Back Matter

Back Matter

Author(s):
Reda Cherif, Fuad Hasanov, and Min Zhu
Published Date:
April 2016
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    Index

    • Abdesselam, Belaid, 49–50
    • Acemoglu, D., 120, 125
    • The Achieving Society (McClelland), 59
    • Advanced countries
      • competition in, 170
      • growth model for, 131
      • productivity growth in, 118–19
    • Affirmative action, in Malaysia, 87
    • Agency of Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), in Singapore, 69, 74
    • Aghion, Philippe, 118, 121, 124, 125, 170
    • Airbus, 30
    • Akcigit, U., 120, 121
    • Alcoa, 30
    • Algeria, 94
      • El Hajdar in, 55
      • human capital in, xvi, 51, 168
      • industrialization in, 37–38, 49–54
      • manufacturing in, 51f, 56f
      • oil exports of, 15
      • World Trade Organization and, 56
    • Alp, K., 120, 121
    • Amsden, Alice, 20
    • Apprenticeship programs, 32
    • Arab Barometer, 60
    • Arabization, of Algeria, 54
    • Arezki, Rabah, 13
    • Argentina, 104
    • Askenazy, P., 119
    • Association of Southeast Asian Nations, 41
    • A*STAR. See Agency of Science, Technology and Research
    • Automobile industry, in Mexico, 18, 42
    • Badawi, Tun Abdullah Ahmad, 85
    • Bahrain, 3, 10–11, 11f, 13–14, 37
      • export structure of, 12f
      • GDP per capita in, 8
      • output composition in, 5
    • Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social. See Brazilian Development Bank
    • Banks, 53–54, 53t
      • in Korea, 99
      • in MENA, 60, 61t
      • See also Brazilian Development Bank
    • Barbados, 21
    • Bartelsman, E., 121
    • El Beblawi, H., 12–13
    • Beck, T., 121n2
    • Bendjedid, Chadli, 50
    • Beteiligungskapital für junge Technologieunternehmen (BJTU), 142
    • Big Push, 21, 29, 99–100
    • Biomedical sciences industry, in Singapore, 73–74
    • Biopolis, 77
    • Biosimilars, 150, 150n3
    • BJTU. See Beteiligungskapital für junge Technologieunternehmen
    • Bloom, D., 120
    • Blundell, R., 118
    • BNDESPAR. See BNDES Participações
    • BNDES Participações (BNDESPAR), 152
    • Boeing, 30
    • Boumediene, Houari, 37–38, 50, 94
    • Boustan, L., 118
    • Branco, Castello, 98
    • Brasil Maior Plan, 147
    • Brazil, 98
      • industrialization in, xvii, 145–53
      • industrial policy in, 145–47
      • manufacturing in, 146–47, 146f
      • R&D in, 147
      • SOEs in, 146
      • technological innovation in, 148, 148f, 149f, 149t, 170
    • Brazilian Development Bank (Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social), xvii, 145–53
      • industrial policy and, 149–51
      • pharmaceuticals and, 150, 170
      • software industry and, 151, 151f, 170
      • sugarcane industry and, 150–51, 170
      • venture capital from, 152
    • Cable, Vincent, 123
    • Canada, 15, 21, 140
    • Capital-to-labor ratio, 27
    • Carbon price, 125
    • Cette, G., 119
    • Chang, Ha-Joon, 20, 28
    • Chemicals industry, in Singapore, 72–73
    • Cherif, Reda, 8, 14n9, 28n18, 47, 94, 95, 98
    • Chile, 36f, 104, 105, 106
    • China, 95, 122, 124
    • Clean innovations, 125–26
    • Climate change, 122–23
    • Colombia, 36f, 106
    • Comparative-advantage sectors, 4, 27–33, 65–77
    • Competition, 124
      • in advanced countries, 170
      • frontier innovations and, 126
      • industrial policy and, 125
      • productivity growth and, 118
      • R&D and, 111
    • Concept Plan, of Singapore, 67
    • Conglomerates (zaibatsu), 97–98
    • Consumption per capita, xiv, 19, 19f
    • Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf. See Gulf Cooperation Council
    • Coordination failures, 20–21, 29
    • Corporation Law, in Korea, 96
    • Creative destruction, 110, 118, 146n1
    • Crespi, G., 108
    • Demirgüç-Kunt, A., 121n2
    • Denmark, 17
    • Destanne de Bernis, Gérard, 49
    • Development Decade, in Algeria, 50
    • Di John, Jonathan, 38
    • Dirty innovations, 125
    • Discouragement effect, 118
    • Diversification
      • in Algeria, xvi
      • capital supply and, 132
      • data on, 135–36
      • in Dubai, 3, 95
      • empirical findings on, 137, 138t
      • entrepreneurship and, xvii
      • in GCC, xv, 3–43, 173–74
      • GDP and, xvii, 131–32
      • GDP per capita and, 8
      • government and, 139–42, 174–75
      • for growth, xv
      • in Indonesia, 41–42
      • key policies for, xvii
      • in Korea, 93–101, 162f
      • lack of, xiii–xiv
      • in Latin America, xvii, 102–12
      • in Malaysia, 39–40, 83–91
      • to manufacturing, 8
      • measurement of, 136–37
      • in MENA, 47–61
      • in Mexico, 42–43
      • OECD and, 133f, 139–42, 140t
      • in oil exporters, 36–43
      • oil prices and, 36–38
      • patterns of, 133–34, 133f
      • poverty reduction and, xvii
      • in Saudi Arabia, xvi, 54–58
      • sustainable employment and, 48–49
      • sustainable growth from, 8
      • technological innovation and, xvii, 132
      • as top policy agenda, xv
      • in tradable sector, 95
      • women’s empowerment and, xvii
      • worldwide, 135f
      • Zhu on, 171–72
    • Dolton, Peter, 26–27
    • Dow Chemical, 30
    • Dubai, 3, 37, 95, 169–70
    • expatriate labor in, 48
    • Dutch disease, 4n2
      • in Canada, 21
      • in GCC, 12, 14–18, 14n9, 15f, 22–23, 22n15, 33, 167–68
      • learning externality and, 22
      • market failure from, xvi
      • non-oil tradables and, 168
      • in Norway, 16, 21
    • Early childhood education, in GCC, 26–27, 26f
    • Ease of Doing Business Index, 83
    • East Asia, xvi–xvii
    • Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia of the United Nations, 60
    • Economic Development Board (EDB), in Singapore, 65–66, 68
    • Economic Development Institute, of World Bank, 70
    • Economic Development Plan for the Eighties, in Singapore, 68–69
    • Economic Transformation Programme, in Malaysia, 89–90
    • EDB. See Economic Development Board
    • Education
      • in Algeria, 51–52, 54
      • in GCC, 6, 26–27, 26f, 58–59 2
      • in Korea, 159–60, 169
      • in Malaysia, 90, 169
      • in MENA, 59–60
      • productivity growth and, 118
      • in Saemaul Undong, 159–60, 169
      • in Saudi Arabia, 57–58
      • in Singapore, 76, 76f
      • Zhu on, 177
    • Electronics industry
      • in Saudi Arabia, 177
      • in Singapore, 71
    • Employment
      • by expatriate labor, 12, 48, 68, 87, 173–74
      • in Korea, 160t
      • in private sector, 24–25, 27, 53–54, 57–58
      • in public sector, 3, 6, 24
      • sustainable, 48–49, 91
      • unemployment, xiv, 65, 100, 163t
    • Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária, 147
    • Energy subsidies, in GCC, 24
    • The Entrepreneurial State (Mazzucato), 173
    • Entrepreneurship, xvii, 136, 175–76
    • EPO Worldwide Patent Statistical Database, 135, 136f
    • Equity investment program, in Germany, 142
    • Escape competition effect, 118
    • European Union, 29, 30
    • Expatriate labor, 12, 48, 68, 87, 173–74
    • Export credits, in Korea, 100
    • Export sophistication, 10n8
      • in Denmark, 17
      • in GCC, 10, 10f
      • in Indonesia, 17–18
      • for late-late developers, 47
      • in Latin America, 106
      • in Malaysia, 15, 17, 169
      • manufacturing in, 20n13
      • in MENA, 61
      • in Mexico, 14, 18
      • in Norway, 16–17
    • EXPY, 10n8, 14n9
    • Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative, 58
    • Fally, T., 121
    • FDI. See Foreign direct investment
    • Feenstra, Robert, 14n9
    • Finance sector
      • in GCC, 13–14
      • See also Banks
    • FINEXPO. See Fondo de Exportaciones
    • Fiscal policy, xiv, 6, 23–27
      • for oil rents, 12
    • Fondo de Exportaciones (FINEXPO), 38
    • Foreign direct investment (FDI), 136, 137
      • in Dubai, 169–70
      • in Malaysia, 17, 85
      • in Mexico, 18, 42
      • in Singapore, 68
    • Frankel, J., 122
    • Free trade zones, 18, 169–70
    • Freire, Paulo, 176
    • Frontier innovations, 118, 126
    • Fuentes, R. F., 105
    • Garicano, L., 121
    • GCC. See Gulf Cooperation Council
    • GDP. See Gross domestic product
    • GDP per capita, 21, 104f, 117, 118, 120
      • in GCC, 6–8, 7f
      • in Latin America, 105
    • Gelb, Alan, 41
    • Germany, 96, 123, 142
    • Gini index, 135, 158
    • Global Innovation Index, 83
    • Global Science and Innovation Advisory Council, in Malaysia, 91
    • Good governance, in Korea, 156
    • Good Jobs First, 30
    • Gough, I., 156
    • Government, xiv, xv, 23, 95–96, 139–42, 174–75
      • climate change and, 122–23
      • in GCC, 27–33
      • of Indonesia, 17–18, 41–42
      • in Latin America, 108–10
      • of Norway, 29
      • R&D and, 42–43
      • of Singapore, 29–30, 29n20
      • SMEs and, 32–33
      • See also Saemaul Undong
    • Government Transformation Programme, in Malaysia, 89–90
    • Gredig, R., F., 105
    • Gross domestic product (GDP), xvii, 131–32
      • of Bahrain, 11f
      • growth sources for, 105f
      • of Latin America, 105f
      • of Malaysia, 87
      • relative income and, 8
      • of Singapore, 11f, 66f, 69, 70f, 79t–80t
      • See also GDP per capita
    • Growth decomposition, 9f, 36f
    • Growth model
      • for advanced countries, 131
      • in GCC, 4–8
      • for middle-income countries, 117–28
    • Guaranteed Business Loan Program, of SBA, 141
    • Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), xiii, 3–43, 3n1, 133f, 134
      • Dutch disease in, 12, 14–18, 14n9, 15f, 22n15
      • early childhood education in, 26–27, 26f
      • education in, 6, 26–27, 26f, 58–59
      • entrepreneurship in, 175–76
      • expatriate labor in, 173–74
      • export sophistication in, 10, 10f
      • GDP per worker in, 6–8, 7f
      • government in, 27–33
      • growth model in, 4–8
      • incentives in, xvi, 12
      • infrastructure in, 21, 22f
      • Korea and, 93, 100
      • life expectancy in, 6, 7f
      • market failures in, 20–23, 167–68
      • non-oil tradables in, 3, 5–6
      • nontradable sector in, 23
      • oil rents in, 47
      • oil reserves in, 47
      • PPP in, 9f
      • productivity growth in, 168
      • relative income in, xv, 6–8
      • schooling years in, 6, 6f, 25, 25f
      • sustainable growth in, 8–14
      • technological innovation in, xvii
      • TFP in, 8, 9f, 11
      • top industries in, 134f
      • value-added sectors in, 27–33
    • Hadeed, 55
    • Al-Haj, Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra, 85
    • El Hajdar, 55
    • Hajj, 60
    • Haltiwanger, J., 121
    • Hasanov, Fuad, 8, 28n18, 47, 94, 95, 98
    • Hausmann, Ricardo, 8, 10n8, 14n9, 20, 37, 106
    • Heavy and Chemical Industrialization Plan, in Korea, 99, 100
    • Heckman, James, 25
    • Henry, Clement M., 37–38
    • Henry, Peter Blair, 21
    • Herfindahl-Hirschman index (HHI), 133–34, 133f, 133n2, 137
    • Hirschman, Albert O., xiii, 96
    • Horizontal diversification, 29–30, 84, 84f, 168
    • Housing and Development Board, of Singapore, 67
    • Hsieh, C.-T., 119
    • Human capital, 9, 32
      • in Algeria, xvi, 51, 168
      • in GCC, 8
      • in Latin America, 106
      • in Malaysia, 40, 85
      • in Saudi Arabia, xvi, 168
      • in Singapore, 76, 76f
      • See also Employment
    • Human development index, 6
    • Human Resources Development Fund, 40
    • Hvidt, Martin, 11–12
    • Hwang, Jason, 8, 10n8, 14n9
    • ICT. See Information and communication technologies
    • Imitative innovations, 118
    • Import substitution strategy, 39–40, 122, 163
    • India, 119–20
    • Indonesia, 8, 21, 41–42
      • export sophistication in, 17–18
      • manufacturing in, 17–18, 56f
      • oil exports in, 5, 15
    • Industrial, Technology, and Trade Policy, in Brazil, 147
    • Industrial deepening, 95–96, 98, 100
    • Industrialization
      • in Algeria, 37–38, 49–54
      • in Brazil, xvii, 145–53
      • in GCC, 13
      • in Korea, xvi–xvii, 93–101, 160–62, 160t, 169
      • in Malaysia, 85
      • in Singapore, 65–77
      • in Venezuela, 38
      • See also Manufacturing
    • Industrial Master Plan, in Malaysia, 87
    • Industrial policy, 123–24
      • in Brazil, 145–47
      • Brazilian Development Bank and, 149–51
      • in China, 122
      • competition and, 125
    • Industry clusters, 32, 41–43
    • Infant mortality, in GCC, 6
    • Information and communication technologies (ICT), 118, 119
    • Infrastructure
      • in GCC, 21, 22f
      • in India, 119
      • in Korea, 161–62
      • in Malaysia, 87
      • in Singapore, 77
    • Innovation. See Technological innovation
    • Intellectual property rights, 118
    • Intergenerational equity, xiv, xv
    • International Country Risk Guide, 21
    • INTSOK foundation, 29
    • Investment, 28n18, 126–27
      • in Korea, 99–100
      • in Latin America, 104
      • in Malaysia, 40, 90
      • in Singapore, 71
      • See also Venture capital
    • Ireland, 32–33
    • Irish Development Agency, 32
    • Islamic finance, 60
    • Jamaica, 21
    • Japan, 93–98, 119, 122, 123, 158
    • Jarreau, Joachim, 8, 14n9
    • Al Jasser, Muhammad, xviii, 171–77
    • Jomo, K. S., 17–18, 20, 40, 41
    • Jurong Island, 72–73
    • Jurong Town Corporation, 31
    • Kammer, Alfred, 171–77
    • Kazushige, Ugaki, 97
    • Klenow, P., 119
    • Klette, T., 120
    • Knowledge spillovers, 123
    • Koch, W., 119
    • Koh, W., 162
    • Korea, xvi–xvii, 27, 36f, 162f
      • banks in, 99
      • Corporation Law in, 96
      • education in, 159–60, 169
      • good governance in, 156
      • Heavy and Chemical Industrialization Plan in, 99, 100
      • import substitution strategy in, 163
      • industrial deepening in, 100
      • industrialization in, 93–101, 160–62, 160t, 169
      • land reform in, xvii, 157–60, 158n2
      • National Investment Fund in, 99–100
      • poverty reduction in, 159–60, 161, 161t
      • unemployment in, 100, 163t
      • U.S. and, 98–99
      • See also Saemaul Undong
    • Kortum, S., 120
    • Krugman, Paul, 27
    • Kuwait, 3, 31, 48
    • Labor-Sponsored Venture Capital Corporations (LSVCCs), 140
    • Lall, Sanjaya, 20
    • Land reform, in Korea, xvii, 157–60, 158n2
    • Larraín, M., 105
    • Late-late developers, 47, 47n1
    • Latin America, xvii, 102–12, 105f
      • government in, 108–10
      • human capital in, 106
      • import substitution strategy in, 122
      • investment in, 104
      • market failures in, 108
      • R&D in, 109–11
      • savings in, 104
      • technological innovation in, 107–11
    • Learning externality, 20–21, 20n14, 22, 27
    • Lee Kuan Yew, 167
    • Lelarge, C., 121
    • Lerner, J., 142
    • Lerner index, 124
    • Liassine, Mohammed, 50
    • Life expectancy, 6, 7f, 172
    • Lin, Justin, 28
    • Loan guarantees, OECD and, 140–41
    • Loan Guarantee Scheme, in United Kingdom, 142
    • Looney, R. E., 12
    • Lopez, J., 119
    • LSVCCs. See Labor-Sponsored Venture Capital Corporations
    • Lucas, Robert E., 8–9, 131
    • Machinery real exports per capita, 15f, 16f
    • Mairesse, J., 119
    • “Making a Miracle” (Lucas), 8–9
    • Maksimovic, V., 121n2
    • Malaysia, 83–91
      • education in, 90, 169
      • export sophistication in, 15, 17, 169
      • FDI in, 17
      • horizontal diversification in, 84, 84f
      • human capital in, 40, 85
      • import substitution strategy in, 39–40
      • International Country Risk Guide for, 21
      • investment in, 40, 90
      • manufacturing in, xvi, 39–40, 56f, 85
      • National Science, Technology, and Innovation Policy in, 90–91
      • oil exports in, 5, 15
      • palm oil in, 86, 169
      • rubber in, 86, 169
      • savings in, 40
      • TFP in, 8
      • value-added industries in, 40
      • vertical diversification in, 29, 84f
    • Manufacturing, 8
      • in Algeria, 51f, 56f
      • in Bahrain, 11
      • in Brazil, 146–47, 146f
      • in export sophistication, 20n13
      • in GCC, 4, 5
      • horizontal diversification in, 29–30
      • in Indonesia, 17–18, 56f
      • in Malaysia, xvi, 39–40, 56f, 85
      • SABIC and, 55
      • in Saudi Arabia, 56f
      • in Singapore, 66–67, 78t, 79t, 169
      • in Tunisia, 56f
    • Marcenaro-Gutierrez, Oscar D., 26–27
    • Market distortions, xiv, xv
    • Market failures, 20n14
      • from Dutch disease, xvi
      • in GCC, 20–23, 167–68
      • in Latin America, 108
    • Matsuyama, Kiminori, 20
    • Mazzucato, Mariana, 173
    • McClelland, David, 59
    • MDGs. See Millennium Development Goals
    • Medical technology, in Singapore, 73–74
    • MENA. See Middle East and North Africa
    • Mexico, 5, 8, 14, 15, 18, 32, 42–43
    • Middle East and North Africa (MENA), xvi, 47–61, 133f
      • banks in, 60, 61t
      • HHI for, 134
      • sustainable employment in, 48–49
      • women’s education in, 59
      • work ethic in, 60
    • Middle-income countries
      • growth model for, 117–28
      • productivity growth in, 117–21
    • Middle-income trap, xvii
    • Migrant labor. See Expatriate labor
    • Millennium Development Declaration, 156
    • Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), 156
    • Miller, Conrad, 21
    • Modernization theory, 93
    • Mohamad, Tun Dr Mahathir, 85
    • Monopolies, 20, 22f, 38, 96, 100, 175
    • Moretti, Enrico, 30
    • Morocco, 51f
    • Multimedia Super Corridor, in Malaysia, 89
    • Mutual Security Act, 99
    • Nabli, Mustapha, 13
    • National Industrial Policy, in Malaysia, 87
    • National Investment Fund, in Korea, 99–100
    • Nationalization, in oil exporters, 36–37
    • National Key Results Areas, in Malaysia, 89–90
    • National Linkage Promotion Program, in Ireland, 32–33
    • National Principles (Rukun Negara), of Malaysia, 90
    • National Science, Technology, and Innovation Policy, in Malaysia, 90–91
    • National Transformation Programme, in Malaysia, 89
    • Netherlands, 142
    • New Economic Policy, in Malaysia, 87
    • New Village Movement. See Saemaul Undong
    • Nigeria, 15
    • Nixon, Richard, 99
    • Nokia, 30
    • Non-oil GDP, in GCC, 11
    • Non-oil tradables, 37
      • Dutch disease and, 168
      • in GCC, xv–xvi, 3, 5–6, 20, 27
    • Nontradable sector, viii, xiii–xiv, 30
      • in GCC, 3, 4–5, 13, 14n9, 23
    • North American Free Trade Agreement, 18, 42
    • Norway, 5, 15, 16–17, 21, 29, 36f
    • Nunn, N., 123, 124
    • Ocampo, Jose Antonio, 20
    • OECD. See Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
    • Oil exports and exporters, 5f, 35t, 36–43
      • economic indicators of, 34t
      • in GCC, 5
      • SOEs in, 36–37
    • Oil prices
      • collapse of, viii, ix, 17, 37, 41
      • consumption per capita and, 19f
      • decline of, xiv
      • fiscal policy and, 6
      • peak of, 8n4, 36–37
      • rise of, 38
      • volatility of, 47
    • Oil rents, 12, 47, 47n2, 48t
    • Oil reserves, 14n12, 35t
      • in Bahrain, 3
      • in GCC, 47
      • in Oman, 3
      • in Saudi Arabia, 3
    • Oman, 3, 6, 15
    • OPEC. See Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries
    • Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 119, 132, 133f, 133n1, 139–42, 140t
    • Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), 41
    • Palm oil, in Malaysia, 86, 169
    • Papageorgiou, Chris, 8
    • Park Chung Hee, 94, 98, 163–64
    • Patents, 75f, 136, 136f
    • The Pedagogy of the Oppressed (Freire), 176
    • Peru, 106
    • Peters, M., 120, 121
    • Petronas, 29, 39
    • Pharmaceuticals, 73–74, 150, 170
    • Pinto, Rodrigo, 25
    • Polytechnic institute, in Mexico, 32, 42
    • Poncet, Sandra, 8, 14n9
    • Portfolio diversification, 48–49, 60
    • Poverty reduction, xvii
      • in Korea, 159–60, 161, 161t
      • MDGs and, 156
    • PPP. See Purchasing power parity
    • Precision engineering industry, in Singapore, 72
    • “The Principle of the Hiding Hand” (Hirschman), xiii
    • Private sector, banks and, 53–54, 53t
    • Private sector employment, 24–25, 27, 53–54, 57–58
    • Productive Development Policy, in Brazil, 147
    • Productivity growth
      • in advanced countries, 118–19
      • in emerging markets, 119–20
      • in GCC, 168
      • in India, 119–20
      • in middle-income countries, 117–21
      • tariffs and, 123
      • vertical targeting for, 122–26
    • Public sector employment, 3, 6, 24
    • Purchasing power parity (PPP), 9f, 9n5, 10f, 19f, 34t, 36f
    • Qatar, 3, 6, 8, 37, 48
    • Quah, D., 132
    • Quality ladder, 9, 11
    • Rajan, R., 121
    • Ramey, G., 131–32
    • Ramey, V. A., 131–32
    • Razak, Tun Abdul, 85
    • R&D. See Research and development
    • Realo Plano (Real Plan), 147, 147n2
    • Redistribution, xiv, xv
    • Relative income, xv, 6–8, 14n9
    • Research and development (R&D), 31, 31f, 118
      • in Brazil, 147
      • in Latin America, 109–11
      • in Mexico, 42–43
      • in Singapore, 69, 73–74, 74f
      • TFP and, 110–11
      • in U.S., 141, 141f
    • Risk-return trade-off channel, 23, 24, 30
    • Rodriguez, Francisco, 37
    • Rodrik, Dani, 8, 10n8, 14n9, 20, 22
    • Romer, D., 122
    • Romero, Javier Martínez, 42
    • Rubber, 86, 169
    • Rukun Negara (National Principles), of Malaysia, 90
    • S2A. See Science to Action
    • SABIC. See Saudi Basic Industries Corporation
    • Sachs, Jeffrey, 156
    • Saemaul Undong (New Village Movement), xvii, 27, 101, 155–65, 159t
      • education in, 159–60, 169
      • land reform in, xvii, 157–60
      • policy implications for, 164–65
      • poverty reduction in, 159–60
      • for social inclusion, 160–62
    • Saudi Advanced Electronics Company, 177
    • Saudi Arabia, xvi, 8, 21, 54–58, 168
      • education in, 57–58
      • electronics industry in, 177
      • life expectancy in, 172
      • manufacturing in, 56f
      • public sector employment in, 3
      • R&D in, 31
      • venture capital in, 175
    • Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC), 13, 37, 54–58, 172–73
    • Savelyev, Peter, 25
    • Savings
      • in Latin America, 104
      • in Malaysia, 40
    • SBA. See Small Business Administration
    • SBIR. See Small Business Innovation Research Program
    • Scarpetta, S., 121
    • Schooling years, in GCC, 6, 6f, 25, 25f
    • Schumpeter, Joseph, 110, 146, 146n1
    • Schumpeterian paradigm, 117, 118, 120, 123
    • Science Park, in Taiwan, 30
    • Science to Action (S2A), in Malaysia, 91
    • Second Industrial Revolution, in Singapore, 68–69
    • Service sector, 13, 40, 53, 57
    • Singapore, xvi, 10–11, 11f, 12f, 31, 36f, 66f, 75f
      • in 1960s, 65–67
      • in 1970s, 68
      • in 1980s, 68–69
      • in 1990s and 2000s, 69
      • A*STAR in, 74
      • biomedical sciences industry in, 73–74
      • chemicals industry in, 72–73
      • EDB of, 65–66, 68
      • education in, 76, 76f
      • electronics industry in, 71
      • GDP of, 11f, 66f, 69, 70f, 79t–80t
      • government in, 29–30, 29n20
      • human capital in, 76, 76f
      • industrialization in, 65–77
      • manufacturing in, 66–67, 78t, 79t, 169
      • precision engineering industry in, 72
      • R&D in, 73–74, 74f
      • system integrators in, 29–30
      • technological innovation in, 75–77
      • Urban Redevelopment Authority of, 67
      • value-added in, 68–69
    • Singapore Institute of Management, 68
    • Singapore River, 67
    • Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), 23, 30, 32–33
    • Small Business Administration (SBA), 141
    • Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR), xvii, 30–31, 141–42, 170
    • SMEs. See Small and medium-sized enterprises
    • Société Nationale pour la Recherche, la Production, le Transport, la Transformation, et la Commercialisation des Hydrocarbures (Sonatrach), 52
    • SOEs. See State-owned enterprises
    • Software industry, Brazilian Development Bank and, 151, 151f, 170
    • Solow, R., 117
    • Sonatrach. See Société Nationale pour la Recherche, la Production, le Transport, la Transformation, et la Commercialisation des Hydrocarbures
    • Spatafora, Nicola, 8
    • Special economic zones, 31
    • State monopolies, 38
    • State-owned enterprises (SOEs), 36–37
      • in Brazil, 146
      • in Singapore, 29
      • in Venezuela, 37, 38
    • Stern, N., 20
    • Strategic retreat, in Indonesia, 17, 41–42
    • Subsidies, 30, 124
      • in Germany, 32
      • in Kuwait, 48
      • in nontradable sector, viii
    • Sugarcane industry, 150–51, 170
    • Supreme Council for National Reconstruction, in Korea, 163
    • Sustainable employment, 48–49, 91
    • Sustainable growth, xiv–xv, 4
      • in Brazil, 147, 149–50
      • in GCC, 8–14
      • from industrialization, 160–61
      • in tradable sector, 167
      • tradable sector for, 19
    • System integrators, 29–30, 42–43
    • Taiwan, 30
    • Tariffs, xv, 17, 18, 39, 97, 123, 146
    • Tax breaks, 30, 42, 118, 140
    • Technical Development Credits Scheme, in Netherlands, 142
    • Technological innovation, xvii, 118, 127, 132
      • in Brazil, 148, 148f, 149f, 149t, 170
      • clean, 125–26
      • GDP per capita and, 117
      • in Latin America, 107–11
      • in Malaysia, 90–91
      • by SABIC, 56–57
      • in Singapore, 69, 75–77
      • See also Research and development
    • Total factor productivity (TFP), 110–11, 124
      • in GCC, 8, 9f, 11
      • in Latin America, 103, 104–6
    • Tourism, 13, 60, 85
    • Tradable sector, 31f, 95
      • in GCC, 23
      • investment in, 28n18
      • market failure in, 22
      • relative wage in, 14n9
      • in Singapore, 29
      • for sustainable growth, 19, 167
      • venture capital for, 30–31
    • Trefler, D., 123, 124
    • Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study, 60
    • Tunisia, 51f, 56f
    • Turkey, 36f
    • UAE. See United Arab Emirates
    • Unemployment, xiv, 65, 100, 163t
    • United Arab Emirates (UAE), 3, 6, 13, 15, 24
    • United Nations Industrial Development Organization, 133, 135
    • United Nations Millennium Project, 156
    • United States (U.S.), 6–8, 133f
      • ICT in, 119
      • Korea and, 98–99
      • R&D in, 141, 141f
      • SBA in, 141
      • SBIR in, xvii, 30–31, 141–42, 170
    • Urban Redevelopment Authority, of Singapore, 67
    • U.S. See United States
    • Value-added
      • equation for, 70n2
      • in GCC, 4, 27–33
      • in Malaysia, 40
      • in Singapore, 68–69
      • technological innovation and, 170
    • Van Reenen, J., 120, 121
    • Venezuela, 15, 37, 38
    • Venture capital, viii, xvii, 4, 17, 27, 30–31, 170
      • from Brazilian Development Bank, 152
      • in Canada, 140
      • OECD and, 139
      • in Saudi Arabia, 175
    • Vertical diversification, 29, 84f, 168
    • Vertical greenery, in Singapore, 67
    • Vertical targeting, for productivity growth, 122–26
    • Volatility management, xv
    • Wacziarg, R., 122
    • Wagner, Rodrigo, 37
    • Women
      • education of, in MENA, 59, 59f
      • empowerment of, xvii, 136
    • Woo, Meredith, 170
    • Wood, G., 156
    • Work ethic, 60, 169
    • World Bank, 70, 83, 122, 135, 136f, 137
    • World Development Indicators, 135, 136f, 137
    • World Economic Forum, 57t, 83, 106
    • World Trade Organization, 30, 55–56
    • Young, Alwyn, 27
    • Zahlan, A. B., 57
    • Zaibatsu (conglomerates), 97–98
    • Zhu, Min, 171–77
    • Zingales, L., 121
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