Back Matter

Back Matter

Author(s):
Benedict Clements, David Coady, Stefania Fabrizio, Sanjeev Gupta, Trevor Alleyne, and Carlo Sdralevich
Published Date:
September 2013
Share
  • ShareShare

Related Material

Show Summary Details
References

    Ajodhia, V., W.Mulder, and T.Slot, 2012, Tariff Structures for Sustainable Electrification in Africa (Arnhem, the Netherlands: KEMA).

    Amavilah, V. H. S., 1999, “The Resellers’ Regulated Demand Price of 93 Octane Petrol in Namibia Relative to OPEC Crude Oil Price, 1991,” Discussion Paper No. 10, Ore Body Engineering Ltd.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Antmann, Pedro, 2009, “Reducing Technical and Non-Technical Losses in the Power Sector,” Background Paper for the World Bank Group Energy Sector Strategy (Washington: World Bank).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Arze del Granado, Javier, DavidCoady, and RobertGillingham, 2012, “The Unequal Benefits of Fuel Subsidies: A Review of Evidence for Developing Countries,” World Development, Vol. 40 (November), pp. 2234–48.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Atiyas, Izak, and MarkDutz, 2012, “Competition and Regulatory Reform in the Turkish Electricity Industry,” in Reforming Turkish Energy Markets (New York: Springer).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Bacon, R., E.Ley, and M.Kojima, 2010, “Subsidies in the Energy Sector: An Overview,” Background Paper for the World Bank Group Energy Sector Strategy, July (Washington: World Bank).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Baig, Taimur, AmineMati, DavidCoady, and JosephNtamatungiro, 2007, “Domestic Petroleum Product Prices and Subsidies: Recent Developments and Reform Strategies,” IMF Working Paper No. 07/71 (Washington: International Monetary Fund). Available via the Internet: http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/2007/wp0771.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Bank of Namibia, 2005, Quarterly Bulletin, Vol. 14, No. 1 (March).

    Beaton, Christopher, and LuckyLontoh, 2010, “Lessons Learned from Indonesia’s Attempts to Reform Fossil-Fuel Subsidies” (Winnipeg: International Institute for Sustainable Development).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Bernardo, Romeo L., Marie-ChristineG. Tang, 2008, “The Political Economy of Reform during the Ramos Administration (1992–98),” Commission on Growth and Development Working Paper No. 39 (Washington: World Bank).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Besant-Jones, John E., 2006, “Reforming Power Markets in Developing Countries: What Have We Learned?” Energy and Mining Sector Board Discussion Paper No. 19 (Washington: World Bank).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Blaschke, W., and U.Lorenz, 2004, “Restructuring of Polish Hard Coal Industry in the Last Decade and Perspectives for the Next Decade,” in European Conference on Raw Building and Coal: New Perspectives (Sarajevo: Wyd IP Svjetlost, d.d.). Available via the Internet: http://www.min-pan.krakow.pl/zaklady/zrynek/zasoby/04_04wb_ul_sarajewo.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    BP, 2012, Statistical Review of World Energy: June2012. Available via the Internet: http://www.bp.com/statisticalreview

    Breisinger, Clemens, WilfriedEngelke, and OliverEcker, 2011, “Petroleum Subsidies in Yemen: Leveraging Reform for Development,” Policy Research Working Paper No. 5577 (Washington: World Bank).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Briceño-Garmendia, C., and M.Shkaratan, 2011a, “Kenya’s Infrastructure: A Continental Perspective,” Policy Research Working Paper No. 5596 (Washington: World Bank).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Briceño-Garmendia, C., and M.Shkaratan, 2011b, “Power Tariffs: Caught between Costs Recovery and Affordability,” Policy Research Working Paper No. 5904 (Washington: World Bank).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Burniaux, Jean-Marc, JeanChateau, RomainDuval, and StéphanieJamet, 2009, “The Economics of Climate Change Mitigation: How to Build the Necessary Global Action in a Cost-Effective Manner,” OECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 701 (Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Calderón, César, 2008, “Infrastructure and Growth in Africa,” Policy Research Working Paper No. 4914 (Washington: World Bank).

    Carreón-Rodriguez, Victor, ArmandoJiménezSanVicente, and JuanRosellón, 2003, “The Mexican Electricity Sector: Economic, Legal and Political Issues,” Working paper (Stanford, CA: Program on Energy and Sustainable Development, Stanford University).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Clements, Benedict, SanjeevGupta, and MasahiroNozaki, 2012, “What Happens to Social Spending in IMF-Supported Programs?” Applied Economics, Vol. 45, No. 28, pp. 4022–33.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Clements, Benedict, Hong-SangJung, and SanjeevGupta, 2007, “Real and Distributive Effects of Petroleum Price Liberalization: The Case of Indonesia,” The Developing Economies, Vol. 45, No. 2, pp. 220–37.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Coady, David, JavierArze del Granado, LucEyraud, HuiJin, VimalThakoor, AnitaTuladhar, and LillaNemeth, 2012, “Automatic Fuel Pricing Mechanisms with Price Smoothing: Design, Implementation, and Fiscal Implications,” Technical Notes and Manuals No. 12/03 (Washington: International Monetary Fund). Available via the Internet: http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/tnm/2012/tnm1203.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Coady, David, MoatazEl-Said, RobertGillingham, KangniKpodar, PauloMedas, and DavidNewhouse, 2006, “The Magnitude and Distribution of Fuel Subsidies: Evidence from Bolivia, Ghana, Jordan, Mali, and Sri Lanka,” IMF Working Paper No. 06/247 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Coady, David, RobertGillingham, RolandoOssowski, JohnPiotrowski, ShamsuddinTareq, and JustinTyson, 2010, “Petroleum Product Subsidies: Costly, Inequitable, and Rising,” IMF Staff Position Note No. 10/05 (Washington: International Monetary Fund). Available via the Internet: http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/spn/2010/spn1005.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Coady, David, and DavidNewhouse, 2006, “Evaluating the Distribution of the Real Income Effects of Increases in Petroleum Product Prices in Ghana,” in Analyzing the Distributional Impacts of Reforms: Operational Experience in Implementing Poverty and Social Impact Analysis, ed. byA.Coudouel, A.Dani, and S.Paternostro (Washington: World Bank).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Competition Tribunal of South Africa, 2006, “Uhambo Merger Findings,” Case No: 101/LM/Dec04.

    Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit, 2009, International Fuel Prices 2009 (Bonn and Berlin, 6th ed.).

    Dick, Herman, SanjeevGupta, DavidVincent, and HerbertVoight, 1984, “The Impact of Oil Price Increases on Four Oil-Poor Developing Countries: A Comparative Analysis,” Energy Economics, Vol. 6 (January), pp. 59–70.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Ebert, Sebastian, GerhardP. Metschies, DominikSchmid, and ArminWagner, 2009, International Fuel Prices 2009 (Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit, 6th ed.).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Ellis, Jennifer, 2010, “The Effects of Fossil-Fuel Subsidy Reform: A Review of Modelling and Empirical Studies,” in The Untold Billions: Fossil-Fuel Subsidies, Their Impacts and the Path to Reform (Geneva: Global Subsidies Initiative).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Energy Information Administration (EIA), 2012, “Fuel Competition in Power Generation and Elasticities of Substitution” (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Environmental Protection Agency, 2012, “Quarterly Emissions Tracking,” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Available via the Internet: http://www.epa.gov/airmarkt/quarterlytracking.html

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Escribano, Alvaro, J.Luis Guasch, and JorgePena, 2008, “A Robust Assessment of the Impact of Infrastructure on African Firms’ Productivity,” Africa Infrastructure Country, Diagnostic Working Paper (Washington: World Bank).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Fernandez, Luisa, and RosechinOlfindo, 2011, “Overview of the Philippines’ Conditional Cash Transfer Program,” Social Protection Note No. 2, May (Washington: World Bank).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Fiszbein, Ariel, and NorbertSchady, 2009, Conditional Cash Transfers: Reducing Present and Future Poverty, Policy Research Report (Washington: World Bank).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Fofana, Ismaél, MargaretChitiga, and RamosMabugu, 2009, “Oil Prices and the South African Economy: A Macro-Meso-Micro Analysis,” Energy Policy, Vol. 37 (December), pp. 5509–18.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Foster, V., and C.Briceño-Garmendia, 2010, Africa’s Infrastructure: A Time for Transformation (Washington: World Bank).

    Foster, Vivien, and JevgenijsSteinbuks, 2008, “Paying the Price for Unreliable Power Supplies: In-House Generation of Electricity by Firms in Africa,” Policy Research Working Paper No. 4913 (Washington: World Bank).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Garcia, Morito, and CharityM. T. Moore, 2012, The Cash Dividend: The Rise of Cash Transfers in Sub-Saharan Africa, (Washington: World Bank).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Gelb, Alan, andassociates, 1988, Oil Windfalls: Blessing or Curse? (New York: Oxford University Press).

    Giambiagi, F., and M.Moreira, 1999, “A Economia Brasileira nos Anos 90” (Rio de Janeiro: Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Global Subsidies Initiative, 2010, “Strategies for Reforming Fossil-Fuel Subsidies: Practical Lessons from Ghana, France and Senegal,” in The Untold Billions: Fossil-Fuel Subsidies, Their Impacts and the Path to Reform (Winnipeg: International Institute for Sustainable Development).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Graham, Carol, 1998, Private Markets for Public Goods: Raising the Stakes in Economic Reform (Washington: World Bank).

    Grosh, Margaret, Carlodel Ninno, EmilTesliuc, and AzedineOuerghi, 2008, For Promotion and Protection: The Design and Implementation of Effective Safety Nets (Washington: World Bank).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Gupta, Sanjeev, 1983, “India and the Second OPEC Oil Shock—An Economy-Wide Analysis,” Review of World Economics, Vol. 119, No. 1, pp. 122–37.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Gupta, Sanjeev, BenedictClements, KevinFletcher, and IsabelInchauste, 2004, “Issues in Domestic Petroleum Pricing in Oil-Producing Countries,” in Fiscal Policy Formulation and Implementation in Oil-Producing Countries, ed. byJ.Davis, R.Ossowski, and A.Fedelino (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Gupta, Sanjeev, MarijnVerhoeven, RobertGillingham, ChristianSchiller, AliMansoor, and JuanPablo Cordoba, 2000, Equity and Efficiency in the Reform of Price Subsidies: A Guide for Policymakers (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Heggie, Ian G., and PiersVickers, 1998, “Commercial Management and Financing of Roads,” World Bank Technical Paper No. 409 (Washington: World Bank). Available via the Internet: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/1998/05/441617/commercial-management-financing-roads

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Institute for Fiscal Studies, 2012, “Tax and Benefit Tables” (London). Available via the Internet: http://www.ifs.org.uk/fiscalFacts/taxTables

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    International Energy Agency, 2010, “Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Turkey 2009 Review” (Paris).

    International Energy Agency, 2011a, “Development in Energy Subsidies,” in the World Energy Outlook (Paris).

    International Energy Agency, 2011b, “Fossil-Fuel Subsidies—Methodology and Assumptions,” World Energy Outlook. Available via the Internet: http://www.iea.org/publications/worldenergyoutlook/resources/energysubsidies/methodologyforcalculatingsubsidies

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    International Energy Agency, 2011c, World Energy Outlook (Paris).

    International Finance Corporation, 2012, From Gap to Opportunity: Business Models for Scaling up Energy Access (Washington).

    International Monetary Fund, 2001, “Ghana,” Country Report No. 01/141 (Washington).

    International Monetary Fund, 2005a, “Ghana,” Country Report No. 05/292 (Washington).

    International Monetary Fund, 2005b, “Power Sector Reform in the Philippines,” in Philippines: Selected Issues Paper (Washington).

    International Monetary Fund, 2008, “Food and Fuel Prices—Recent Developments, Macroeconomic Impact, and Policy Responses” (Washington). Available via the Internet: http://www.imf.org/external/np/pp/eng/2008/063008.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    International Monetary Fund, 2011a, “Ghana,” Country Report No. 11/128 (Washington).

    International Monetary Fund, 2011b, Regional Economic Outlook: Middle East and Central Asia, World Economic and Financial Surveys (Washington).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    International Monetary Fund, 2012a, “Fiscal Transparency, Accountability, and Risk,” IMF Policy Paper (Washington). Available via the Internet: https://www.imf.org/external/np/pp/eng/2012/080712.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    International Monetary Fund, 2012b, “Ghana,” Country Report No. 12/36 (Washington).

    International Monetary Fund, 2012c, “Ghana,” Country Report No. 12/201 (Washington).

    International Monetary Fund, 2012d, “Managing Global Growth Risks and Commodity Price Shocks: Vulnerabilities and Policy Challenges for Low-Income Countries” (Washington). Available via the Internet: http://www.imf.org/external/np/pp/eng/2011/092111.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    International Monetary Fund, 2012e, Regional Economic Outlook: Sub-Saharan Africa: Sustaining Growth amid Global Uncertainty, World Economic and Financial Surveys (Washington).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    International Monetary Fund, forthcoming, “Pricing Energy for Environmental Damages: Putting Principle into Practice” (Washington).

    Komives, Kristin, ToddJohnson, JonathanHalpern, Jose LuisAburto, and JohnScott, 2009, “Residential Electricity Subsidies in Mexico: Exploring Options for Reform and for Enhancing the Impact on the Poor,” Working Paper No. 160 (Washington: World Bank).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Koplow, Doug, 2009, “Measuring Energy Subsidies Using the Price-Gap Approach: What Does It Leave out?” IISD Trade, Investment and Climate Change Series (Winnipeg: International Institute for Sustainable Development). Available via the Internet: http://www.iisd.org/publications/pub.aspx?pno=1165

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Kumar, Manmohan S., and JaejoonWoo, 2010, “Public Debt and Growth,” IMF Working Paper No. 10/174 (Washington: International Monetary Fund). Available via the Internet: http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/2010/wp10174.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Kumar, Manmohan S., AnthonyA. Kolb, SumilaGulyani, and VahramAvenesyan, 2011, “Utility Pricing and the Poor: Lessons from Armenia,” Technical Paper No. 497 (Washington: World Bank).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Lampietti, Julian, AnthonyA. Kolb, SumilaGulyani, and VahramAvenesyan, 2011, “Utility Pricing and the Poor: Lessons from Armenia,” World Bank Technical Papers No. 497 (Washington: World Bank).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Larrain, Felipe B., 2010, “Nuevos Mecanismos de Protección ante Variaciones de Precios de Combustibles,” Presentation, Chilean Ministry of Finance. Available via the Internet: http://www.chiletransporte.cl/3w/images/Documentos/Sipco.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Lofgren, Hans, 1995, “Macro and Micro Effects of Subsidy Cuts: A Short Run CGE Analysis for Egypt,” TMD Discussion Paper No. 5 (Washington: International Food Policy Research Institute).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Márquez, Miguel, 2000, “El Fondo de Estabilización de Precios del Petróleo (FEPP) y el Mercado de los derivados en Chile,” División de Recursos Naturales e Infraestructura, ECLAC. Available via the Internet: http://www.eclac.org/publicaciones/xml/9/5789/Lcl1452e.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Mota, Raffaella, 2003, “The Restructuring and Privatisation of Electricity Distribution and Supply Business in Brazil: A Social Cost-Benefit Analysis,” Working Paper No. WP 0309 (Cambridge: University of Cambridge, Department of Applied Economics).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Mourougane, Annabelle, 2010, “Phasing out Energy Subsidies in Indonesia,” OECD Economics Department Working Paper No. 808 (Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    National Research Council, 2009, “Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use,” Committee on Health, Environmental, Other External Costs and Benefits of Energy Production and Consumption (Washington: National Academies Press).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Nixson, Frederick, and BernardWalters, 2005, “Utilities’ Pricing and the Poor: The Case of Armenia,” UNDP Armenia White Paper (New York: United Nations Development Program).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Nordhaus, William, 2011, “Estimates of the Social Cost of Carbon: Background and Results from the RICE-2011 Model,” NBER Working Paper No. 17540 (Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Okigbo, Patrick O., and DiliEnekebe, 2011, “Nigeria: Fuel Subsidy Removal—Achieving the Optimal Solution,” Nextier Policy Brief, December15 (Washington: Nextier).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Okonjo-Iweala, Ngozi, 2011, “Brief on Fuel Subsidy,” December6 (Nigeria: Federal Ministry of Finance).

    Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2004, Mexico: Progress in Implementing Regulatory Reform (Paris).

    Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2009, “The Economics of Climate Change Mitigation Policies and Options for Global Action beyond 2012” (Paris).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2012a, “Inventory of Estimated Budgetary Support and Tax Expenditures for Fossil Fuels” (Paris). Available via the Internet: http://www.oecd.org/tad/environmentandtrade/inventoryofestimatedbudgetarysupportandtaxexpendituresforfossilfuels.htm

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2012b, “Mortality Risk Valuation in Environment, Health and Transport Policies” (Paris).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2013, “Chile: Inventory of Estimated Budgetary Support and Tax Expenditures for Fossil Fuels,” Overview Note, OECD-IEA Fossil Fuel Subsidies and Other Support. Available via the Internet: http://www.oecd.org/site/tadffss/Chileoverviewfossilfuelsupport2013.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    O’Ryan, Raul, SebastianMiller, JorgeRogat, and Carlosde Miguel, 2003, “The Impact of Removing Energy Subsidies in Chile,” in Energy Subsidies: Lessons Learned in Assessing Their Impact and Designing Policy Reforms (Geneva: United Nations Environment Program). Available via the Internet: http://www.unep.ch/etb/publications/energySubsidies/Energysubreport.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Parry, Ian W. H., 2011, “How Much Should Highway Fuels Be Taxed?” in U.S. Energy Tax Policy, ed. byGilbert E.Metcalf (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Parry, Ian W. H., and KennethA. Small, 2005, “Does Britain or the United States Have the Right Gasoline Tax?” American Economic Review, Vol. 95, No. 4, pp. 1276–89.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Parry, Ian W. H., and JonStrand, 2011, “International Fuel Tax Assessment: An Application to Chile,” IMF Working Paper No. 11/168 (Washington: International Monetary Fund). Available via the Internet: http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/2011/wp11168.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Philippines, Department of Energy, 2006, “8th EPIRA Implementation Status Report” (Manila).

    Ranganathan, R., and VivienFoster, 2012, “Uganda’s Infrastructure: A Continental Perspective,” Policy Research Working Paper No. 5963 (Washington: World Bank).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Sargsyan, Gevorg, AniBalabanyan, and DenzelHankinson, 2006, “From Crisis to Stability in the Armenian Power Sector: Lessons Learned from Armenia’s Energy Reform Experience,” Working Paper No. 74 (Washington: World Bank).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Stern, Nicholas, 2006, Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change (London: Her Majesty’s Treasury).

    Sterner, Thomas, ed., 2012, Fuel Taxes and the Poor: The Distributional Effects of Gasoline Taxation and Their Implications for Climate Policy (Washington: RFF Press).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Suwala, Wojciech, 2010, “Lessons Learned from the Restructuring of Poland’s Coal-Mining Industry” (Geneva: Global Subsidies Initiative). Available via the Internet: http://www.iisd.org/gsi/sites/default/files/poland_casestudy_ffs.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Uganda, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development, 2012a, Energy and Mineral Sector Performance Report, 2008–2011 (Kampala).

    Uganda, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development, 2012b, Performance of the Uganda Power Sector (Kampala).

    United Nations Environment Program and the International Energy Agency, 2002, “Reforming Energy Subsidies: An Explanatory Summary of the Issues and Challenges in Removing or Modifying Subsidies on Energy that Undermine the Pursuit of Sustainable Development” (Paris).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    United Nations Environment Program, 2008, “Reforming Energy Subsidies: Opportunities to Contribute to the Climate Change Agenda,” Division of Technology, Industry and Economics (Paris).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    United States, Interagency Working Group on Social Cost of Carbon, 2013, “Technical Support Document: Technical Update of the Social Cost of Carbon for Regulatory Impact Analysis Under Executive Order 12866.” Available via the Internet: http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/inforeg/social_cost_of_carbon_for_ria_2013_update.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Vagliasindi, Maria, 2013, “Implementing Energy Subsidy Reforms: Evidence from Developing Countries” (Washington: World Bank). Available via the Internet: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/11965

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Velody, Mark, MichaelJ. G. Cain, and MichaelPhilips, 2003, “Energy Reform and Social Protection in Armenia,” in A Regional Review of Social Safety Net Approaches: In Support of Energy Sector Reform (Washington: United States Agency for International Development).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    von Moltke, Anja, ColinMcKee, and TrevorMorgan, 2004, Energy Subsidies: Lessons Learned in Assessing Their Impact and Designing Policy Reforms (Sheffield: Greenleaf Publishing).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    World Bank, 2008, Philippines Quarterly Update (Washington). Available via the Internet: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2008/11/11962976/philippines-quarterly-update

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    World Bank, 2009, “Philippines—First Development Policy Loan Project.” Available via the Internet: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2009/09/11415139/philippines-first-development-policy-loan-project

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    World Bank, 2010a, “Project Appraisal Document for the Electricity Expansion Project,” Report No. 54147-KE, May (Washington).

    World Bank, 2010b, “Subsidies in the Energy Sector: An Overview,” Background Paper for the World Bank Group Energy Sector Strategy, July. Available via the Internet: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTESC/Resources/Subsidy_background_paper.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    World Bank, 2011a, “Uganda: Strategic Review of the Electricity Sector,” Draft policy note (Washington).

    World Bank, 2011b, “Proposed Credit to the Republic of Uganda for an Electricity Sector Development Project,” Report No. 59310-UG, May (Washington).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    World Bank, 2012a, Improving the Targeting of Social Programs in Ghana, ed. byQ.Wendon (Washington).

    World Bank, 2012b, “Proposed Credit in the Amount of SDR 32.3 million (US$50 million equivalent) to the Republic of Niger for a First Shared Growth Credit,” Report No. 69131-NE, May31 (Washington).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

    Zhang, Fan, 2011, “Distributional Impact Analysis of the Energy Price Reform in Turkey,” Policy Research Working Paper No. 5831 (Washington: World Bank).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Contributors

Trevor Alleyne, Advisor, African Department

Andreas Bauer, Assistant Director, Strategy, Policy, and Review Department

Benedict Clements, Division Chief, Fiscal Affairs Department

David Coady, Deputy Division Chief, Fiscal Affairs Department

Antonio David, Economist, Institute for Capacity Development

Ozgur Demirkol, Senior Economist, Middle East and Central Asia Department

Allan Dizioli, Economist, Fiscal Affairs Department

Stefania Fabrizio, Deputy Division Chief, Fiscal Affairs Department

Katja Funke, Economist, Fiscal Affairs Department

Sanjeev Gupta, Deputy Director, Fiscal Affairs Department

Farayi Gwenhamo, Economist, African Department

Mumtaz Hussain, Senior Economist, African Department

Christian Josz, Deputy Division Chief, African Department

Alvar Kangur, Economist, Fiscal Affairs Department

Javier Kapsoli, Economist, Fiscal Affairs Department

Kangni Kpodar, Senior Economist, Fiscal Affairs Department

Clara Mira, Economist, African Department

Luc Moers, Senior Economist, Middle East and Central Asia Department

Masahiro Nozaki, Senior Economist, Fiscal Affairs Department

Anton Op de Beke, Resident Representative, African Department

Dragana Ostojic, Economist, Middle East and Central Asia Department

Ian Parry, Technical Assistance Advisor, Fiscal Affairs Department

Edgardo Ruggiero, Senior Economist, African Department

Carlo Sdralevich, Deputy Division Chief, Middle East and Central Asia Department

Louis Sears, Research Assistant, Fiscal Affairs Department

Baoping Shang, Economist, Fiscal Affairs Department

Sukhwinder Singh, Assistant to the Director, African Department

Mauricio Soto, Economist, Fiscal Affairs Department

Vimal Thakoor, Economist, African Department

Genevieve Verdier, Senior Economist, African Department

Mauricio Villafuerte, Deputy Division Chief, African Department

Younes Zouhar, Senior Economist, Middle East and Central Asia Department

Index

[Page numbers followed by b, f, n, or t refer to boxes, figures, footnotes or tables, respectively.]

A

Africa. See Middle East and North Africa; Sub-Saharan Africa

Agência Nacional do Petróleo (Brazil), 104–5

alternative energy, affordable, 38

Armenia, 28, 36

  • bill collection rate for electricity in, 128–29, 131f, 133
  • electricity sector financial deficit in, 130f
  • electricity subsidies in, 127–33
  • macroeconomics and, 127t, 131f
  • residential electricity tariffs in, 129f
  • Azerbaijan conflict and, 128

Arroyo administration, 83

Asia, reforms in, 75–85

  • in Indonesia, 75–79
  • magnitude of subsidies and, 11, 11f, 12f
  • in Philippines, 79–85

Asian crisis, 75, 78, 81

assessment of reform impact, 31

  • in Ghana, 45, 46
  • in Nigeria, 62

automatic pricing mechanisms, 39, 64

  • in Mauritania, 93–94, 95–96
  • in Niger, 53
  • in Turkey, 124–25

B

Balabanyan, Ani, 130

balance-of-payments, 18

Bantuan Langsun Tunai (Indonesia), 77–78

Belgium, 13

black markets, 98

block tariff scheme (IBT), 66

Brazil, 29, 33, 34

  • electricity subsidies in, 115–18
  • fuel prices in, 105–6, 106f
  • macroeconomics and, 104t, 105f, 117f
  • petroleum product subsidies in, 103–8

Briceño-Garmendia, C., 68

budgets, recording of subsidies in, 7, 26

  • in Mexico, 120
  • in Niger, 55
  • in Uganda, 71, 71t

Bujagali hydro generation unit (Uganda), 71–72

Burkina Faso, 35

C

Cape Verde, 35

capital-intensive industries, 2

Cardoso administration, 107, 118

Caribbean, 11, 11f, 12f, 13

case studies, 4, 23, 24–25t, 26, 26n2

cash transfers, 36–37

  • in Armenia, 132
  • in Brazil, 107
  • in Indonesia, 77–78
  • in Iran, 87–90
  • in Mauritania, 95
  • in Mexico, 122
  • in Yemen, 99–100

Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)

  • Armenia and, 127–33
  • magnitude of subsidies and, 11, 11f, 12f
  • Poland and, 136–42
  • Turkey and, 123–27, 133–36

Central Energy Fund (South Africa), 63–64

CFE (Comisión Federal de Electricidad) (Mexico), 119–20

Chile

  • macroeconomics and, 108t
  • petroleum product subsidies in, 108–11
  • stabilization funds in, 110f

China, 13, 40

CIS. See Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)

CO2 emissions

  • corrective taxes and, 145, 146
  • environmental and health impact of, 165–67
  • subsidy reform and, 19

coal

  • corrective taxes and, 147
  • environmental and health impact of, 166
  • international prices of, 2f
  • pretax subsidies and, 144, 144n2

coal subsidies

  • as percent of total, 9
  • in Poland, 136–42

collection rates, in Armenia, 128–29, 131f, 133

Comisión Federal de Electricidad (Mexico), 29, 119

Comisión Reguladora de la Energia (Mexico), 119

communication strategy, 32–33

  • in Ghana, 45, 46
  • in Indonesia, 79
  • in Iran, 90
  • in Niger, 56
  • in Nigeria, 59–60, 61
  • in Philippines, 80, 82
  • in Uganda, 74

community development, 100

competitiveness, 15–16, 17–18b, 28

comprehensive reform plans, 29–32

  • in Namibia, 51
  • in Philippines, 80, 82, 84–85
  • in Yemen, 100

consequences of subsidies, 2–3

  • depression of economic growth and, 15–18
  • inequity and, 19–21, 20f
  • macroeconomic imbalances and, 18
  • overconsumption of energy and, 18–19

Consumer’s Protection System for Fuel Excise Taxes (SIPCO) (Chile), 110

consumer subsidies, 1–2, 5–13, 6b

corrective taxes, 6n3, 8, 145–47, 145n4, 146t

cost of subsidies. See consequences of subsidies; financing of subsidies

CRC (Conta de Resultados a Compensar) (Brazil), 116

crises, economic

  • 1997 Asian, 75, 78, 81
  • 2007–8 global fuel and food, 2, 46, 81, 92

crude oil

  • in Brazil, 103
  • in Chile, 108
  • international prices of, 2f
  • in South Africa, 62

D

definition and measurement of subsidies, 5–13

  • caveats and, 8–9, 167
  • consumer, 1–2, 5–13, 6b
  • environmental and health impact and, 165–67
  • posttax, 6, 6b, 8, 13, 145–48, 157–64t
  • pretax, 1–2, 5–13, 6b, 9f, 10f, 11f, 143–45, 149–55t
  • producer, 1, 5, 8, 8n4
  • tax, 2, 5

Deutsche Gesellschaftfur Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), 7, 143

diesel

  • in Brazil, 29, 34, 103–7
  • effects of subsidies on, 19, 20f
  • environmental impact of, 165
  • in Indonesia, 76
  • international prices of, 2f
  • in Mauritania, 93, 93f, 94
  • in Namibia, 48–49
  • in Niger, 53, 55
  • in Nigeria, 57, 57n3
  • in Peru, 34, 111–12
  • in Turkey, 125, 126, 126f
  • in Uganda, 73
  • in Yemen, 96, 98

distributional effects of subsidies, 19, 20f

E

economic growth, depression of, 15–18

electricity

  • dual rate meters and, 132–33
  • generators and, 15n1, 68
  • pretax subsidies and, 144–45
  • price regulation and, 41
  • subsistence level of, 68
  • supply cost and, 6b
  • thermal power and, 70–71, 73, 94

Electricity Regulatory Authority (Uganda), 70, 72

electricity subsidies

  • in Armenia, 28, 31, 36–37, 127–33
  • in Brazil, 31, 115–18
  • in Cape Verde, 35
  • effects of, 19
  • in Kenya, 31, 33, 64–69
  • low-income groups and, 20, 37 (see also poverty, impact of subsidies on; poverty, mitigating measures for)
  • in Mauritania, 94, 96
  • measurement and, 8
  • in Mexico, 27–30, 119–22
  • as percent of total, 9
  • in Philippines, 82–84
  • pretax, 9
  • reform and, 3, 30–31
  • in Sub-Saharan Africa, 16b
  • in Turkey, 29–30, 34, 133–36
  • in Uganda, 27, 33, 69–74

Electric Power Industry Reform Act (Philippines), 83

Emerging and Developing Asia. See Asia

ENAP (national oil company of Chile), 108–9

energy, affordable alternative, 38

energy consumption, 2–3, 18–19

Energy Market Regulatory Authority (Turkey), 40, 125, 127

Energy Regulatory Commission (Philippines), 83

Energy Regulatory Commission (ERC) (Kenya), 65–67, 69

energy sector investment, 15–16, 16b

energy shortages, 15, 15n1

Energy Tribunal, 65

enterprise

  • development, 100
  • restructuring, 89, 138–39

environmental impact, 165–67

Equalization Fund (South Africa), 63

equity and subsidies, 19–21, 20f

  • see also poverty, mitigating measures for

Eskom Uganda, 70

ethanol, in Brazil, 106–7

Europe. See Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)

European Union (EU), Turkey and, 124–25, 127

excise taxes, 110, 112, 114, 125, 126f

Extended Arrangement (1998) (Philippines), 79

Extended Credit Facility (ECF) (Mauritania), 92

F

FEPC (Fondo de Estabilización de Precios de los Combustibles) (Chile), 109–10

FEPC (Fondo de Estabilización de Precios de Combustibles) (Peru), 112–14

FEPP (Fondo de Estabilización de Precios del Petróleo) (Chile), 109–11

Finance and Public Credit, Ministry of (Mexico), 119–20

financial partners, engaging, 56

financing of subsidies, 7, 7b

fiscal imbalances, 2

Fox administration, 120–21

French Development Agency, 94, 96

Fuel Prices Stabilization Fund (FEPC) (Chile), 109–10

G

G-20 Pittsburgh Communiqué, 1n1

Gabon, 39

gasoline

  • in Brazil, 34, 104, 106
  • effects of subsidies on, 19, 20f
  • environmental impact of, 165
  • international prices of, 2f
  • in Iran, 87, 89
  • in Niger, 53, 55
  • in Nigeria, 31, 57–61
  • in Peru, 34, 115
  • in Turkey, 125, 126f
  • in Yemen, 96, 98, 98n2

gas vouchers, in Brazil, 107–8

generators, cost of, 15n1, 68

Ghana, 31, 33, 36, 38, 39

  • fuel prices and, 45f
  • macroeconomics and, 44t
  • petroleum product subsidies in, 43–47

Ghana Commercial Bank, 44

global subsidies landscape, 1–2

global warming

  • estimates of damage of, 8
  • overconsumption of energy and, 18–19

government and governance

  • improvements in, 102
  • lack of confidence in, 27, 78
  • role of, in liberalizing regime, 41
  • SOEs and, 35

H

Hankinson, Denzel, 130

health impact, 165–67

I

IMF (International Monetary Fund)

  • Extended Credit Facility (Yemen), 98
  • pretax subsidies and, 7–8, 143–45
  • programs of, 52–53, 53n2, 75, 79–80, 82, 92–94
  • reform case studies and, 3–4, 26

implicit subsidies, 26, 26n4

import tax, 107

incentives

  • domestic energy consumption and, 18
  • energy efficiency and, 18
  • smuggling and, 3, 16, 16n2

independent bodies/agencies, 39–40

  • in Armenia, 133
  • in Ghana, 46
  • in Indonesia, 78–79
  • in Kenya, 69
  • in Turkey, 125, 127
  • in Uganda, 74

India, financing fuel subsidies in, 7b

Indonesia, 27, 31–32, 36, 38

  • macroeconomics and, 76t, 77f
  • petroleum product subsidies in, 75–79

industrial sector, 28

inflation

  • opposition to reform and, 28–29
  • smoothing rule and, 40
  • subsidy reform and, 3

information, campaign of public

  • in Armenia, 129, 133
  • in Ghana, 46
  • in Iran, 90
  • in Niger, 56
  • in Nigeria, 59–61
  • in Philippines, 80
  • in Yemen, 98, 100

information, impact of lack of, 26–27, 120, 120n8

interest group opposition, 28–29

  • in Ghana, 46
  • in Indonesia, 75
  • in Mexico, 120–21
  • in Nigeria, 60
  • in Philippines, 79, 79n1
  • in Poland, 136, 138

international energy prices. See prices, international

investment

  • in energy, 3, 15–16
  • lack of and inefficiencies, 74
  • private, 2, 15–16

IPPs (independent power producers) (Philippines), 82

Iran, 28, 30, 38

  • macroeconomics and, 88t
  • petroleum product subsidies in, 87–90

Islamic Development Bank, 94

J

Justice and Development Party (Turkey), 125

K

Kenya, 31, 33, 37

  • electricity subsidies in, 64–69
  • hidden costs in power sector, 67f
  • macroeconomics and, 65t
  • power sector indicators, 66t

Kenya Electricity Generating Company (KenGen), 65–66

Kenya Power and Lighting Company (KPLC), 65–68

kerosene

  • effects of subsidies on, 19, 20f
  • environmental impact of, 165
  • in Indonesia, 38, 76, 77–78
  • international prices of, 2f
  • in Niger, 53
  • in Nigeria, 57–59
  • in Uganda, 73
  • in Yemen, 38, 96, 98, 100

L

labor market program, in Poland, 139–42

labor unions. See unions

Latin America and Caribbean, reforms in

  • in Brazil, 103–8, 115–18
  • in Chile, 108–11
  • magnitude of subsidies and, 11, 11f, 12f, 13
  • in Mexico, 119–22
  • in Peru, 111–15

(LFC) Luz y Fuerza del Centro (Mexico), 119n5

liabilities, assumption of, 142

lifeline tariffs, 37, 69, 73, 74, 84

liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)

  • in Brazil, 103–4, 106–7
  • consumer subsidies for, 8
  • effects of subsidies on, 20f
  • in Indonesia, 38, 76, 77–78
  • in Peru, 112, 114
  • in Philippines, 37
  • in Turkey, 34, 126
  • in Yemen, 38, 96, 98, 100

Liquid Fuels Industry Task Force (South Africa), 63

Livelihood Empowerment against Poverty (LEAP) (Ghana), 47

LPG. See liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)

M

macroeconomic conditions as barriers, 29

macroeconomic imbalances, 18

Mali, 35

Mauritania, 33

  • macroeconomics and, 91t
  • petroleum product subsidies in, 90–96

measurement

  • price-gap approach, 5, 7, 8
  • See also definition and measurement of subsidies

messages, key, in communication, 32

Mexico, 27, 28–29

  • electricity subsidies in, 119–22
  • macroeconomics and, 121f

Middle East and North Africa, reforms in

  • in Iran, 87–90
  • magnitude of subsidies and, 11, 11f, 12f, 13
  • in Mauritania, 90–96
  • in Yemen, 96–102

Mines and Energy, Ministry of (Namibia), 48–51

mitigating measures. See poverty, mitigating measures for

Mota, Raffaella, 118

Motherland Party (Turkey), 124–25

motor fuel, corrective taxes and, 146t

multitier tariffs, 89

N

Namibia, 30, 31, 32, 33

  • macroeconomics and, 47t, 50f
  • National Energy Fund and Slate Account, 49f
  • petroleum products subsidies in, 47–51

Namibian Petroleum Corporation (Namcor), 48, 50

National Deregulation Task Force (Namibia), 31, 49

National Energy Council (Indonesia), 79

National Energy Council (Namibia), 31, 49

National Energy Fund (NEF) (Namibia), 48–51

National Petroleum Agency (NPA) (Ghana), 43, 45–46

National Power Corporation (NPC) (Philippines), 82–84

National Union of Namibian Workers, 47

natural gas

  • in Brazil, 106
  • corrective taxes and, 147
  • effects of subsidies on, 19
  • environmental and health impact of, 166
  • international prices of, 2f
  • pretax subsidies and, 9, 144, 144n2

natural resources, 3

Niger, 31, 33

  • fuel prices and, 54f
  • macroeconomics and, 52t, 54f
  • petroleum products subsidies in, 51–57

Nigeria, 28, 33

  • fuel prices and, 58f, 58t
  • macroeconomics and, 57t
  • petroleum products subsidies in, 57–62

North Africa. See Middle East and North Africa

O

objectives, long-term, 30–31, 78

OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development)

  • environment and health impact and, 166
  • posttax subsidies and, 147
  • pretax subsidies and, 7–8, 143–44

oil-exporting countries

  • budgets and, 26
  • subsidy magnitude and, 11
  • subsidy reform and, 3

oil price stabilization fund (Brazil), 103, 107

Oil Price Stabilization Fund (Philippines), 79–81

Oil Prices Stabilization Fund (FEPP) (Chile), 109–11

OMCs (oil marketing companies), 7b

Oportunidades (Mexico), 122

P

participative approach, 56

pass-through to domestic prices, 1, 18

  • in Brazil, 106, 108
  • in Kenya, 65–66
  • in Namibia, 48, 50
  • in Niger, 52–53, 53n2
  • in Peru, 113
  • in Yemen, 101f

“People’s Power” revolution (Philippines), 79

Peru, 29, 34, 40

  • fuel subsidies and, 113f
  • petroleum product subsidies in, 111–15
  • stabilization fund and, 112–14, 114t

Petrobras (Brazil), 103–6

Petroleum Market Law (Turkey), 40, 125, 127

petroleum products

  • corrective taxes and, 146–47
  • environmental and health impact of, 165
  • pretax subsidies and, 143–44

Petroleum Products Pricing Regulatory Agency (Nigeria), 57

petroleum products subsidies

  • in Brazil, 103–8
  • in Chile, 108–11
  • in Ghana, 43–47
  • in Indonesia, 75–79
  • in Iran, 87–90
  • in Mauritania, 90–96
  • in Namibia, 43–47
  • in Niger, 51–57
  • in Nigeria, 57–62
  • as percent of total, 9
  • in Peru, 111–15
  • in Philippines, 79–82
  • pretax, 9, 20f
  • in South Africa, 62–64
  • in Turkey, 123–27
  • in Yemen, 96–102

Petroleum Support Fund (PSF), 57–58

Petrol Ofisi (Turkey), 123

PetroPerú, 112

phasing of price increases, 33–34

  • in Brazil, 107
  • in Indonesia, 76
  • in Iran, 87–88, 90
  • in Niger, 53, 55

Philippines, 27, 30, 32, 34, 37, 39

  • electricity subsidies in, 82–84
  • macroeconomics and, 80t, 81f, 8t, 84f
  • petroleum product subsidies in, 79–82

“Pigouvian” taxes, 6n3, 145

plans for reform. See comprehensive reform plans

Poland, 29, 38

  • coal industry indicators in, 140t, 141f
  • coal prices in, 138f
  • coal subsidies in, 136–142
  • macroeconomics and, 137t, 139f

politics and depoliticization, 38–41

  • in Armenia, 130, 133
  • in Brazil, 107, 118
  • in Ghana, 46, 51
  • in Mauritania, 95
  • in Mexico, 120–21
  • in Philippines, 79–80, 84
  • in Poland, 139–42
  • in Turkey, 127

pollution

  • environmental and health impact of, 165
  • overconsumption of energy and, 18–19

posttax subsidies

  • calculating, 148
  • corrective taxes and, 145–47
  • definition and measurement of, 6, 6b, 8, 13
  • low-income countries and, 147n6
  • as percent of GDP, 157–60t
  • in percent of government revenues, 161–64t
  • revenue component of, 147–48

poverty, impact of subsidies on, 20

poverty, mitigating measures for, 28, 36–38

  • in Armenia, 132–33
  • in Brazil, 107–8, 118
  • in Chile, 111
  • in Ghana, 44–47
  • in Indonesia, 77–78
  • in Iran, 88–89, 90
  • in Kenya, 68–69
  • in Mauritania, 92, 94–96
  • in Mexico, 122
  • in Namibia, 51
  • in Niger, 56–57
  • in Nigeria, 61
  • in Philippines, 81–82, 84
  • in Poland, 139–42
  • in Turkey, 125–26
  • in Yemen, 99–100

Poverty Family Benefit (Armenia), 36–37

Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF), 92

pretax subsidies

  • coal and natural gas and, 144
  • definition and measurement of, 1–2, 5–8, 6b, 9f
  • electricity and, 144–45
  • geography of, 11–13, 11f, 12f
  • magnitude of, 9–11, 10f
  • in percent of GDP, 149–52t
  • in percent of government revenues, 153–56t
  • petroleum products and, 143–44

PRI (Partido Revolucionario Institucional) (Mexico), 121

price-gap approach, 5, 7, 8

prices, international, 1–2, 2f, 94

  • competitiveness and, 17–18b
  • domestic prices and, 18, 27–28, 34, 38–41
  • opposition to reform and, 28
  • overconsumption of energy and, 19
  • subsidy measurement and, 5, 6b, 7b

pricing

  • depoliticization of, 38–41
  • multiple prices and, 100
  • phased and sequenced increases in, 33–34, 107
  • See also automatic pricing mechanisms

private sector investment, 2, 15–16

privatization

  • in Armenia, 130
  • in Brazil, 104–5, 115–18
  • in Mexico, 27, 120
  • in Philippines, 84–85
  • in Poland, 141–42
  • in Turkey, 40, 124
  • in Uganda, 69

producer subsidies, 1, 5, 8, 8n4

Public Electricity Service Act (Mexico), 119n6

public spending, 2, 15, 17f, 20–21, 37

public support for subsidy reform, 3, 3n2, 26–29, 32

Public Works Project (Yemen), 100

Q

Quasi-fiscal deficit (QFD), in Uganda, 71–72, 72t

R

Ramos administration, 80, 82

reform, 23–41

  • barriers to, 26–29
  • challenges and success of, 3
  • episodes of, 24–25t
  • See also coal subsidies; electricity subsidies; petroleum products subsidies; strategies for reform

regional integration, SOEs and, 35

Relapasa (Peru), 112

renewable energy investment, 3

research. See assessment of reform impact

Rural Electrification Agency (Uganda), 70

Russia, 13

S

safety net, 21, 28, 33, 34

  • in Armenia, 132
  • in Mauritania, 94–95
  • in Mexico, 122
  • in Nigeria, 61
  • in Poland, 139–42
  • reforms and, 36, 37, 41
  • See also poverty, mitigating measures for

Sargsyan, Gevorg, 130

sequencing of price increases, 34

Shkaratan, M., 68

Small Power Utilities Group (Philippines), 84

smoothing rules/mechanisms, 40

  • in Chile, 109–11
  • in Mauritania, 94–95
  • in Namibia, 51
  • in Niger, 53
  • in Peru, 112–13, 114–15

smuggling, 3, 16, 16n2

  • in Niger, 53
  • in Nigeria, 58–59

SO2

  • corrective taxes and, 147
  • environmental and health impact of, 165–66
  • subsidy reform and, 19

Social Fund for Development, 100

social spending. See public spending

Social Welfare Fund, 100

SOMELEC (Mauritania), 94

SONIDEP (Niger), 52

SORAZ (Niger), 52, 55

South Africa, 33, 39

  • gasoline pump prices in, 63f
  • macroeconomics and, 62t
  • petroleum product subsidies in, 62–64

Southern African Customs Union (SACU), 47

Soviet Union collapse, 128

stabilization funds

  • in Brazil, 103
  • in Chile, 109–11
  • in Peru, 112–14
  • in Philippines, 79–81

stakeholders, consultation with, 31–32

  • in Ghana, 46
  • in Niger, 55, 56

state-owned enterprises (SOEs)

  • improved efficiency of, 35, 69
  • investment in energy by, 15
  • as obstacles to reform, 28, 123–24
  • pretax subsidies and, 7
  • restructuring and, 136
  • social measures and, 38

strategies for reform, 29–41

  • communication and, 32–33
  • comprehensive plan and, 29–32
  • depoliticization of pricing and, 38–41
  • phased and sequenced price increases and, 33–34
  • protection for the poor and, 36–38
  • SOEs improved efficiency and, 35

sub-Saharan Africa, reforms in, 35, 43–74

  • electricity subsidies and, 16b
  • in Ghana, 43–47
  • in Kenya, 64–69
  • magnitude of subsidies and, 11f, 12f, 13
  • in Namibia, 47–51
  • in Niger, 51–57
  • in Nigeria, 57–62
  • in South Africa, 62–64
  • in Uganda, 69–74

Subsidy Reinvestment and Empowerment (SURE) Program (Nigeria), 59–61

Suharto administration, 76, 78

supply cost, 5, 5n2, 8

  • electricity and, 6b

T

Taiwan Province of China, 13

tariffs

  • lifeline, 37, 69, 73, 74, 84, 128
  • multitier, 89
  • “summer subsidies” and, 121–22

taxes, excise, 110, 112, 114, 125

tax subsidies, 2, 5, 126

technical assistance missions, 26, 26n3

Tema Oil Refinery (TOR) (Ghana), 43–44

thermal power, 70–71, 73, 94

transparency, 32–33

  • in Chile, 111
  • in Kenya, 69
  • in Niger, 56
  • in Peru, 115
  • in South Africa, 62

TÜPRAŞ (Turkey), 123–25

Turkey, 23n1, 29, 30, 34, 39, 40

  • electricity subsidies in, 133–36
  • macroeconomics and, 124t, 125f
  • petroleum product subsidies in, 123–27

Türkiye Petrolleri Anonim Ortakl1ğ1 (TPAO), 123

U

Uganda, 32, 33

  • electricity subsidies in, 69–74
  • explicit fiscal subsidies in, 71t
  • macroeconomics and, 70t
  • quasi-fiscal deficit QFD in, 71–72, 72t

Uganda Electricity Board (UEB), 69

Uganda Electricity Distribution Company, Ltd. (UEDCL), 70

Uganda Electricity Generation Company Ltd. (UEGCL), 70

Uganda Electricity Transmission Company, Ltd. (UETCL), 70–71

UMEME Ltd. (Uganda), 70, 71, 74

UNICEF, 95–96

unions, 29

  • in Mexico, 120–21
  • in Nigeria, 60–61
  • in Poland, 136–37, 142

United States, 13

United States Interagency Working Group on Social Cost of Carbon (2013), 146

urban middle class, 28

V

VAT (value added tax)

  • Kenya and, 66
  • Philippines and, 81–82, 83
  • posttax subsidy estimates and, 8, 12f, 145, 147–48, 147n7
  • pretax subsidy estimates and, 144
  • Turkey and, 126

W

West Texas Intermediate (WTI) prices, 110

World Bank, 68, 94, 96, 98

World Food Program, 95–96

Y

Yemen, 27, 38

  • fuel prices and pass-through prices, 101f
  • macroeconomics and, 97t, 99f
  • petroleum product subsidies in, 96–102

Yudhoyono, Susilo Bambang, 76, 78

Z

Zedillo administration, 120

    Other Resources Citing This Publication