)
Ghana085(0.2)30534(1.5)601,250(3.6)
Guyana5120(0.2)252,482(4.1)7057,970(13.3)
India01,480(6.3)302,055(8.7)508,220(34.9)
Indonesia158,890(18.6)258,890(18.6)3544,445(93.1)
Israel205,124(0.8)359,897(1.6)6016,685(4.1)
Jamaica01,565(2.1)33.31,566(2.1)33.31,566(2.1)
Kenya102,210(7.7)356,635(23.0)6515,480(53.8)
Korea62,022(1.1)2714,040(7.6)5567,400(36.3)
Malaysia51,030(0.5)2514,400(6.7)4041,150(10.1)
Mexico63.3272(0.2)28.65,690(3.6)60.586,090(55.1)
Morocco0625(1.0)303,740(6.1)6031,185(50.8)
Nigeria102,000(3.2)4010,000(16.2)7530,000(48.7)
Pikistan01,500(4.8)254,630(14.9)4514,020(45.1)
Papua New Guinea0945(1.4)286,060(9.5)5030,300(47.4)
Peru01,335(2.3)2410,670(18.6)4832,000(55.9)
Philippines70130(0.2)193,150(19.2)3526,275(44.6)
Singapore42,370(0.3)2216,590(2.3)40355,450(48.8)
Sudan801,200(6.4)(…)40(…)
Syrian Arab Rep.714510(0.3)301,275(0.7)605,100(2.6)
Thailand71,500(2.0)3011,260(14.7)5575,050(97.9)
Trinidad and Tobago5555(0.1)354,170(0.9)7022,225(4.7)
Tunisia901,710(1.5)425,265(4.5)80131,580(112.4)
Turkey255,180(8.0)3510,365(15.9)5082,920(127.4)
Venezuela4.52,665(0.9)28106,665(37.1)451,066,650(370.6)
Zaïre080(1.3)301,840(30.6)6055.377(89.4)
Note: … = relevant information not available.Source: Based on Jitendra R. Modi, “Levels of Personal Income Taxation in Selected Developing Countries” (unpublished, International Monetary Fund, February 1985).

Income levels are rounded to the nearest figure. Tax rates and corresponding income levels reflect some major adjustments (which follow supply-side policy recommendations) to the statutory tax rate schedules that some of these countries have introduced in recent years. These include reductions in tax rates ranging from 0-66 percent to 0-50 percent by India; 0-55 percent to 0-33.3 percent by Jamaica; 6-60 percent to 6-55 percent by Korea; 6-55 percent to 5-40 percent by Malaysia; 0-66 percent to 0-45 percent by Pakistan; 0-65 percent to 0-48 percent by Peru; 0-70 percent to 0-40 percent by Sudan; and 0-65 percent to 0-55 percent by Thailand and Venezuela. In contrast, tax rates were raised from 0-55 percent to 0-66 percent by Egypt, from 0-45 percent to 0-60 percent by Morocco, and from 10-70 percent to 10-75 percent by Nigeria.

Conversion of income levels in U.S. dollars is based on the market rate or par/central rate (line ae or ag) for 1985 published in International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics (Washington), September 1986. Per capita GDP data are based on GDP at current market rates and population data published in IFS and World Bank, World Development Report, 1986 (Washington), respectively, for the year nearest to the one in which tax rates are in force. In some instances (e.g., Argentina and Cyprus), data represent estimates.

Income levels are defined as chargeable (or taxable) incomes in the tax schedules of all countries with some very minor exceptions where the tax rate schedules are defined with reference to total or annual incomes.

The median tax rate is the rate which, in each country’s schedule of nominal tax rates, lies midway between the maximum and minimum tax rates.

However, in practice, the maximum applicable marginal rate is restricted to 50 percent.

Tax rates include earthquake relief levy equivalent to 10 percent of tax due.

On employment income in the Philippines and on rental income in the Syrian Arab Republic; different schedules of tax rates apply to other income.

Refers to social justice tax in lieu of individual income tax.

Refers to surtax (CPE) on individuals.

Note: … = relevant information not available.Source: Based on Jitendra R. Modi, “Levels of Personal Income Taxation in Selected Developing Countries” (unpublished, International Monetary Fund, February 1985).

Income levels are rounded to the nearest figure. Tax rates and corresponding income levels reflect some major adjustments (which follow supply-side policy recommendations) to the statutory tax rate schedules that some of these countries have introduced in recent years. These include reductions in tax rates ranging from 0-66 percent to 0-50 percent by India; 0-55 percent to 0-33.3 percent by Jamaica; 6-60 percent to 6-55 percent by Korea; 6-55 percent to 5-40 percent by Malaysia; 0-66 percent to 0-45 percent by Pakistan; 0-65 percent to 0-48 percent by Peru; 0-70 percent to 0-40 percent by Sudan; and 0-65 percent to 0-55 percent by Thailand and Venezuela. In contrast, tax rates were raised from 0-55 percent to 0-66 percent by Egypt, from 0-45 percent to 0-60 percent by Morocco, and from 10-70 percent to 10-75 percent by Nigeria.

Conversion of income levels in U.S. dollars is based on the market rate or par/central rate (line ae or ag) for 1985 published in International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics (Washington), September 1986. Per capita GDP data are based on GDP at current market rates and population data published in IFS and World Bank, World Development Report, 1986 (Washington), respectively, for the year nearest to the one in which tax rates are in force. In some instances (e.g., Argentina and Cyprus), data represent estimates.

Income levels are defined as chargeable (or taxable) incomes in the tax schedules of all countries with some very minor exceptions where the tax rate schedules are defined with reference to total or annual incomes.

The median tax rate is the rate which, in each country’s schedule of nominal tax rates, lies midway between the maximum and minimum tax rates.

However, in practice, the maximum applicable marginal rate is restricted to 50 percent.

Tax rates include earthquake relief levy equivalent to 10 percent of tax due.

On employment income in the Philippines and on rental income in the Syrian Arab Republic; different schedules of tax rates apply to other income.

Refers to social justice tax in lieu of individual income tax.

Refers to surtax (CPE) on individuals.

Table A10.Selected Developing Countries: Tax Deductions and Exemptions Provided for Promotion of Personal Savings Under Individual Income Tax
DeductionsExemptions
ContributionsInterestInterestInterest
Lifeto pensionon demandfrom otheron certainOther
insuranceand retire-and timefinancialpublicinterest
premiumsment fundsOther1depositsinstitutions2sector bondsearnings3Dividend earnings4
ArgentinaArgentinaArgentinaArgentinaArgentinaArgentina
BrazilBrazilBrazil
ColombiaColombia5Colombia
CyprusCyprusCyprusCyprusCyprusCyprus6
EgyptEgyptEgyptEgyptEgyptEgyptEgypt7
GhanaGhanaGhanaGhanaGhana8
GuyanaGuyana
IndiaIndiaIndiaIndiaIndiaIndiaIndiaIndia9
IndonesiaIndonesiaIndonesiaIndonesiaIndonesia10
IsraelIsrael
Côte d’IvoireCôte d’Ivoire11
JamaicaJamaicaJamaicaJamaicaJamaica
KenyaKenyaKenyaKenvaKenya12Kenya12
KoreaKorea13Korea13Korea13Korea13
MalaysiaMalaysiaMalaysiaMalaysiaMalaysia14
Mexico15Mexico15Mexico
Morocco
NigeriaNigeriaNigeriaNigeria16
PakistanPakistanPakistanPakistanPakistan16Pakistan17Pakistan18
Papua New Guinea19
PeruPeru20PeruPeru20
PhilippinesPhilippines
SingaporeSingaporeSingapore21Singapore21SingaporeSingapore21
Sudan
Syrian Arab

Rep.
ThailandThailandThailandThailand22Thailand23
Trinidad andTrinidad andTrinidad andTrinidad and
TobagoTobago24TobagoTobago
TunisiaTunisia25Tunisia25
VenezuelaVenezuelaVenezuelaVenezuelaVenezuelaVenezuela26Venezuela27
Zaïre28Zaïre28
Note: … = information not available;—= does not apply.Source: Based on Jitendra R. Modi, “Levels of Personal Income Taxation in Selected Developing Countries” (unpublished, International Monetary Fund, February 1985).

Such as subscriptions to shares of an approved company, unit-linked insurance plan, Investment Fund, special government bonds, credit union and cooperative shares, and employees’ savings funds.

Such as post office savings, development or housing banks, and investment trusts.

Such as interest paid on foreign loans or accruing to nonresident account holders.

Other than from “tax holiday” companies and stock dividends.

On some pre-1974 securities only.

Up to specified amounts received from public companies.

Interest mainly on joint stock companies’ bonds.

If held by nonresidents.

Up to specified amounts received from domestic companies and an additional amount received from the Unit Trust of India.

“Participation” dividends, that is, if the shareholder is entitled to participate in the enterprise’s profits.

On treasury bills.

On tax reserve certificates and on specified government securities held by nonresidents.

Minor amounts earned on bank accounts, specified government bonds, and investments.

Specified maximum on unit trust holdings.

Contributions to institutions authorized by the Treasury Department.

On government savings certificates.

Payable by an industrial undertaking and nonresident account holdings.

Up to specified amounts received by resident taxpayers from all public and “listed” private companies and by nonresidents from the State Enterprises Mutual Fund.

Arising from revaluation of assets and dividends paid to nonresident shareholders in petroleum companies.

Reinvestment of income free of tax, in certain enterprises.

From approved banks, post office savings bank, and Asian Eurodollar bonds held by nonresidents.

On long-term foreign currency borrowing registered with the central bank and up to a specified rate of interest (8.5 percent) on savings deposits with the lotteries, on savings deposits with the Government, and on time deposits with the cooperatives.

Specified amount of dividends from “listed” (on local stock exchange) companies.

Deferred annuity premiums.

Reinvested interest income.

On loans from foreign governments and international public financial organizations.

From public companies and up to 50 percent from “listed” companies.

On compulsory employer schemes.

Note: … = information not available;—= does not apply.Source: Based on Jitendra R. Modi, “Levels of Personal Income Taxation in Selected Developing Countries” (unpublished, International Monetary Fund, February 1985).

Such as subscriptions to shares of an approved company, unit-linked insurance plan, Investment Fund, special government bonds, credit union and cooperative shares, and employees’ savings funds.

Such as post office savings, development or housing banks, and investment trusts.

Such as interest paid on foreign loans or accruing to nonresident account holders.

Other than from “tax holiday” companies and stock dividends.

On some pre-1974 securities only.

Up to specified amounts received from public companies.

Interest mainly on joint stock companies’ bonds.

If held by nonresidents.

Up to specified amounts received from domestic companies and an additional amount received from the Unit Trust of India.

“Participation” dividends, that is, if the shareholder is entitled to participate in the enterprise’s profits.

On treasury bills.

On tax reserve certificates and on specified government securities held by nonresidents.

Minor amounts earned on bank accounts, specified government bonds, and investments.

Specified maximum on unit trust holdings.

Contributions to institutions authorized by the Treasury Department.

On government savings certificates.

Payable by an industrial undertaking and nonresident account holdings.

Up to specified amounts received by resident taxpayers from all public and “listed” private companies and by nonresidents from the State Enterprises Mutual Fund.

Arising from revaluation of assets and dividends paid to nonresident shareholders in petroleum companies.

Reinvestment of income free of tax, in certain enterprises.

From approved banks, post office savings bank, and Asian Eurodollar bonds held by nonresidents.

On long-term foreign currency borrowing registered with the central bank and up to a specified rate of interest (8.5 percent) on savings deposits with the lotteries, on savings deposits with the Government, and on time deposits with the cooperatives.

Specified amount of dividends from “listed” (on local stock exchange) companies.

Deferred annuity premiums.

Reinvested interest income.

On loans from foreign governments and international public financial organizations.

From public companies and up to 50 percent from “listed” companies.

On compulsory employer schemes.

Table A11.Selected Developing Countries: Final Withholding Tax Rates Payable on Certain Investment Incomes
Final

Withholding

Tax
Relevant

Maximum

Nominal

Tax Rate
Source of Income(In percent)
ArgentinaInterest and dividends received by nonregistered taxpayers5-1745
BrazilDividends on nonhearer shares1560
KoreaSpecified interest and dividends5-2555
MexicoFixed income from bank deposits, bonds, debentures, and mortgage certificates2155
PeruBearer bonds4048
PhilippinesDividends and interest on savings and time deposits15-2060
ThailandInterest on government bonds or debentures; interest on deposits with cooperatives; and specified interest received on deposits from finance companies1 or banks21555
TunisiaInterest on deposits and reinvested dividends11.5-16.780
VenezuelaDividends from mining companies2045
ZaïreAll interest and dividend earnings1560
Source: Based on Jitendra R. Modi, “Levels of Personal Income Taxation in Selected Developing Countries” (unpublished, International Monetary Fund, February 1985).

Established to lend money for the promotion of agriculture, commerce, or industry.

Interest exceeding the specified rate (8.5 percent) on savings deposits with the lotteries, on savings deposits with the Government, and on time deposits with the cooperatives.

Source: Based on Jitendra R. Modi, “Levels of Personal Income Taxation in Selected Developing Countries” (unpublished, International Monetary Fund, February 1985).

Established to lend money for the promotion of agriculture, commerce, or industry.

Interest exceeding the specified rate (8.5 percent) on savings deposits with the lotteries, on savings deposits with the Government, and on time deposits with the cooperatives.

Table A12.Selected Developing Countries: Minimum Income at Which Individual Income Tax Applies to a “Representative Taxpayer”1 in 1985

(In multiples of per capita gross domestic product)2

Threshold

Income Level
Argentina2.3
Brazil1.6
Chile2.0
Colombia1.5
Cyprus1.2
Egypt1.1
Ghana0.4
Guyana1.6
India6.3
Indonesia4 5
Jamaica2.1
Kenya1.7
Korea0.7
Malaysia1.6
Mexico1.1
Morocco1.8
Nigeria3.3
Pakistan4.8
Papua New Guinea3.3
Peru5.8
Philippines1.5
Singapore0.3
Thailand1.4
Trinidad and Tobago0.3
Tunisia1.8
Turkey0.2
Venezuela1.1
Zaïre1.7
Source: Based on Jitendra R. Modi, “Levels of Personal Income Taxation in Selected Developing Countries” (unpublished, International Monetary Fund, February 1985).

A married person with a nonworking spouse and two dependents.

At current market prices.

Source: Based on Jitendra R. Modi, “Levels of Personal Income Taxation in Selected Developing Countries” (unpublished, International Monetary Fund, February 1985).

A married person with a nonworking spouse and two dependents.

At current market prices.

Table A13.Selected Developing Countries: Nominal Tax Rates Applicable to Corporate Profits11
Regular Tax

Rate (RTR)
Special Tax

Rate (STR)
Comments
Argentina3345Special tax rate (STR) on branches of foreign corporations.
Brazil356STRs on agriculture and public transportation companies.
Chile3710STR on undistributed income.
Colombia40VariesRegular tax rate (RTR) subject to reduction in proportion to additional investment under certain conditions.
Côte d’lvoire40NoneRTR excludes 10 percent national contribution tax which is refundable on reinvestment.
Cyprus42.525;4.25STRs on public and offshore companies, respectively.
Egypt4032-42.5STRs on industrial or export activities and on oil exploration and oil producing companies.
Ghana5535-45;45;50STRs on wholly Ghanaian-owned small companies: on agriculture and mining companies; and on industrial companies.
Guyana554520 percentage points of RTR is company income tax which is creditable to shareholder; STRs apply to nontrading and life insurance profits (for the latter the entire tax is creditable to taxpayer).
India5055-60;20-65Tax rates exclusive of 5 percent surcharge (refundable if deposited with Industrial Development Bank); STRs on closely held companies and on specific earnings of foreign companies.
Indonesia15-3535STR on certain mining companies in first ten years of operation plus 60 percent tax on profit in excess of standard return (15 percent) on investment.
Israel6110-25;30;52RTR comprises income tax of 35 percent on profits net of corporation tax (21 percent on total profits) and is creditable to shareholders. STRs apply to foreign companies, approved investment (mainly industrial) companies, and industrial ventures, respectively.
Jamaica4512.5;35;40; 47.5;55RTR includes additional 10 percent company profit tax creditable to shareholders; STRs apply to international finance companies, agricultural enterprises, industrial and provident societies, and banks, respectively.
Kenya4527.5-45;40; 52.5STRs apply to mining, resident insurance, and foreign companies, respectively.
Korea25.9-43.825.9-40.8RTR includes defense tax of 20-25 percent and resident tax of 7.5 percent; STR applies to “listed” companies, that is, those with shares quoted on local stock exchange.
Malaysia4850;0RTR inclusive of 5 percent development tax and 3 percent excess profit tax; STR (inclusive of 5 percent development tax) applies to petroleum companies and shipping lines, respectively.
Mexico5-422.5-21;3-25.2STRs on book publishers and agricultural companies, respectively.
Morocco44-52.8NoneRTR includes 10 percent National Solidarity Tax.
Nigeria4555;65.75STR on banks and petroleum companies (the latter prior to full cost amortization—85 percent thereafter); construction firms are subject to a 2.5 percent minimum turnover tax.
Pakistan5565;50;45;40RTR comprises 30 percent income tax and 25 percent supertax. STRs apply on account of the varying rebates granted to the following: banks, specified small companies, agricultural food processing companies, foreign incomes, and specified public companies.
Papua

New Guinea
3538.5;48;50STRs apply, respectively, to real estate companies (inclusive of 10 percent surcharge on tax due) and to petroleum companies and other mining companies (at full cost during amortization period and at 75 percent and 67.5 percent thereafter).
Peru20-400:10-20RTR scaled to profit levels; STRs apply to agricultural companies and regional activities, respectively.
Philippines25-3510;35-45RTR scaled to profit levels; STRs apply to mutual life insurance companies, educational establishments, and closely held companies, respectively.
Singapore4010STR applies to certain finance companies.
Sudan20-5060RTR scaled to profit levels; STR includes 10 percent surtax on profits exceeding specified amount.
Syrian

Arab Rep.
14.5-92.4NoneRTR includes a war surtax of 30 percent and a municipal surcharge of 2 percent to 10 percent of the tax due.
Thailand3530;43-46STRs on “listed” companies and on company profits remitted abroad (additional remittance tax is 20 percent of posttax profit on both listed and unlisted companies), respectively.
Trinidad and

Tobago
5020;58.3;80.3RTR includes 5 percent unemployment levy; STRs apply to life insurance companies, petroleum companies, and marine enterprises, respectively.
Tunisia38;446-15;20All companies subject to a standard advance minimum tax (deductible from final assessment) payable at 1 percent of turnover. RTR applies to commercial and industrial companies, respectively, and STR to agricultural and artisan companies, respectively.
Turkey47.380-42.38RTR includes 3 percent defense fund payable on regular corporate tax due. STR effectively applicable on account of varying levels of rebates available on different sources of export earnings.
Venezuela18-5067.7;60STR on oil and other mining companies, respectively.
Zaïre500;24-60STRs apply to “free zone” profits during first five years and to real estate companies, respectively, the tatter being subject to a special schedular tax on profits. STRs also apply to petroleum and other mining companies as stipulated in the agreement between the Government and the companies concerned.
Source: Based on Jitendra R. Modi, “Major Features of Corporate Profit Taxes in Selected Developing Countries,”International Bureau of Fiscal Documentation, Bulletin (Amsterdam), Vol. 41 (February 1987), pp. 65-74.

The table reflects recent revisions that have taken place in the tax codes of individual countries.

Source: Based on Jitendra R. Modi, “Major Features of Corporate Profit Taxes in Selected Developing Countries,”International Bureau of Fiscal Documentation, Bulletin (Amsterdam), Vol. 41 (February 1987), pp. 65-74.

The table reflects recent revisions that have taken place in the tax codes of individual countries.

Table A14.Selected Industrial and Developing Countries: Effective Corporate Tax Rates(In percent)
YearEffective

Tax Rate1
Nominal

Tax Rates
Industrial countries
United States198035.4317-46
Canada198035.650
United Kingdom197935.940; 522
Developing countries
Brazil198117.635-40
Cyprus198014.642.5
India1978/7949.846.1-56.4
Kenya197740.945
Korea197834.728.1-50.4
Malaysia197639.650
Papua New Guinea197728.036.5
Syrian Arab Rep.197627.114.5-92.4
Thailand197832.440
Source: Based on Jitendra R. Modi, “Major Features of Corporate Profit Taxes in Selected Developing Countries,” International Bureau of Fiscal Documentation, Bulletin (Amsterdam), Vol. 41 (February 1987), pp. 65-74.

The ratio of corporation tax assessed to total assessed income of the corporation.

The lower rate applies to small companies.

Relates to returns of active corporations.

Source: Based on Jitendra R. Modi, “Major Features of Corporate Profit Taxes in Selected Developing Countries,” International Bureau of Fiscal Documentation, Bulletin (Amsterdam), Vol. 41 (February 1987), pp. 65-74.

The ratio of corporation tax assessed to total assessed income of the corporation.

The lower rate applies to small companies.

Relates to returns of active corporations.

Table A15.Selected Developing Countries: Incentives Available to Corporate Entities Subject to Profits Tax
DepreciationAvailability

of Investment

Allowance, Tax

Credit, or

Development

Rebate
Maximum

Shifts and

Percentage

Increases

in Normal

Depreciation
Basis of

Inventory

Valuation1
Carryover

of

Losses
Period

of Tax

Holiday
FormulaAsset

price
InitialAnnual
P&M:B;VP&M:B;VP&M
(ln percent)(Number of years)
ArgentinaSt. IineCurr.—:—;—10:2:2010-35(ITC)Cost Market1510
BrazilSt lineCurr.—;—;—10;2;20DS-TS

(50-100)
Cost.-Market1410-15
ChileSt.lineCurr.6.6;3.3-5.3;

18.6
5;2.5-4;14Unspec.Replacement costUnltd.None
ColombiaSt. lineHist.40;40;4010;5;20TS(25-50)LIFO5None
Côle d” IvoireSt. lineHist.20;5;33.310;5;33.3Cosi/Market/LIFO327-112
CyprusSt. lineHist.100;100;—10;3-4;2010-55(IA)3Cost/Net sale priceUnltd.10
EgyptOpt.Hist.35-15;2-5;

20-25
10-15;2-5;

20-25
Opt. LIFO / FIFO55
GhanaDec.bal.Hist.20;10;205-20;3;5-105(IA)Varies434
GuyanaDec.bal.Hist.7-33.3;

2-5;10
7-33.3;

2-5;10
Cost / Market1Unltd.
IndiaDec.bal.Hist.—;25-40;—15-100;5-10;

5-20
25(IA)5DS-TS

(50-100)
Cost/Market1Varies687
IndiaDec.bal.8Hist.810;5;20-5010;5;20-508Av. cost/FIFO5-8None
IsraelSt .lineCurr.910-15;2-8;

15-20
10-15;2-8;

15-20
FIFO / Av. costUnltd.510
JamaicaDec.bal.Hist20;20;12.57.5-10;2.5-5;

I2.5
20;40;

70(IA)11
Unspec.Cost/Market155-10
KenyaDec.bal.12Hist.12.5-37.5;

2.5-4;25
12.5-37.5;

2.5-4;25
50(IA)13Av. cost/MarketUnltd.14None
KoreaOpt.Hist.15100;1.7-4;206.6-20;1.7-4;

16.6-33.3
3-5(ITC)16DS-TS(20-5O)Cost / Market / LIFO35
MalaysiaSt .lineHist.100;12;…6-20;2;…25(ITC)17Unspec.Cost/Market1Unltd.2-8
MexicoSt. lineCurr.925-50;25-50;

20
10;5;2030(ITC)17Market / LIFO4None
MoroccoSt. lineCurr.9——;—15-20;—;—12(lA)FIFO/Av. cost510
NigeriaSt. lineHist.20;5-15;259;9-10;25FIFO43-5
PakistanDec.bal.Hist.40;10;—10;5;2015-30(ITC)DS-TS

(50-100)
Cost/Market/LIFO65
Papua New GuineaOpt.Hist.40-50;23;. ..20;3;2020(IA)Unspec.Av. cost./Market173-718
PeruSt. lineCurr.95-30;3;5-155-30;3;5-15Varies(ITC)19Av. cost/FIFO14Unltd.18
PhilippinesOpt.Hist.Unspec.Reasonable25-100(IA)Cost Market14None
SingaporeSt. IineHist.20-100;25;1016-0;3;10Up to 50(IA)Av. cost/FIFO1Unltd.5
SudanSt. IineHist.5-15;2.5-10;

20-25
5-15;2.5-10;

20-25
FIFO55
Syrian

Arab Rep.
St. IineHist…;5-20;._.5-10;—;20205None
ThailandSt. IineHist.Unspec.20;5;20Cost Market153-821
Trinidad and TobagoDec.bal.Hist.20-50;10;2510-25;2;2530(IA)22Cost/Market1Unltd.10
TunisiaSt. IineCurr.912.5;20;2012.5;20;2033-5
TurkeyOpt.Curr.9—;—;—6-20;2-4;…30-60(IA)Av. cost5None
VenezuelaSt. IineHist.—;—;—Unspec.10-30(ITC)Cost / Market310
ZaïreSt. IineHist.20-25;3-5;

20-25
20-25;3-5;

20-25
Cost/Market25
Note: … = relevant information not available;—= the countries concerned do not extend the incentive. The following abbreviations have been used in the table:P&M = Plant and machineryB = Industrial buildingsV = VehiclesSt. line = Straight lineCurr. = CurrentITC = Income tax credit on cost of investmentDS-TS = Double or triple shiftUnspec. = UnspecifiedUnltd. = UnlimitedHist. = HistoricalTS = Triple shiftLIFO = Last in, first outIA = Investment allowance, usually on plant and machineryOpt. = OptionalFIFO = First in, first outDec. bal. = Declining balanceAv. cost = Average costDS = Double shiftSource: Based on Jitendra R. Modi, “Major Features of Corporate Profit Taxes in Developing Countries,” International Bureau of Fiscal Documentation, Bulletin (Amsterdam), Vol. 41 (February 1987), pp. 65-74.

Whichever is lower, but not LIFO.

Deferred depreciation indefinitely; tax holiday period extendable to 15 years by special convention with host country.

To manufacturing and certain agricultural companies only; allowance to public companies 5 to 15 percentage points higher than to others.

Unlimited carryover for agricultural companies; nil for others. Tax holiday phased out on a diminishing basis.

On new ships, aircraft, and machinery.

Duration for carryover of losses is four years for long-term capital losses and eight years for short-term capital losses, except unabsorbed depreciation for which it is unlimited.

Only on 75 percent of manufacturing profits.

Except buildings for which straight line method is applied; depreciation rates depend on life of assets (e.g., 50 percent for assets having a life of up to four years and 10 percent for those over eight years).

After revaluation of the balance sheet.

Exempt from income tax at 35 percent but not from corporation tax of 40 percent.

Higher rates apply to agriculture and sugar industry and to motion picture companies.

Except on industrial buildings and hotels.

On new industrial buildings and hotels and on machinery installed therein, located outside main cities.

Losses can be offset only against profits from the same source.

Except when assets are revalued.

To machinery and electronics industry only.

As an alternative to accelerated depreciation.

On export income in full (Papua New Guinea) or partially (Peru).

On reinvested profits.

For industrial buildings the annual rental value of property is deductible in lieu of depreciation.

For additional five years, exemption of 50 percent.

As an alternative to tax holiday.

Note: … = relevant information not available;—= the countries concerned do not extend the incentive. The following abbreviations have been used in the table:P&M = Plant and machineryB = Industrial buildingsV = VehiclesSt. line = Straight lineCurr. = CurrentITC = Income tax credit on cost of investmentDS-TS = Double or triple shiftUnspec. = UnspecifiedUnltd. = UnlimitedHist. = HistoricalTS = Triple shiftLIFO = Last in, first outIA = Investment allowance, usually on plant and machineryOpt. = OptionalFIFO = First in, first outDec. bal. = Declining balanceAv. cost = Average costDS = Double shiftSource: Based on Jitendra R. Modi, “Major Features of Corporate Profit Taxes in Developing Countries,” International Bureau of Fiscal Documentation, Bulletin (Amsterdam), Vol. 41 (February 1987), pp. 65-74.

Whichever is lower, but not LIFO.

Deferred depreciation indefinitely; tax holiday period extendable to 15 years by special convention with host country.

To manufacturing and certain agricultural companies only; allowance to public companies 5 to 15 percentage points higher than to others.

Unlimited carryover for agricultural companies; nil for others. Tax holiday phased out on a diminishing basis.

On new ships, aircraft, and machinery.

Duration for carryover of losses is four years for long-term capital losses and eight years for short-term capital losses, except unabsorbed depreciation for which it is unlimited.

Only on 75 percent of manufacturing profits.

Except buildings for which straight line method is applied; depreciation rates depend on life of assets (e.g., 50 percent for assets having a life of up to four years and 10 percent for those over eight years).

After revaluation of the balance sheet.

Exempt from income tax at 35 percent but not from corporation tax of 40 percent.

Higher rates apply to agriculture and sugar industry and to motion picture companies.

Except on industrial buildings and hotels.

On new industrial buildings and hotels and on machinery installed therein, located outside main cities.

Losses can be offset only against profits from the same source.

Except when assets are revalued.

To machinery and electronics industry only.

As an alternative to accelerated depreciation.

On export income in full (Papua New Guinea) or partially (Peru).

On reinvested profits.

For industrial buildings the annual rental value of property is deductible in lieu of depreciation.

For additional five years, exemption of 50 percent.

As an alternative to tax holiday.

Table A16.Selected Industrial and Developing Countries: Export Duties as Percentage of F.o.b. Value of Exports, 1980-82
198019811982Average

1980-82
Industrial countries
Canada1.0631.1060.4500.873
Australia0.4550.3010.2820.346
New Zealand0.1440.1220.1390.135
Austria0.2170.2140.0820.171
Iceland0.0450.0430.0390.042
Norway0.0480.0570.0600.055
United Kingdom0.0230.0200.0180.020
Maximum0.873
Minimum0.020
Mean0.235
Variance0.092
Standard deviation0.303
Number of observations7
Developing countries
Oil exporting countries
Indonesia2.2200.9140.5601.231
Nigeria0.0070.002
Maximum1.231
Minimum0.002
Mean0.617
Variance0.755
Standard deviation0.870
Number of observations2
Non-oil developing countries
Africa
Benin5.7114.1182.9324.254
Botswana0.1250.1460.1310.134
Burkina Faso6.3625.1214.6335.372
Burundi22.6382.65413.92713.073
Cameroon7.75910.0164.7997.525
Central African Rep.4.10113.6009.8709.190
Congo0.1560.0910.0910.103
Côte d’lvoire8.0278.5047.3487.960
Ethiopia33.83223.37722.10826.439
Gabon1.6770.9200.9861.194
Gambia, The13.7080.9333.8276.156
Ghana26.7816.86014.35916.000
Kenya1.3570.5920.9320.960
Lesotho6.1845.1073.5844.958
Liberia0.2500.2080.2300.229
Madagascar3.2984.4954.7104.168
Mali6.2257.5494.0105.928
Mauritania0.7073.6164.5152.946
Mauritius8.5988.9429.4729.004
Morocco2.2292.0801.9742.095
Niger2.5943.1563.4673.072
Rwanda37.86816.41313.74722.676
Senegal2.7491.1260.7221.532
Sierra Leone11.0899.38510.15010.208
Swaziland4.6723.6150.3802.889
Tanzania11.0944.4721.0175.528
Togo4.6591.3090.7362.234
Tunisia1.0721.0380.9871.033
Uganda51.3723.62422.38525.794
Zaïre14.95010.58710.29611.944
Maximum26.439
Minimum0.103
Mean7.153
Variance52.998
Standard deviation7.280
Number of observations30
Asia
Bangladesh24.29225.74620.45923.499
Fiji1.3782.2530.9571.529
India1.7480.8500.7691.122
Malaysia9.0768.2086.1197.801
Maldives1.5330.1530.8540.846
Nepal6.4924.0153.6364.714
Pakistan1.7212.4741.3931.863
Papua New Guinea1.2620.7920.7920.949
Philippines0.9850.7130.6790.792
Sri Lanka21.92718.66212.83217.807
Thailand2.6002.0441.1081.917
Maximum23.499
Minimum0.792
Mean5.713
Variance60.638
Standard deviation7.787
Number of observations11
Europe
Greece0.0320.0040.0350.024
Portugal0.0180.0130.0110.014
Maximum0.024
Minimum0.014
Mean0.019
Variance
Standard deviation0.007
Number of observations2
Middle East
Syrian Arab Rep.1.7041.4540.6411.267
Yemen Arab Rep.0.0970.0920.0560.082
Maximum1.267
Minimum0.082
Mean0.675
Variance0.702
Standard deviation0.838
Number of observations2
Western Hemisphere
Argentina2.4422.6937.0764.070
Bahamas0.0590.1080.1310.099
Barbados0.4830.161
Belize1.0660.8891.1141.023
Bolivia0.5500.0450.1230.239
Brazil6.0491.6972.3473.364
Colombia7.2576.3323.6305.740
Costa Rica6.5798.5669.9718.372
Dominican Rep.6.1657.3991.3424.969
Ecuador1.5010.8990.3720.924
El Salvador10.29811.82811.40911.178
Grenada10.22510.1257.9869.445
Guatemala9.6175.4474.1886.418
Guyana0.1310.1640.1240.140
Haiti11.3215.9055.5727.599
Honduras7.7357.4867.0747.431
Mexico38.18041.18834.32537.897
Nicaragua5.6424.8460.4423.643
Panama3.4954.7243.9754.065
Paraguay1.0260.8380.7530.872
Peru10.9568.4566.5518.654
St. Lucia0.1210.2050.9440.423
St. Vincent1.3991.0631.2581.240
Trinidad and Tobago0.001
Uruguay0.0230.0490.024
Maximum37.897
Minimum0.024
Mean5.333
Variance60.292
Standard deviation7. 765
Number of observations24
Developing countries
Maximum37.897
Minimum0.002
Mean5. 747
Variance53. 781
Standard deviation7.336
Number of observations71
All countries
Maximum37.897
Minimum0.002
Mean5.252
Variance51.414
Standard deviation7.170
Number of observations78
Note:—= negligible.Sources: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 1984, Vol. 8 (Washington, 1984), International Financial Statistics (Washington), various issues, and Fund staff estimates; and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Revenue Statistics of OECD Member Countries, 1965-1983 (Paris, 1984).
Note:—= negligible.Sources: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 1984, Vol. 8 (Washington, 1984), International Financial Statistics (Washington), various issues, and Fund staff estimates; and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Revenue Statistics of OECD Member Countries, 1965-1983 (Paris, 1984).
Table A17.Selected Industrial and Developing Countries: Import Duties as Percentage of C.i.f. Value of Imports, 1980-82
198019811982Average

1980-82
Industrial countries
United States2.8912.9853.4963.124
Canada4.3534.0903.9534.132
Australia7.8347.8827.8607.859
Japan2.4572.5782.5022.512
New Zealand4.1155.0894.6214.609
Austria1.5421.4621.5371.513
Belgium10.0050.0040.0040.004
Denmark0.9430.8750.8760.898
Finland1.7851.5411.5861.637
France0.0700.0760.0660.071
Germany, Fed. Rep. of0.0230.0220.0270.024
Iceland14.41415.73315.06415.070
Ireland8.35710.04810.7549.720
Itaiy0.2550.2240.2900.256
Luxembourg10.0650.0630.042
Netherlands0.0060.002
Norway0.8540.9820.8400.892
Spain9.1408.5589.6859.128
Sweden1.5141.6840.7821.327
Switzerland5.2085.3985.6205.409
Maximum15.070
Minimum0.002
Mean3.411
Variance17.156
Standard deviation4.142
Number of observations20
Developing countries
Oil exporting countries
Indonesia6.5956.3954.6805.890
Iran, Islamic Rep. of18.58017.23322.45319.422
Kuwait3.0603.5473.6483.418
Nigeria15.28613.67213.20314.054
Oman1.4541.4301.5871.490
Venezuela8.8589.85112.60410.438
Maximum19.422
Minimum1.490
Mean9.119
Variance46.675
Standard deviation6.832
Number of observations6
Non-oil developing countries
Africa
Benin30.40926.94324.59727.317
Botswana19.00115.67416.26716.981
Burkina Faso21.35119.45318.05219.618
Burundi21.15918.14716.59818.635
Cameroon19.32120.00621.36420.230
Central African Rep.57.02930.41423.48336.975
Congo12.81017.43512.54514.263
Côte d’lvoire25.82828.69225.97226.831
Ethiopia16.01718.66016.88217.186
Gabon39.07027.99725.19330.753
Gambia, The19.27519.55425.21921.349
Ghana12.42915.51829.37619.108
Kenya10.68815.65321.76816.036
Lesotho19.78915.76513.43016.328
Liberia12.34517.23217.69715.758
Madagascar22.39915.55616.23118.062
Malawi11.77016.00716.34914.709
Mali11.27014.05116.08713.803
Mauritania16.61716.68921.08318.130
Mauritius13.56414.23413.65613.818
Morocco19.74017.41118.07718.410
Niger19.45417.97716.72218.051
Rwanda14.25014.27015.04614.522
Senegal22.38816.01917.11118.506
Sierra Leone15.53123.05218.78019.121
Swaziland18.53712.07720.89417.169
Tanzania7.9456.5296.2556.910
Togo14.30015.91416.25415.489
Tunisia18,46117.43921.84319.247
Uganda8.3213.48010.6527.484
Zaïre33.36240.86549.03841.088
Zambia6.1535.6427.8076.534
Zimbabwe3.9218.79213.5288.747
Maximum41.088
Minimum6.534
Mean18.399
Variance55.688
Standard deviation7.462
Number of observations33
Asia
Bangladesh15.58815.49214.57815.219
Burma39.27645.06944.87043.072
Fiji11.52912.41511.94511.963
India28.19231.78235.23531.736
Korea7.4856.6867.4257.199
Malaysia8.8318.4427.9768.417
Maldives5.2286.9607.6146.600
Nepal13.27916.40814.94914.879
Pakistan22.89324.34122.68523.306
Papua New Guinea6.9307.4999.0017.810
Philippines12.50911.26512.26212.012
Singapore0.8510.7370.8100.799
Sri Lanka8.6188.8189.4038.946
Thailand10.05510.09310.08410.077
Maximum43.072
Minimum0.799
Mean14.431
Variance126.138
Standard deviation11.231
Number of observations14
Europe
Cyprus7.7647.7158.1907.890
Greece5.7373.9614.0554.584
Malta11.05210.59710.23510.628
Portugal4.0583.9323.6733.888
Turkey8.4957.09510.1578.582
Maximum10.628
Minimum3.888
Mean7.114
Variance7.978
Standard deviation2.825
Number of observations5
Middle East
Bahrain1.9191.7152.4062.014
Egypt36.92923.34226.85729.042
Israel4.1534.5427.4565.384
Jordan14.13011.78212.31212.741
Syrian Arab Rep.11.24710.11114.14211.833
Yemen Arab Rep.19.15420.35626.51422.008
Maximum29.042
Minimum2.014
Mean13.837
Variance102.882
Standard deviation10.143
Number of observations6
estern Hemisphere
Argentina20.14819.14613.83317.709
Bahamas2.5423.4815.0343.686
Barbados8.5607.7846.7457.696
Belize11.37711.51412.00711.632
Bolivia16.52714.87811.81014.405
Brazil6.7116.3466.3306.462
Chile7.4668.6097.3047.793
Colombia11.35010.56810.42610.781
Costa Rica6.1903.4192.9544.188
Dominican Rep.13.85710.99712.06912.308
Ecuador16.26616.85214.70915.942
El Salvador4.0973.5303.7073.778
Grenada16.15415.60920.94417.569
Guatemala7.0036.2875.6116.301
Guyana3.7043.8813.1663.584
Haiti10.41710.72311.99411.045
Honduras7.42010.54712.71910.229
Jamaica2.2143.5034.9213.546
Mexico10.81510.50810.26110.528
Nicaragua10.7946.7519.1088.884
Panama5.8756.1306.5636.189
Paraguay14.44414.7569.69512.965
Peru21.94522.01218.97520.977
St. Lucia9.1229.3729.9369.476
St. Vincent12.45111.39414.34712.731
Trinidad and Tobago5.5376.2576.0815.958
Uruguay14.09219.15318.12318.789
Maximum20.977
Minimum3.546
Mean10.191
Variance25.323
Standard deviation5.032
Number of observations27
Developing countries
Maximum43.072
Minimum0.799
Mean13.820
Variance16.668
Standard deviation8.347
Number of observations91
All countries
Maximum43.072
Minimum0.002
Mean11.945
Variance76.115
Standard deviation8.724
Number of observations111
Note:—= negligible.Sources: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 1984, Vol. 8 (Washington, 1984), International Financial Statistics (Washington), various issues, and Fund staff estimates; and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Revenue Statistics of OECD Member Countries, 1965-1983 (Paris, 1984).

Import data refer to Belgium-Luxembourg and exclude transactions between the two countries.

Note:—= negligible.Sources: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 1984, Vol. 8 (Washington, 1984), International Financial Statistics (Washington), various issues, and Fund staff estimates; and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Revenue Statistics of OECD Member Countries, 1965-1983 (Paris, 1984).

Import data refer to Belgium-Luxembourg and exclude transactions between the two countries.

APPENDIX II Selected Bibliography

This bibliography covers major publications containing the views of popular supply-side economists in the United States on taxation and the Laffer curve. It also covers a few publications on related subjects such as tax incentives, tax evasion, and progressivity of tax rates.

References

    AgellJonas“Subsidy to Capital Through Tax Incentives in the A S E A N Countries: An Application of the Cost of Capital Approach Under Inflationary Situations,”Singapore Economic Review (Singapore) Vol. 28 (October1983) pp. 98128.

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    BartlettBruce R .Reagonomics: Supply Side Economics in Action (New York: Quill, updated ed. 1982).

    BartlettBruce R .“Supply-Side Economics: Theory and Evidence,”Quarterly Review National Westminster Bank (London) February1985 pp. 1829.

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    BirdR .Tax Incentives for Investment: The State of the Art, Canadian Tax Paper No. 64 (Toronto: Canadian Tax Foundation1980).

    BosworthBarry P.Tax Incentives and Economic Growth (Washington: Brookings Institution1984).

    CantoVictor A .Douglas H .Joines and Arthur B .LafferFoundations of Supply-Side Economics: Theory and Evidence (New York: Academic Press1983).

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    ChatterjiM .“A Note on Progressive Taxes and the Supply of Labor,”Journal of Public Economics (Amsterdam) Vol. 12 (October1979) pp. 21520.

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    CozziTerenzio“Supply-Side Economics,”Rivista di Politica Economica: Selected Papers (Rome)LXXII 3rd Series (December1982) pp. 5986.

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    EvansMichael K .The Truth About Supply-Side Economics (New York: Basic Books1983).

    Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta and Emory University Law and Economics Center Supply-Side Economics in the 1980s: Conference Proceedings (Westport, Connecticut: Quorum Books1982).

    FinkRichard H .ed. Supply-Side Economics: A Critical Appraisal (Frederick, Maryland: University Publications of America1982).

    FullertonDon“On the Possibility of an Inverse Relationship Between Tax Rates and Government Revenues,”Journal of Public Economics (Amsterdam) Vol. 19 (October1982) pp. 322.

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    GardnerMartin“Mathematical Games: The Laffer Curve and Other Laughs in Current Economics,”Scientific American (New York) December1981 pp. 1831c.

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