Information about Sub-Saharan Africa África subsahariana
Back Matter

Back Matter

Author(s):
Lamin Leigh, and Ali Mansoor
Published Date:
January 2016
Share
  • ShareShare
Information about Sub-Saharan Africa África subsahariana
Show Summary Details

Index

  • Abdon, Arnelyn, 10–11
  • Accountability, 15f
  • Acemoglu, Daron, 14
  • Active labor market policies (ALMPs), 55, 64, 67–68, 67nn30–31
    • See also ALMPs cross-country experience
  • Adelman, Irma, 134
  • Aduda, J., 110
  • “Africa Rising,” 1
  • Ahmad, Etisham, 142
  • Air Mauritius, 98–99, 98f
  • Aiyar, S., 73
  • Akinlo, A. E., 78n9
  • Algan, Y., 43, 43n3, 52
  • ALMPs. See Active labor market policies
  • ALMPs cross-country experience, 67n32
    • public works programs in, 65–66, 65nn28–29, 69
    • skills in, 64, 67, 67n30, 69
    • taxes in, 66–68
    • wage subsidies in, 66–67, 67n31
  • Ash, M., 85
  • Asian countries, 12f, 82, 82t
  • Balances, 7f
    • in Namibia financial inclusion and stability, 126–28, 126n9
  • Bank distress. See Z-score
  • Bank of Mauritius (BoM), 122–23
  • Banks, 9f, 118, 118n5
    • CBS, 30b–31b
    • competition among, 108–9, 109n3
    • DBM, 96–98, 117b, 120–21
    • insolvency of, 110, 110n4
    • State Bank of Mauritius, 96–98, 121
  • Basdevant, Olivier, 20n9
  • Bates, R. H., 14
  • Beck, Thorsten, 109
  • Behar, A., 41n2, 43, 43n3, 52, 54
  • Belarus, 46nt, 47, 47n14
  • Ben-Bassat, A., 33b, 35–36
  • Benicio, Dalmacio, 20n9
  • Berg, A., 20n9
  • Berger, A., 109n3
  • Binary estimation, 112, 112b
  • Binary response model, 84, 84n15, 94–95
  • Block, S., 14
  • Boeri, T., 42–43, 52
  • BoM. See Bank of Mauritius
  • Bordo, Michael D., 108
  • Borland, J., 42
  • Botswana, 2f, 76f, 81t, 100f
    • GDP per capita in, 74f, 75f, 82t
    • HDI for, 19f
    • reserves adequacy of, 31f, 34t
  • Botswana structural unemployment, 57nn1–2, 58b
    • education in, 56b–57b, 56t
    • skills-mismatch in, 56b–57b
  • Brazil, vi–vii
  • Brosio, Giorgio, 142
  • Buiter, W. H., 34
  • Byung-Yeon Kim, 10–11
  • Cabo Verde, 2f, 81t, 100f, 139–40
    • GDP per capita in, 74f, 75f, 82t
    • growth decomposition in, 76f
    • international reserves in, 29, 32
    • reserves adequacy empirical analysis for, 33nn3–4, 34t, 36–39
    • reserves adequacy of, 31f, 34t
  • Cabo Verde MIC, 23–25
  • Cahuc, P., 43, 43n3, 52
  • Calmfors, L., 42
  • Capacity-building, 147–48
  • Capital, 12–14, 13f, 76f, 88, 88n25
  • Capital deepening, 80
  • Caribbean, 5, 6f, 7
  • Central Bank of Seychelles (CBS), 30b–31b
  • Central government balances, 7f
  • Central government expenditure and wage bill, 48f
  • Chile, 12f, 21–22
  • China, vi–vii
  • Cho, Yoon Je, 133–34
  • Civil society, 141, 141n3
  • Cointegration analysis, 84, 86t, 88n24, 93–94
    • debt-to-GDP ratio in, 88–89, 89t
    • FDI in, 89, 89n27, 89t
    • female labor force in, 90, 90n28
    • inflation in, 89, 89n26, 89t
    • market capitalization in, 88, 88n25
    • skills-mismatch in, 88, 89t
  • Cointegration techniques, 35, 35n6, 35t
  • Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa, 14
  • Common Monetary Area, 29n1, 39n13
  • Common policy challenges, 4–5, 6f, 7, 7f, 8f, 9f
  • Communication technology, 99
  • Competition, 56b–57b, 108–9, 109n3
  • Constraint, vi, 9f
  • Consumer protection, 128
  • Corruption control, 15f, 52, 127
  • Cost-benefit analysis, 32b–33b
  • Country-specific effects, 51–52, 51t, 52nn20–21
  • Credit regulation, 17f, 117b, 126
    • loans-to-customer-deposits ratio and, 111, 113t, 114t, 115
  • Cross-country research, 7, 8f, 20, 20n8
    • See also ALMPs cross-country experience
  • Crowding-in private investment, 98–99, 98f
  • Crowding-out effect, 42–43, 43n3
  • Dabla-Norris, E., 32b–33b, 35–36
  • Data, 55b, 57n1, 85, 85n16, 110
    • on public employment, and unemployment, 45–46, 45nn8–13
  • David, Antonio, 100n34
  • DBM. See Development Bank of Mauritius (DBM) Ltd
  • Debate, 78
  • Debt, 6f, 7f, 67n31
    • See also Government debt
  • Debt-to-GDP ratio, 37, 85–89, 86t, 87t, 89t
  • Decision-making processes, 141
  • Dejardin, A. K., 69
  • de la Torre, Augusto, 109
  • Demekas, D., 42
  • Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli, 108–9
  • Democracy, 154
    • as SMIC-HIC graduation trait, 11–12, 12f, 12n5, 14–15, 15f
  • Detragiache, Enrica, 108
  • Development Bank of Mauritius (DBM) Ltd, 96–98, 117b, 120–21
  • Dickey-Fuller tests, 35, 35n6, 88n24
  • Difference and system GMM, 93
  • Diouf, M. A., 79
  • Dynamic panel estimation, 84, 84n13, 86t, 93
  • Ease of Doing Business index, 57b, 140, 153, 157
  • Eastern Europe, 141–43, 145
  • Econometric analysis, 49n16, 54–55, 63t
    • country-specific effects in, 51–52, 51t, 52nn20–21
    • endogeneity bias in, 49–50, 49t, 50t
    • GLS in, 48–50, 49t, 50t
    • relative wage in, 52–53, 52n22, 53t
    • simultaneous equation regressions in, 50, 50nn17–19, 51t
  • Economic Policy and Debt Department, World Bank, 85
  • Edin, P.-A., 42
  • Education, 18f, 19f, 21, 156
    • tertiary, 56b–57b, 56t
  • Ehrenberg, R., 42
  • Eichengreen, Barry, 10–11
  • Electricity, 156
  • Empirical analysis. See Reserves adequacy empirical analysis
  • Empirical analysis TFP growth, 85n16
    • empirical results in, 85–86, 85n17, 86t
    • methodology in, 83–84, 84nn13–15
    • panel probit analysis in, 84, 84n15, 86t, 90–91, 91t
    • See also Cointegration analysis; Generalized method of moments
  • Employment shares, 82, 82t
  • Endogeneity bias, 49–50, 49t, 50t
  • Enterprise Survey, World Bank, 108n2, 110, 114
  • Equity-to-assets ratio, 113t, 114t, 115
  • Estevão, M., 85, 95–96, 96n33
  • Estonia, 12f
  • Exchange rate regimes, 74n5
  • Expenditure-to-GDP ratio, 38–39
  • FDI. See Foreign direct investment
  • Feldmann, H., 43
  • Felipe, Jesus, 10–11, 73n2
  • Female labor force, 79, 117b
    • in cointegration analysis, 90, 90n28
  • Fernanzo Fleermuys, Floris, 100n34
  • Financial access, 109, 113t, 114, 114t, 116, 117b
  • Financial development, 79
  • Financial inclusion, vi, 3–5, 96–98
    • in TFP growth, 74, 74n6
  • Financial inclusion and stability, 107, 107n1, 109, 109n3
    • analytic framework on, 110–13, 111b, 112b, 113t
    • findings on, 108, 108n2, 114–16, 114t, 117b, 118–19
    • policy and, 116, 117b, 118–20
    • See also Mauritius financial inclusion and stability; Namibia financial inclusion and stability
  • Financial integrity, 127
  • Financial literacy, 127–28
  • Financial sector, 81t, 96–98
  • Financial stability, 107
    • See also Financial inclusion and stability
  • Finn, M., 42
  • Fixed effects, 48–49, 49n16, 49t, 50t
  • Flores, I., 45, 54, 95, 102
  • FMOLS. See Fully modified ordinary least squares
  • Foreign direct investment (FDI), 13f
    • in cointegration analysis, 89, 89n27, 89t
    • TFP growth and, 78–79, 83
  • Foreign market size, 18f
  • Frenkel, J. A., 36
  • Frictional unemployment, 75, 77, 77n7
  • Fukuyama, Francis, 144
  • Fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS), 94
  • Garcia-Verdu, Rodrigo, 100n34
  • GDP, 7f, 9f, 13f, 14, 38–39
    • debt-to-GDP ratio, 37, 85–89, 86t, 87t, 89t
  • GDP per capita, 1, 6f, 8f, 16, 50, 82
    • democracy and, 14
    • in Lesotho, 74f, 75f, 75n1, 82t
    • in TFP growth, 73, 73nn2–3, 74f
  • Gender, 56, 56t
    • female labor force, 79, 90, 90n28, 117b
  • Generalized least squares (GLS), 48–50, 49t, 50t
  • Generalized method of moments (GMM), 88n23
    • government debt in, 86–88, 86n18, 87n20, 87t, 88nn21
  • Gill, Indermit Singh, 10–11
  • Gini coefficient, 12, 12f, 20n10, 100, 100n35
    • on Namibia growth and employment, 100f, 101, 101n36
  • Ginsburg, Tom, 10–11
  • Global Competitiveness Report, 56b–57b
  • GLS. See Generalized least squares
  • GNI per capital, 8f, 11f
  • Gottlieb, D., 33b, 35–36
  • Government, 7f, 17f, 48f, 57b
    • effectiveness of, 15f, 21–22
  • Government debt, 86–88, 86n18, 87n20, 87t, 88nn21
  • Greece, 12f
  • Gregory, R., 42
  • Growth decomposition, 76f, 78, 93–94
  • Hannig, Alfred, 109, 122
  • Hausmann, Ricardo, 34–35, 134–35
  • HDI. See Human development index
  • Health, 18f, 19f, 157
  • Herfindahl index of funding diversity, 111, 113t, 114t
  • Herndon, T., 85
  • Heterogeneity, 2–3, 2f
    • in stylized facts, 46–47, 46t
  • High-income countries (HICs), 10–11
    • MIC-HIC graduation, 19–22, 20n8, 20n11
    • See also SMIC-HIC graduation
  • Holding costs, 36
  • Holmlund, B., 42
  • Honohan, P., 109
  • Households saving, 115–16, 118
  • Housing, 97, 156
  • Huff, W. Gregg, 134
  • Human development index (HDI), 2, 10n3, 19f, 153
  • ICT. See Information and communication technology
  • IMF. See International Monetary Fund
  • Immigration, 16
  • Imports, 30b–31b
  • India, vi–vii
  • Inequality, 100, 100f, 100n35
  • Inflation, 7f, 89, 89n26, 89t
  • Informal sector, 122
  • Information and communication technology (ICT), 99
  • Infrastructure, 4
  • Innovation, 18f, 22
  • Insolvency, 110, 110n4
  • Institutional factors, 79, 80n10
  • Institutional innovation, 22
  • Institutional variables, 48–49, 51f
  • Institutional weakness, 21–22
  • Institutions, 18f, 120–21
  • Interest, 14–15, 15f, 118, 118n5
  • Interest groups, 154
  • Interest rates, 30b
  • International freedom to trade, 17f
  • International migrant stock, 13f
  • International Monetary Fund (IMF), vi–vii, 31b, 68–69, 146
    • peer learning with, 119–20
  • International reserves, v, 29, 32
  • Investment Climate Reform Forum, 157–58
  • Ireland, 12f
  • Jansen, Stefan, 109, 122
  • Japan, 12f
  • Jovanovic, B., 36
  • J test, 50, 50n18
  • Kalunda, E., 110
  • Kaminsky, Graciela L., 108
  • Khan, H. R., 109
  • Kharas, Homi J., 10–11
  • Kim, Byung-Yeon, 10–11
  • Kim, J., 35–36
  • Klapper, L., 109n3
  • Kohli, Harinder, 10
  • Kontolemis, Z., 42
  • Korea, 12f, 133–34
  • Kumar, Utsav, 10–11
  • Labor, 12–14, 13f, 76f
    • See also Female labor force
  • Labor allocation, 79
  • Labor force size, 44–45, 61
  • Labor income, 100–102
  • Labor input, 79
  • Labor market, 18f, 55, 58b–59b, 81t, 153t
    • See also Active labor market policies
  • Labor market institutions, 53–54, 63t
  • Lang, H., 42
  • Latin America, 8f
  • Lau, Lawrence J., 134
  • Lee, Keun, 10–11, 134
  • Legal system, 17f
  • Leigh, L., 45, 54, 95, 102
  • Lesotho, 2f, 81t, 100f
    • GDP per capita in, 74f, 75f, 75n1, 82t
    • growth decomposition in, 76f
    • HDI for, 19f
    • reform in, 157–58
    • reserves adequacy of, 31f, 34t
  • Life expectancy, 19f
  • Linden, J., 42
  • Literature review
    • on financial inclusion and stability, 108–10, 109n3
    • on public employment, and unemployment, 42–43
    • on TFP growth, 77–80, 80t
  • Loans-to-customer-deposits ratio, 111, 113t, 114t, 115
  • Location, 56, 56t
  • Logit estimation. See Probit/logit estimation
  • Loko, B., 79
  • Lower-middle-income countries, 73n2
  • Luxury goods, 13–14
  • Macroeconomic environment, 17f, 81t
  • Macroeconomic reforms, 149–51, 152t–153t, 153–56
  • Macroeconomic variables, 78, 78n9
  • Maksimovic, Vojislav, 109
  • Malley, J., 42
  • Malta, 12f, 22
  • Marginal utility, of public sector goods, 44, 62–63
  • Market capitalization, 88, 88n25
  • Market power, 109n3
  • Market size, foreign, 18f
  • Mauritius, 2f, 16, 19f, 58b–59b
    • crowding-in private investment of, 98–99, 98f
    • DBM, 96–98, 117b, 120–21
    • GDP per capita in, 74f, 75f, 82t
    • growth decomposition in, 76f
    • reforms in, 77b, 136–39, 138b
    • reserves adequacy of, 31f, 34t
    • structural impediments in, 81t
    • TFP growth of, 91–92, 91t, 96–99, 98f
    • Mauritius financial inclusion and stability, 117b
    • BoM in, 122–23
    • informal sector in, 122
    • institutions in, 120–21
    • policies in, 121–22
    • progress in, 123–24
    • technologies in, 123
  • Mauritius Housing Company, 97, 121
  • Mauritius structural reforms
    • chronology of, 151, 152t–153t
    • external influences and, 150–51
    • lessons from, 155–56
    • outcomes of, 151, 153
    • political economy of, 153–54
    • strategies for, 149–50
  • Mauritius Telecom, 99
  • Meade, James, 139
  • Medium enterprises, 97
    • SMEs, 90, 91t, 108, 108n2, 116, 117b
  • Methodologies
    • in empirical analysis TFP growth, 83–84, 84nn13–15
    • on public employment, and unemployment, 43–45, 43nn4–5, 44nn6–7
    • TFP, 92–96, 96n32
  • Mexico, 142
  • MIC-HIC graduation, 19–22, 20n8, 20n11
  • Micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs), 97
  • Middle-income countries (MICs), 1, 73n2
    • LICs to, 10, 10n1
    • output, employment shares, and GDP per capita, 82, 82t
    • in reserves adequacy empirical analysis, 33, 33nn3–4, 34t
    • SMICs compared to, 2–3
    • UMICs, 41, 41n1
    • See also Financial inclusion and stability; MIC-HIC graduation
  • Middle-income trap, vi
    • in SMIC-HIC graduation, 10–11, 10nn3–4, 22–23
    • TFP growth and, 73, 74f, 75f, 76f
  • Minns, John, 133
  • Mok, J., 41n2, 43, 43n3, 52, 54
  • Mongardini, J., 39n13
  • Moutos, T., 42
  • MSMEs. See Micro, small, and medium enterprises
  • Multinomial response model, 94–95
  • Naipaul, V. S., 139
  • Namibia, 2f, 19f, 29n1, 58b
    • GDP per capita in, 74f, 75f, 82t
    • growth decomposition in, 76f
    • international reserves in, 29, 32
    • reserves adequacy of, 31f, 34t
    • structural impediments in, 81t
  • Namibia financial inclusion and stability
    • achievements in, 125–26
    • balance in, 126–28, 126n9
    • consumer protection in, 128
    • financial integrity in, 127
    • financial literacy in, 127–28
    • goals in, 124–25, 124n8
  • Namibia growth and employment, 100n34
    • Gini coefficient on, 100f, 101, 101n36
    • inequality and, 100–102, 100f, 100n35
    • labor income in, 100–102
    • public expenditures in, 102
    • structural factors in, 102
  • Nash equilibrium, 16, 16n7
  • Negative correlation, 47, 47n14
  • Nicoletti, G., 52
  • Non-interest income, 118, 118n5
  • OECD. See Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
  • Openness, 12–14, 12f, 12n5, 13f, 78
  • Ordinary least squares (OLS), 48–49, 49t, 50t
    • See also Fully modified ordinary least squares
  • Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 42–43
  • Ostry, Jonathan D., 20n9
  • Output, employment shares, and GDP per capita, 82, 82t
  • Pacific islands, 5, 6f, 7
  • Panel cointegration analysis, 93–94
  • Panel estimation, dynamic, 84, 84n13, 86t
  • Panel probit analysis, 90–91, 91t
    • in empirical analysis TFP growth, 84, 84n15, 86t
  • Park, Donghyun, 10–11
  • Park Geun-hye, 134
  • Patel, U. R., 34
  • Pedroni, Peter, 84n14, 88n24
  • Peer comparison, 31b
  • Peerenboom, Randall, 10–11
  • Peer learning, vi
    • capacity-building and, 147–48
    • with IMF, 119–20
    • progress review in, 148
    • reforms and, 144–45
    • team-building for, 147
  • Peer support, 144–45, 158
  • Penn World Tables (PWT), 85
  • Pensions, 152t, 157
  • Per capita income growth rates, 2–3
    • See also GDP per capita
  • Performance indicators, 156–57
  • Physicians, 19f
  • Pitcher, M. Anne, 140
  • Policies, 55, 57b, 57n2, 121–22
    • See also Common policy challenges; Financial inclusion and stability
  • Political economy, vi, 131–32
    • reforms in, 135–46, 136b, 138b, 141n3, 142n4, 153–54
    • success in, 133–34
  • Political openness, 12, 12f, 12n5
  • Political parties, 154
  • Political will, 133
  • Pollin, R., 85
  • Portugal, 12f
  • Poverty, 23
  • Private institutions, 18f
  • Private sector, 41–43
  • productivity of, 44–45, 61–62
    • See also Public employment, and unemployment
  • Probit/logit estimation, 94–95
  • Productivity, 57b
  • private sector, 44–45, 61–62
    • See also Total factor productivity
  • Progress review, 148
  • Property rights, 17f
  • Public debt, 6f, 7f
  • Public employment, 44–45, 45n11, 48f, 61–62
  • Public employment, and unemployment, 58b–59b, 63t
    • ALMPs and, 55, 64, 67–68, 67nn30–31
    • ambiguity and, 43–44, 43n5
    • crowding-out effect in, 42–43, 43n3
    • data on, 45–46, 45nn8–13
    • literature review on, 42–43
    • methodology on, 43–45, 43nn4–5, 44nn6–7
    • results in, 42, 54–55
    • sample on, 41, 41n1, 45n8, 45n10
    • theoretical model in, 59–63
    • See also Botswana structural unemployment; Econometric analysis; Stylized facts
  • Public expenditures, 102
  • Public institutions, 18f
  • Public officials, 141–42
  • Public-private wage ratio, 44, 60–62
  • Public sector, 44, 62–63, 81t
  • private sector wages relative to, 48f
  • Public transport, 156
  • Public works programs, 57b, 57n2, 58b, 68
    • in ALMPs cross-country experience, 65–66, 65nn28–29, 69
  • PWT. See Penn World Tables
  • R&D. See Research and development
  • Recession, 139, 149
  • Reforms
    • appetite for, 142–44, 142n4, 146
    • consensus about, 136b, 146
    • before emergency, 139–40
    • in Lesotho, 157–58
    • losers in, 142–43
    • macroeconomic, 149–51, 152t–153t, 153–56
    • in Mauritius, 77b, 136–39, 138b
    • for MIC-HIC graduation, 19–20
    • peer learning and, 144–45
    • in political economy, 135–46, 136b, 138b, 141n3, 142n4, 153–54
    • after shock, 139
    • SMIC-HIC graduation traits and, 15–16
    • social, 151, 152t, 153t
    • in stability, 140–42, 141n3
    • See also Mauritius structural reforms; Structural reforms
  • Regional Economic Outlook: Sub-Saharan Africa (REO), 101
  • Regulatory factors, 79–80
    • credit regulation, 17f, 111, 113t, 114t, 115, 117b, 126
  • Regulatory quality, 15f
  • Reinhart, C. M., 85
  • Relative wage, 52–53, 52n22, 53t
  • Rents, 44, 44n7, 54, 140–41
  • REO. See Regional Economic Outlook: Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Research and development (R&D), 78–79
  • Reservation wages, 57b
  • Reserves adequacy, 9f, 29, 32
    • of Seychelles, 30b–31b, 31f, 33n4
  • Reserves adequacy empirical analysis, 32, 39n13, 39nn10–11
    • approaches in, 32b–33b, 34, 34n5
    • for Botswana, 31f, 34t
    • for Cabo Verde, 31f, 33nn3–4, 34t, 36–39
    • cointegration techniques in, 35, 35n6, 35t
    • cost-benefit analysis in, 32b–33b
    • determinants in, 34–35
    • holding costs in, 36
    • MICs in, 33, 33nn3–4, 34t
    • for Swaziland, 33n4, 34t, 37–38, 38f
  • Reserves adequacy metric, 31b, 31f
  • Resource richness, 81t
  • Return on assets (ROA), 111
  • ROA. See Return on assets
  • Road maintenance project, 58b
  • Rodrik, Dani, 52, 134–35, 142
  • Rogoff, K. S., 85
  • Roy, Devesh, 142n4
  • Rule of law, 15f
  • Russia, vi–vii, 46t, 48f
  • Samples, 41, 41n1, 45n8, 45n10, 107, 107n1
  • Scarpetta, S., 42–43, 52
  • Schwartz, Anna J., 108
  • Schwarz, J., 42
  • Sectoral composition, 79
  • Seychelles, 76f, 81t, 139, 143
    • GDP per capita in, 74f, 75f, 82t
    • HDI for, 19f
    • reserves adequacy of, 30b–31b, 31f, 33n4
  • Shin, Kwanho, 10–11
  • Shirono, K., 35–36
  • Shock, 139
  • Short-term political interest, 14–15, 15f
  • Short-term risk, 16–17
  • Simultaneous equation regressions, 50, 50nn17–19, 51t
  • Singapore, 12f, 16, 21–22, 134
  • Skill level demand, 96
  • Skill level supply, 96
  • Skills, 64, 67, 67n30, 69
  • Skills mismatch, 56b–57b
    • in cointegration analysis, 88, 89t
    • in GMM, 86–87, 86n18, 87t
  • Skills-Mismatch Index (SMI), 74, 85, 85n16, 95–96
  • Slowdowns, 4–5
    • stylized facts (TFP growth) and, 80, 80n11
    • in TFP growth, 73, 73n4
  • Small and medium enterprises (SMEs), 116, 117b
    • definition of, 108, 108n2
    • in TFP growth, 90, 91t
  • Small enterprises, 97
  • Small middle-income countries (SMICs), v–vii, 23–24
    • common policy challenges in, 4–5, 6f, 7, 7f, 8f, 9f
    • economic outcomes of, 1–2
    • heterogeneity of, 2–3, 2f
    • MICs compared to, 2–3
    • in panel probit analysis, 90–91, 91t
    • small states compared to, 6f
    • unemployment in, 3
  • Small states, 6f
  • SMEs. See Small and medium enterprises
  • SMI. See Skills Mismatch Index
  • SMIC-HIC graduation, 10n2
    • middle-income trap in, 10–11, 10nn3–4, 22–23
  • SMIC-HIC graduation traits, 22–23
    • causation in, 12n5, 14, 14n6
    • democracy as, 11–12, 12f, 12n5, 14–15, 15f
    • divergence in, 18–19, 18f, 19f
    • immigration in, 16
    • Nash equilibrium and, 16, 16n7
    • openness to capital, trade, labor in, 12–14, 13f
    • political openness in, 12, 12f, 12n5
    • reforms and, 15–16
    • short-term political interest in, 14–15, 15f
    • short-term risk in, 16–17
    • similarities in, 16–19, 17f, 18f, 19f
  • SMICs. See Small middle-income countries
  • Social contracts, 11, 148
  • Social reforms, 151, 152t, 153t
  • Social security, 25
  • South Africa, vi–vii, 100f
  • Southern African Customs Union, 37, 39n13
  • Southern African Development Community, 14
  • South Korea, 12f
  • Spain, 12f
  • SSA. See Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Stability, 140–42, 141n3
    • See also Financial inclusion and stability; Mauritius financial inclusion and stability; Namibia financial inclusion and stability
  • State Bank of Mauritius, 96–98, 121
  • State Insurance Company of Mauritius, 96, 98, 121
  • Strategies, 149–50
  • Structural factors, 102
  • Structural impediments, 81t, 83
    • See also Botswana structural unemployment
  • Structural reforms, 5
    • for TFP growth, 74–75, 77, 77b, 77n7
    • See also Mauritius structural reforms
  • Structural transformation, 79, 80n12, 82b–83b, 82t
  • Stylized facts, 47f, 47n15, 48, 48f
    • heterogeneity in, 46–47, 46t
    • negative correlation in, 47, 47n14
  • Stylized facts (TFP growth)
    • capital deepening and, 75f, 80
    • FDI in, 83
    • slowdowns and, 80, 80n11
    • structural impediments in, 81t, 83
    • structural transformation and, 80n12, 82b–83b, 82t
  • Subramanian, Arvind, 142n4
  • Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), vi, 2f, 9f
  • Swaziland, 2f, 12f, 29n1, 100f, 139
    • GDP per capita in, 74f, 75f, 82t
    • growth decomposition in, 76f
    • HDI for, 19f
    • reserves adequacy empirical analysis for, 33n4, 34t, 37–38, 38f
    • reserves adequacy of, 31f, 34t
    • structural impediments in, 81t
  • System GMM. See Difference and system GMM
  • Taiwan Province of China, 12f, 134
  • Targeted Intervention Program for Employment and Economic Growth (TIPEEG), 39n12, 58b
  • Taxes, 58b, 152t, 155
    • in ALMPs cross-country experience, 66–68
  • Team-building, 147
  • Technologies, 118, 120
    • ICT, 99
    • in Mauritius financial inclusion and stability, 123
    • in TFP growth, 78–79
  • Telecommunications intervention, 99
  • TFP. See Total factor productivity
  • TFP growth, 73n1, 96t
    • debate over, 78
    • determinants of, 80t
    • exchange rate regimes and, 74n5
    • FDI and, 78–79, 83
    • female labor force in, 79
    • financial development in, 79
    • financial inclusion in, 74, 74n6
    • GDP per capita in, 73, 73nn2–3, 74f
    • growth decomposition and, 76f, 78, 93–94
    • institutional factors in, 79, 80n10
    • labor input and allocation in, 79
    • literature review on, 77–80, 80t
    • macroeconomic variables and, 78, 78n9
    • of Mauritius, 91–92, 91t, 96–99, 98f
    • middle-income trap and, 73, 74f, 75f, 76f
    • openness and, 78
    • regulatory factors in, 79–80
    • sectoral composition in, 79
    • slowdown in, 73, 73n4
    • SMEs in, 90, 91t
    • SMI and, 74
    • structural reforms for, 74–75, 77, 77b, 77n7
    • structural transformation in, 79
    • technologies in, 78–79
    • variables of, 78, 78n9, 80t
    • See also Empirical analysis TFP growth; Stylized facts (TFP growth)
  • Theoretical model, 59–63
  • TIPEEG. See Targeted Intervention Program for Employment and Economic Growth
  • Total factor productivity (TFP), vi, 9f, 57, 67n31
    • modeling methodologies of, 92–96, 96n32
    • See also TFP growth
  • Tourism intervention, 98–99, 98f
  • Trade, 12–14, 13f, 17f
  • Training, 18f, 21
  • Transparency, 140–41
  • Transport, 98–99, 98f, 156
  • Tsounta, E., 85, 95–96, 96n32
  • Turk-Ariss, R., 109n3
    • 2008-09 global financial crisis, 25, 30b
  • Ukraine, 46nt, 47, 47n14
  • UMICs. See Upper-middle-income-countries
  • Under-five mortality rate, 19f
  • Unemployment, v, 4, 9f, 48f, 157
    • definition of, 45, 45n10, 54
    • frictional, 75, 77, 77n7
    • in SMICs, 3
    • See also Botswana structural unemployment; Public employment, and unemployment
  • Upper-middle-income-countries (UMICs), 41, 41n1
  • Variables
    • institutional, 48–49, 51f
    • of TFP growth, 78, 78n9, 80t
  • Velasco, Andrés, 134–35
  • Voice and accountability, 15f
  • Volatility, 4
  • Wage subsidies, 59b, 69
    • in ALMPs cross-country experience, 66–67, 67n31
  • Wagner’s law, 45, 45n13, 52
  • West African Economic and Monetary Union, 14
  • Women. See Gender
  • World Bank, 5n1, 119, 138b
    • Economic Policy and Debt Department, 85
    • Enterprise Survey, 108n2, 110, 114
  • World Development Indicators, 85, 100n35, 110
  • World Economic Forum, 46, 56b
  • World Economic Outlook, 10n4, 39, 85
  • World Governance Indicators, 14, 15f
  • Yakhshilikov, Yorbol, 20n9
  • Zettelmeyer, Jeromin, 20n9
  • Z-score, 110
    • binary estimation of, 112, 112b
    • derivation of, 111–12, 111b, 112b
    • ROA in, 111
  • Zylberberg, A., 43, 43n3, 52

    Other Resources Citing This Publication