Back Matter

Back Matter

Author(s):
Benedict Clements, David Coady, Stefania Fabrizio, Sanjeev Gupta, Trevor Alleyne, and Carlo Sdralevich
Published Date:
September 2013
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Contributors

Trevor Alleyne, Advisor, African Department

Andreas Bauer, Assistant Director, Strategy, Policy, and Review Department

Benedict Clements, Division Chief, Fiscal Affairs Department

David Coady, Deputy Division Chief, Fiscal Affairs Department

Antonio David, Economist, Institute for Capacity Development

Ozgur Demirkol, Senior Economist, Middle East and Central Asia Department

Allan Dizioli, Economist, Fiscal Affairs Department

Stefania Fabrizio, Deputy Division Chief, Fiscal Affairs Department

Katja Funke, Economist, Fiscal Affairs Department

Sanjeev Gupta, Deputy Director, Fiscal Affairs Department

Farayi Gwenhamo, Economist, African Department

Mumtaz Hussain, Senior Economist, African Department

Christian Josz, Deputy Division Chief, African Department

Alvar Kangur, Economist, Fiscal Affairs Department

Javier Kapsoli, Economist, Fiscal Affairs Department

Kangni Kpodar, Senior Economist, Fiscal Affairs Department

Clara Mira, Economist, African Department

Luc Moers, Senior Economist, Middle East and Central Asia Department

Masahiro Nozaki, Senior Economist, Fiscal Affairs Department

Anton Op de Beke, Resident Representative, African Department

Dragana Ostojic, Economist, Middle East and Central Asia Department

Ian Parry, Technical Assistance Advisor, Fiscal Affairs Department

Edgardo Ruggiero, Senior Economist, African Department

Carlo Sdralevich, Deputy Division Chief, Middle East and Central Asia Department

Louis Sears, Research Assistant, Fiscal Affairs Department

Baoping Shang, Economist, Fiscal Affairs Department

Sukhwinder Singh, Assistant to the Director, African Department

Mauricio Soto, Economist, Fiscal Affairs Department

Vimal Thakoor, Economist, African Department

Genevieve Verdier, Senior Economist, African Department

Mauricio Villafuerte, Deputy Division Chief, African Department

Younes Zouhar, Senior Economist, Middle East and Central Asia Department

Index

[Page numbers followed by b, f, n, or t refer to boxes, figures, footnotes or tables, respectively.]

A

Africa. See Middle East and North Africa; Sub-Saharan Africa

Agência Nacional do Petróleo (Brazil), 104–5

alternative energy, affordable, 38

Armenia, 28, 36

  • bill collection rate for electricity in, 128–29, 131f, 133
  • electricity sector financial deficit in, 130f
  • electricity subsidies in, 127–33
  • macroeconomics and, 127t, 131f
  • residential electricity tariffs in, 129f
  • Azerbaijan conflict and, 128

Arroyo administration, 83

Asia, reforms in, 75–85

  • in Indonesia, 75–79
  • magnitude of subsidies and, 11, 11f, 12f
  • in Philippines, 79–85

Asian crisis, 75, 78, 81

assessment of reform impact, 31

  • in Ghana, 45, 46
  • in Nigeria, 62

automatic pricing mechanisms, 39, 64

  • in Mauritania, 93–94, 95–96
  • in Niger, 53
  • in Turkey, 124–25

B

Balabanyan, Ani, 130

balance-of-payments, 18

Bantuan Langsun Tunai (Indonesia), 77–78

Belgium, 13

black markets, 98

block tariff scheme (IBT), 66

Brazil, 29, 33, 34

  • electricity subsidies in, 115–18
  • fuel prices in, 105–6, 106f
  • macroeconomics and, 104t, 105f, 117f
  • petroleum product subsidies in, 103–8

Briceño-Garmendia, C., 68

budgets, recording of subsidies in, 7, 26

  • in Mexico, 120
  • in Niger, 55
  • in Uganda, 71, 71t

Bujagali hydro generation unit (Uganda), 71–72

Burkina Faso, 35

C

Cape Verde, 35

capital-intensive industries, 2

Cardoso administration, 107, 118

Caribbean, 11, 11f, 12f, 13

case studies, 4, 23, 24–25t, 26, 26n2

cash transfers, 36–37

  • in Armenia, 132
  • in Brazil, 107
  • in Indonesia, 77–78
  • in Iran, 87–90
  • in Mauritania, 95
  • in Mexico, 122
  • in Yemen, 99–100

Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)

  • Armenia and, 127–33
  • magnitude of subsidies and, 11, 11f, 12f
  • Poland and, 136–42
  • Turkey and, 123–27, 133–36

Central Energy Fund (South Africa), 63–64

CFE (Comisión Federal de Electricidad) (Mexico), 119–20

Chile

  • macroeconomics and, 108t
  • petroleum product subsidies in, 108–11
  • stabilization funds in, 110f

China, 13, 40

CIS. See Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)

CO2 emissions

  • corrective taxes and, 145, 146
  • environmental and health impact of, 165–67
  • subsidy reform and, 19

coal

  • corrective taxes and, 147
  • environmental and health impact of, 166
  • international prices of, 2f
  • pretax subsidies and, 144, 144n2

coal subsidies

  • as percent of total, 9
  • in Poland, 136–42

collection rates, in Armenia, 128–29, 131f, 133

Comisión Federal de Electricidad (Mexico), 29, 119

Comisión Reguladora de la Energia (Mexico), 119

communication strategy, 32–33

  • in Ghana, 45, 46
  • in Indonesia, 79
  • in Iran, 90
  • in Niger, 56
  • in Nigeria, 59–60, 61
  • in Philippines, 80, 82
  • in Uganda, 74

community development, 100

competitiveness, 15–16, 17–18b, 28

comprehensive reform plans, 29–32

  • in Namibia, 51
  • in Philippines, 80, 82, 84–85
  • in Yemen, 100

consequences of subsidies, 2–3

  • depression of economic growth and, 15–18
  • inequity and, 19–21, 20f
  • macroeconomic imbalances and, 18
  • overconsumption of energy and, 18–19

Consumer’s Protection System for Fuel Excise Taxes (SIPCO) (Chile), 110

consumer subsidies, 1–2, 5–13, 6b

corrective taxes, 6n3, 8, 145–47, 145n4, 146t

cost of subsidies. See consequences of subsidies; financing of subsidies

CRC (Conta de Resultados a Compensar) (Brazil), 116

crises, economic

  • 1997 Asian, 75, 78, 81
  • 2007–8 global fuel and food, 2, 46, 81, 92

crude oil

  • in Brazil, 103
  • in Chile, 108
  • international prices of, 2f
  • in South Africa, 62

D

definition and measurement of subsidies, 5–13

  • caveats and, 8–9, 167
  • consumer, 1–2, 5–13, 6b
  • environmental and health impact and, 165–67
  • posttax, 6, 6b, 8, 13, 145–48, 157–64t
  • pretax, 1–2, 5–13, 6b, 9f, 10f, 11f, 143–45, 149–55t
  • producer, 1, 5, 8, 8n4
  • tax, 2, 5

Deutsche Gesellschaftfur Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), 7, 143

diesel

  • in Brazil, 29, 34, 103–7
  • effects of subsidies on, 19, 20f
  • environmental impact of, 165
  • in Indonesia, 76
  • international prices of, 2f
  • in Mauritania, 93, 93f, 94
  • in Namibia, 48–49
  • in Niger, 53, 55
  • in Nigeria, 57, 57n3
  • in Peru, 34, 111–12
  • in Turkey, 125, 126, 126f
  • in Uganda, 73
  • in Yemen, 96, 98

distributional effects of subsidies, 19, 20f

E

economic growth, depression of, 15–18

electricity

  • dual rate meters and, 132–33
  • generators and, 15n1, 68
  • pretax subsidies and, 144–45
  • price regulation and, 41
  • subsistence level of, 68
  • supply cost and, 6b
  • thermal power and, 70–71, 73, 94

Electricity Regulatory Authority (Uganda), 70, 72

electricity subsidies

  • in Armenia, 28, 31, 36–37, 127–33
  • in Brazil, 31, 115–18
  • in Cape Verde, 35
  • effects of, 19
  • in Kenya, 31, 33, 64–69
  • low-income groups and, 20, 37 (see also poverty, impact of subsidies on; poverty, mitigating measures for)
  • in Mauritania, 94, 96
  • measurement and, 8
  • in Mexico, 27–30, 119–22
  • as percent of total, 9
  • in Philippines, 82–84
  • pretax, 9
  • reform and, 3, 30–31
  • in Sub-Saharan Africa, 16b
  • in Turkey, 29–30, 34, 133–36
  • in Uganda, 27, 33, 69–74

Electric Power Industry Reform Act (Philippines), 83

Emerging and Developing Asia. See Asia

ENAP (national oil company of Chile), 108–9

energy, affordable alternative, 38

energy consumption, 2–3, 18–19

Energy Market Regulatory Authority (Turkey), 40, 125, 127

Energy Regulatory Commission (Philippines), 83

Energy Regulatory Commission (ERC) (Kenya), 65–67, 69

energy sector investment, 15–16, 16b

energy shortages, 15, 15n1

Energy Tribunal, 65

enterprise

  • development, 100
  • restructuring, 89, 138–39

environmental impact, 165–67

Equalization Fund (South Africa), 63

equity and subsidies, 19–21, 20f

  • see also poverty, mitigating measures for

Eskom Uganda, 70

ethanol, in Brazil, 106–7

Europe. See Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)

European Union (EU), Turkey and, 124–25, 127

excise taxes, 110, 112, 114, 125, 126f

Extended Arrangement (1998) (Philippines), 79

Extended Credit Facility (ECF) (Mauritania), 92

F

FEPC (Fondo de Estabilización de Precios de los Combustibles) (Chile), 109–10

FEPC (Fondo de Estabilización de Precios de Combustibles) (Peru), 112–14

FEPP (Fondo de Estabilización de Precios del Petróleo) (Chile), 109–11

Finance and Public Credit, Ministry of (Mexico), 119–20

financial partners, engaging, 56

financing of subsidies, 7, 7b

fiscal imbalances, 2

Fox administration, 120–21

French Development Agency, 94, 96

Fuel Prices Stabilization Fund (FEPC) (Chile), 109–10

G

G-20 Pittsburgh Communiqué, 1n1

Gabon, 39

gasoline

  • in Brazil, 34, 104, 106
  • effects of subsidies on, 19, 20f
  • environmental impact of, 165
  • international prices of, 2f
  • in Iran, 87, 89
  • in Niger, 53, 55
  • in Nigeria, 31, 57–61
  • in Peru, 34, 115
  • in Turkey, 125, 126f
  • in Yemen, 96, 98, 98n2

gas vouchers, in Brazil, 107–8

generators, cost of, 15n1, 68

Ghana, 31, 33, 36, 38, 39

  • fuel prices and, 45f
  • macroeconomics and, 44t
  • petroleum product subsidies in, 43–47

Ghana Commercial Bank, 44

global subsidies landscape, 1–2

global warming

  • estimates of damage of, 8
  • overconsumption of energy and, 18–19

government and governance

  • improvements in, 102
  • lack of confidence in, 27, 78
  • role of, in liberalizing regime, 41
  • SOEs and, 35

H

Hankinson, Denzel, 130

health impact, 165–67

I

IMF (International Monetary Fund)

  • Extended Credit Facility (Yemen), 98
  • pretax subsidies and, 7–8, 143–45
  • programs of, 52–53, 53n2, 75, 79–80, 82, 92–94
  • reform case studies and, 3–4, 26

implicit subsidies, 26, 26n4

import tax, 107

incentives

  • domestic energy consumption and, 18
  • energy efficiency and, 18
  • smuggling and, 3, 16, 16n2

independent bodies/agencies, 39–40

  • in Armenia, 133
  • in Ghana, 46
  • in Indonesia, 78–79
  • in Kenya, 69
  • in Turkey, 125, 127
  • in Uganda, 74

India, financing fuel subsidies in, 7b

Indonesia, 27, 31–32, 36, 38

  • macroeconomics and, 76t, 77f
  • petroleum product subsidies in, 75–79

industrial sector, 28

inflation

  • opposition to reform and, 28–29
  • smoothing rule and, 40
  • subsidy reform and, 3

information, campaign of public

  • in Armenia, 129, 133
  • in Ghana, 46
  • in Iran, 90
  • in Niger, 56
  • in Nigeria, 59–61
  • in Philippines, 80
  • in Yemen, 98, 100

information, impact of lack of, 26–27, 120, 120n8

interest group opposition, 28–29

  • in Ghana, 46
  • in Indonesia, 75
  • in Mexico, 120–21
  • in Nigeria, 60
  • in Philippines, 79, 79n1
  • in Poland, 136, 138

international energy prices. See prices, international

investment

  • in energy, 3, 15–16
  • lack of and inefficiencies, 74
  • private, 2, 15–16

IPPs (independent power producers) (Philippines), 82

Iran, 28, 30, 38

  • macroeconomics and, 88t
  • petroleum product subsidies in, 87–90

Islamic Development Bank, 94

J

Justice and Development Party (Turkey), 125

K

Kenya, 31, 33, 37

  • electricity subsidies in, 64–69
  • hidden costs in power sector, 67f
  • macroeconomics and, 65t
  • power sector indicators, 66t

Kenya Electricity Generating Company (KenGen), 65–66

Kenya Power and Lighting Company (KPLC), 65–68

kerosene

  • effects of subsidies on, 19, 20f
  • environmental impact of, 165
  • in Indonesia, 38, 76, 77–78
  • international prices of, 2f
  • in Niger, 53
  • in Nigeria, 57–59
  • in Uganda, 73
  • in Yemen, 38, 96, 98, 100

L

labor market program, in Poland, 139–42

labor unions. See unions

Latin America and Caribbean, reforms in

  • in Brazil, 103–8, 115–18
  • in Chile, 108–11
  • magnitude of subsidies and, 11, 11f, 12f, 13
  • in Mexico, 119–22
  • in Peru, 111–15

(LFC) Luz y Fuerza del Centro (Mexico), 119n5

liabilities, assumption of, 142

lifeline tariffs, 37, 69, 73, 74, 84

liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)

  • in Brazil, 103–4, 106–7
  • consumer subsidies for, 8
  • effects of subsidies on, 20f
  • in Indonesia, 38, 76, 77–78
  • in Peru, 112, 114
  • in Philippines, 37
  • in Turkey, 34, 126
  • in Yemen, 38, 96, 98, 100

Liquid Fuels Industry Task Force (South Africa), 63

Livelihood Empowerment against Poverty (LEAP) (Ghana), 47

LPG. See liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)

M

macroeconomic conditions as barriers, 29

macroeconomic imbalances, 18

Mali, 35

Mauritania, 33

  • macroeconomics and, 91t
  • petroleum product subsidies in, 90–96

measurement

  • price-gap approach, 5, 7, 8
  • See also definition and measurement of subsidies

messages, key, in communication, 32

Mexico, 27, 28–29

  • electricity subsidies in, 119–22
  • macroeconomics and, 121f

Middle East and North Africa, reforms in

  • in Iran, 87–90
  • magnitude of subsidies and, 11, 11f, 12f, 13
  • in Mauritania, 90–96
  • in Yemen, 96–102

Mines and Energy, Ministry of (Namibia), 48–51

mitigating measures. See poverty, mitigating measures for

Mota, Raffaella, 118

Motherland Party (Turkey), 124–25

motor fuel, corrective taxes and, 146t

multitier tariffs, 89

N

Namibia, 30, 31, 32, 33

  • macroeconomics and, 47t, 50f
  • National Energy Fund and Slate Account, 49f
  • petroleum products subsidies in, 47–51

Namibian Petroleum Corporation (Namcor), 48, 50

National Deregulation Task Force (Namibia), 31, 49

National Energy Council (Indonesia), 79

National Energy Council (Namibia), 31, 49

National Energy Fund (NEF) (Namibia), 48–51

National Petroleum Agency (NPA) (Ghana), 43, 45–46

National Power Corporation (NPC) (Philippines), 82–84

National Union of Namibian Workers, 47

natural gas

  • in Brazil, 106
  • corrective taxes and, 147
  • effects of subsidies on, 19
  • environmental and health impact of, 166
  • international prices of, 2f
  • pretax subsidies and, 9, 144, 144n2

natural resources, 3

Niger, 31, 33

  • fuel prices and, 54f
  • macroeconomics and, 52t, 54f
  • petroleum products subsidies in, 51–57

Nigeria, 28, 33

  • fuel prices and, 58f, 58t
  • macroeconomics and, 57t
  • petroleum products subsidies in, 57–62

North Africa. See Middle East and North Africa

O

objectives, long-term, 30–31, 78

OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development)

  • environment and health impact and, 166
  • posttax subsidies and, 147
  • pretax subsidies and, 7–8, 143–44

oil-exporting countries

  • budgets and, 26
  • subsidy magnitude and, 11
  • subsidy reform and, 3

oil price stabilization fund (Brazil), 103, 107

Oil Price Stabilization Fund (Philippines), 79–81

Oil Prices Stabilization Fund (FEPP) (Chile), 109–11

OMCs (oil marketing companies), 7b

Oportunidades (Mexico), 122

P

participative approach, 56

pass-through to domestic prices, 1, 18

  • in Brazil, 106, 108
  • in Kenya, 65–66
  • in Namibia, 48, 50
  • in Niger, 52–53, 53n2
  • in Peru, 113
  • in Yemen, 101f

“People’s Power” revolution (Philippines), 79

Peru, 29, 34, 40

  • fuel subsidies and, 113f
  • petroleum product subsidies in, 111–15
  • stabilization fund and, 112–14, 114t

Petrobras (Brazil), 103–6

Petroleum Market Law (Turkey), 40, 125, 127

petroleum products

  • corrective taxes and, 146–47
  • environmental and health impact of, 165
  • pretax subsidies and, 143–44

Petroleum Products Pricing Regulatory Agency (Nigeria), 57

petroleum products subsidies

  • in Brazil, 103–8
  • in Chile, 108–11
  • in Ghana, 43–47
  • in Indonesia, 75–79
  • in Iran, 87–90
  • in Mauritania, 90–96
  • in Namibia, 43–47
  • in Niger, 51–57
  • in Nigeria, 57–62
  • as percent of total, 9
  • in Peru, 111–15
  • in Philippines, 79–82
  • pretax, 9, 20f
  • in South Africa, 62–64
  • in Turkey, 123–27
  • in Yemen, 96–102

Petroleum Support Fund (PSF), 57–58

Petrol Ofisi (Turkey), 123

PetroPerú, 112

phasing of price increases, 33–34

  • in Brazil, 107
  • in Indonesia, 76
  • in Iran, 87–88, 90
  • in Niger, 53, 55

Philippines, 27, 30, 32, 34, 37, 39

  • electricity subsidies in, 82–84
  • macroeconomics and, 80t, 81f, 8t, 84f
  • petroleum product subsidies in, 79–82

“Pigouvian” taxes, 6n3, 145

plans for reform. See comprehensive reform plans

Poland, 29, 38

  • coal industry indicators in, 140t, 141f
  • coal prices in, 138f
  • coal subsidies in, 136–142
  • macroeconomics and, 137t, 139f

politics and depoliticization, 38–41

  • in Armenia, 130, 133
  • in Brazil, 107, 118
  • in Ghana, 46, 51
  • in Mauritania, 95
  • in Mexico, 120–21
  • in Philippines, 79–80, 84
  • in Poland, 139–42
  • in Turkey, 127

pollution

  • environmental and health impact of, 165
  • overconsumption of energy and, 18–19

posttax subsidies

  • calculating, 148
  • corrective taxes and, 145–47
  • definition and measurement of, 6, 6b, 8, 13
  • low-income countries and, 147n6
  • as percent of GDP, 157–60t
  • in percent of government revenues, 161–64t
  • revenue component of, 147–48

poverty, impact of subsidies on, 20

poverty, mitigating measures for, 28, 36–38

  • in Armenia, 132–33
  • in Brazil, 107–8, 118
  • in Chile, 111
  • in Ghana, 44–47
  • in Indonesia, 77–78
  • in Iran, 88–89, 90
  • in Kenya, 68–69
  • in Mauritania, 92, 94–96
  • in Mexico, 122
  • in Namibia, 51
  • in Niger, 56–57
  • in Nigeria, 61
  • in Philippines, 81–82, 84
  • in Poland, 139–42
  • in Turkey, 125–26
  • in Yemen, 99–100

Poverty Family Benefit (Armenia), 36–37

Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF), 92

pretax subsidies

  • coal and natural gas and, 144
  • definition and measurement of, 1–2, 5–8, 6b, 9f
  • electricity and, 144–45
  • geography of, 11–13, 11f, 12f
  • magnitude of, 9–11, 10f
  • in percent of GDP, 149–52t
  • in percent of government revenues, 153–56t
  • petroleum products and, 143–44

PRI (Partido Revolucionario Institucional) (Mexico), 121

price-gap approach, 5, 7, 8

prices, international, 1–2, 2f, 94

  • competitiveness and, 17–18b
  • domestic prices and, 18, 27–28, 34, 38–41
  • opposition to reform and, 28
  • overconsumption of energy and, 19
  • subsidy measurement and, 5, 6b, 7b

pricing

  • depoliticization of, 38–41
  • multiple prices and, 100
  • phased and sequenced increases in, 33–34, 107
  • See also automatic pricing mechanisms

private sector investment, 2, 15–16

privatization

  • in Armenia, 130
  • in Brazil, 104–5, 115–18
  • in Mexico, 27, 120
  • in Philippines, 84–85
  • in Poland, 141–42
  • in Turkey, 40, 124
  • in Uganda, 69

producer subsidies, 1, 5, 8, 8n4

Public Electricity Service Act (Mexico), 119n6

public spending, 2, 15, 17f, 20–21, 37

public support for subsidy reform, 3, 3n2, 26–29, 32

Public Works Project (Yemen), 100

Q

Quasi-fiscal deficit (QFD), in Uganda, 71–72, 72t

R

Ramos administration, 80, 82

reform, 23–41

  • barriers to, 26–29
  • challenges and success of, 3
  • episodes of, 24–25t
  • See also coal subsidies; electricity subsidies; petroleum products subsidies; strategies for reform

regional integration, SOEs and, 35

Relapasa (Peru), 112

renewable energy investment, 3

research. See assessment of reform impact

Rural Electrification Agency (Uganda), 70

Russia, 13

S

safety net, 21, 28, 33, 34

  • in Armenia, 132
  • in Mauritania, 94–95
  • in Mexico, 122
  • in Nigeria, 61
  • in Poland, 139–42
  • reforms and, 36, 37, 41
  • See also poverty, mitigating measures for

Sargsyan, Gevorg, 130

sequencing of price increases, 34

Shkaratan, M., 68

Small Power Utilities Group (Philippines), 84

smoothing rules/mechanisms, 40

  • in Chile, 109–11
  • in Mauritania, 94–95
  • in Namibia, 51
  • in Niger, 53
  • in Peru, 112–13, 114–15

smuggling, 3, 16, 16n2

  • in Niger, 53
  • in Nigeria, 58–59

SO2

  • corrective taxes and, 147
  • environmental and health impact of, 165–66
  • subsidy reform and, 19

Social Fund for Development, 100

social spending. See public spending

Social Welfare Fund, 100

SOMELEC (Mauritania), 94

SONIDEP (Niger), 52

SORAZ (Niger), 52, 55

South Africa, 33, 39

  • gasoline pump prices in, 63f
  • macroeconomics and, 62t
  • petroleum product subsidies in, 62–64

Southern African Customs Union (SACU), 47

Soviet Union collapse, 128

stabilization funds

  • in Brazil, 103
  • in Chile, 109–11
  • in Peru, 112–14
  • in Philippines, 79–81

stakeholders, consultation with, 31–32

  • in Ghana, 46
  • in Niger, 55, 56

state-owned enterprises (SOEs)

  • improved efficiency of, 35, 69
  • investment in energy by, 15
  • as obstacles to reform, 28, 123–24
  • pretax subsidies and, 7
  • restructuring and, 136
  • social measures and, 38

strategies for reform, 29–41

  • communication and, 32–33
  • comprehensive plan and, 29–32
  • depoliticization of pricing and, 38–41
  • phased and sequenced price increases and, 33–34
  • protection for the poor and, 36–38
  • SOEs improved efficiency and, 35

sub-Saharan Africa, reforms in, 35, 43–74

  • electricity subsidies and, 16b
  • in Ghana, 43–47
  • in Kenya, 64–69
  • magnitude of subsidies and, 11f, 12f, 13
  • in Namibia, 47–51
  • in Niger, 51–57
  • in Nigeria, 57–62
  • in South Africa, 62–64
  • in Uganda, 69–74

Subsidy Reinvestment and Empowerment (SURE) Program (Nigeria), 59–61

Suharto administration, 76, 78

supply cost, 5, 5n2, 8

  • electricity and, 6b

T

Taiwan Province of China, 13

tariffs

  • lifeline, 37, 69, 73, 74, 84, 128
  • multitier, 89
  • “summer subsidies” and, 121–22

taxes, excise, 110, 112, 114, 125

tax subsidies, 2, 5, 126

technical assistance missions, 26, 26n3

Tema Oil Refinery (TOR) (Ghana), 43–44

thermal power, 70–71, 73, 94

transparency, 32–33

  • in Chile, 111
  • in Kenya, 69
  • in Niger, 56
  • in Peru, 115
  • in South Africa, 62

TÜPRAŞ (Turkey), 123–25

Turkey, 23n1, 29, 30, 34, 39, 40

  • electricity subsidies in, 133–36
  • macroeconomics and, 124t, 125f
  • petroleum product subsidies in, 123–27

Türkiye Petrolleri Anonim Ortakl1ğ1 (TPAO), 123

U

Uganda, 32, 33

  • electricity subsidies in, 69–74
  • explicit fiscal subsidies in, 71t
  • macroeconomics and, 70t
  • quasi-fiscal deficit QFD in, 71–72, 72t

Uganda Electricity Board (UEB), 69

Uganda Electricity Distribution Company, Ltd. (UEDCL), 70

Uganda Electricity Generation Company Ltd. (UEGCL), 70

Uganda Electricity Transmission Company, Ltd. (UETCL), 70–71

UMEME Ltd. (Uganda), 70, 71, 74

UNICEF, 95–96

unions, 29

  • in Mexico, 120–21
  • in Nigeria, 60–61
  • in Poland, 136–37, 142

United States, 13

United States Interagency Working Group on Social Cost of Carbon (2013), 146

urban middle class, 28

V

VAT (value added tax)

  • Kenya and, 66
  • Philippines and, 81–82, 83
  • posttax subsidy estimates and, 8, 12f, 145, 147–48, 147n7
  • pretax subsidy estimates and, 144
  • Turkey and, 126

W

West Texas Intermediate (WTI) prices, 110

World Bank, 68, 94, 96, 98

World Food Program, 95–96

Y

Yemen, 27, 38

  • fuel prices and pass-through prices, 101f
  • macroeconomics and, 97t, 99f
  • petroleum product subsidies in, 96–102

Yudhoyono, Susilo Bambang, 76, 78

Z

Zedillo administration, 120

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