Back Matter

Back Matter

Author(s):
Reda Cherif, Fuad Hasanov, and Min Zhu
Published Date:
April 2016
Share
  • ShareShare
Show Summary Details

Index

  • Abdesselam, Belaid, 49–50
  • Acemoglu, D., 120, 125
  • The Achieving Society (McClelland), 59
  • Advanced countries
    • competition in, 170
    • growth model for, 131
    • productivity growth in, 118–19
  • Affirmative action, in Malaysia, 87
  • Agency of Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), in Singapore, 69, 74
  • Aghion, Philippe, 118, 121, 124, 125, 170
  • Airbus, 30
  • Akcigit, U., 120, 121
  • Alcoa, 30
  • Algeria, 94
    • El Hajdar in, 55
    • human capital in, xvi, 51, 168
    • industrialization in, 37–38, 49–54
    • manufacturing in, 51f, 56f
    • oil exports of, 15
    • World Trade Organization and, 56
  • Alp, K., 120, 121
  • Amsden, Alice, 20
  • Apprenticeship programs, 32
  • Arab Barometer, 60
  • Arabization, of Algeria, 54
  • Arezki, Rabah, 13
  • Argentina, 104
  • Askenazy, P., 119
  • Association of Southeast Asian Nations, 41
  • A*STAR. See Agency of Science, Technology and Research
  • Automobile industry, in Mexico, 18, 42
  • Badawi, Tun Abdullah Ahmad, 85
  • Bahrain, 3, 10–11, 11f, 13–14, 37
    • export structure of, 12f
    • GDP per capita in, 8
    • output composition in, 5
  • Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social. See Brazilian Development Bank
  • Banks, 53–54, 53t
    • in Korea, 99
    • in MENA, 60, 61t
    • See also Brazilian Development Bank
  • Barbados, 21
  • Bartelsman, E., 121
  • El Beblawi, H., 12–13
  • Beck, T., 121n2
  • Bendjedid, Chadli, 50
  • Beteiligungskapital für junge Technologieunternehmen (BJTU), 142
  • Big Push, 21, 29, 99–100
  • Biomedical sciences industry, in Singapore, 73–74
  • Biopolis, 77
  • Biosimilars, 150, 150n3
  • BJTU. See Beteiligungskapital für junge Technologieunternehmen
  • Bloom, D., 120
  • Blundell, R., 118
  • BNDESPAR. See BNDES Participações
  • BNDES Participações (BNDESPAR), 152
  • Boeing, 30
  • Boumediene, Houari, 37–38, 50, 94
  • Boustan, L., 118
  • Branco, Castello, 98
  • Brasil Maior Plan, 147
  • Brazil, 98
    • industrialization in, xvii, 145–53
    • industrial policy in, 145–47
    • manufacturing in, 146–47, 146f
    • R&D in, 147
    • SOEs in, 146
    • technological innovation in, 148, 148f, 149f, 149t, 170
  • Brazilian Development Bank (Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social), xvii, 145–53
    • industrial policy and, 149–51
    • pharmaceuticals and, 150, 170
    • software industry and, 151, 151f, 170
    • sugarcane industry and, 150–51, 170
    • venture capital from, 152
  • Cable, Vincent, 123
  • Canada, 15, 21, 140
  • Capital-to-labor ratio, 27
  • Carbon price, 125
  • Cette, G., 119
  • Chang, Ha-Joon, 20, 28
  • Chemicals industry, in Singapore, 72–73
  • Cherif, Reda, 8, 14n9, 28n18, 47, 94, 95, 98
  • Chile, 36f, 104, 105, 106
  • China, 95, 122, 124
  • Clean innovations, 125–26
  • Climate change, 122–23
  • Colombia, 36f, 106
  • Comparative-advantage sectors, 4, 27–33, 65–77
  • Competition, 124
    • in advanced countries, 170
    • frontier innovations and, 126
    • industrial policy and, 125
    • productivity growth and, 118
    • R&D and, 111
  • Concept Plan, of Singapore, 67
  • Conglomerates (zaibatsu), 97–98
  • Consumption per capita, xiv, 19, 19f
  • Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf. See Gulf Cooperation Council
  • Coordination failures, 20–21, 29
  • Corporation Law, in Korea, 96
  • Creative destruction, 110, 118, 146n1
  • Crespi, G., 108
  • Demirgüç-Kunt, A., 121n2
  • Denmark, 17
  • Destanne de Bernis, Gérard, 49
  • Development Decade, in Algeria, 50
  • Di John, Jonathan, 38
  • Dirty innovations, 125
  • Discouragement effect, 118
  • Diversification
    • in Algeria, xvi
    • capital supply and, 132
    • data on, 135–36
    • in Dubai, 3, 95
    • empirical findings on, 137, 138t
    • entrepreneurship and, xvii
    • in GCC, xv, 3–43, 173–74
    • GDP and, xvii, 131–32
    • GDP per capita and, 8
    • government and, 139–42, 174–75
    • for growth, xv
    • in Indonesia, 41–42
    • key policies for, xvii
    • in Korea, 93–101, 162f
    • lack of, xiii–xiv
    • in Latin America, xvii, 102–12
    • in Malaysia, 39–40, 83–91
    • to manufacturing, 8
    • measurement of, 136–37
    • in MENA, 47–61
    • in Mexico, 42–43
    • OECD and, 133f, 139–42, 140t
    • in oil exporters, 36–43
    • oil prices and, 36–38
    • patterns of, 133–34, 133f
    • poverty reduction and, xvii
    • in Saudi Arabia, xvi, 54–58
    • sustainable employment and, 48–49
    • sustainable growth from, 8
    • technological innovation and, xvii, 132
    • as top policy agenda, xv
    • in tradable sector, 95
    • women’s empowerment and, xvii
    • worldwide, 135f
    • Zhu on, 171–72
  • Dolton, Peter, 26–27
  • Dow Chemical, 30
  • Dubai, 3, 37, 95, 169–70
  • expatriate labor in, 48
  • Dutch disease, 4n2
    • in Canada, 21
    • in GCC, 12, 14–18, 14n9, 15f, 22–23, 22n15, 33, 167–68
    • learning externality and, 22
    • market failure from, xvi
    • non-oil tradables and, 168
    • in Norway, 16, 21
  • Early childhood education, in GCC, 26–27, 26f
  • Ease of Doing Business Index, 83
  • East Asia, xvi–xvii
  • Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia of the United Nations, 60
  • Economic Development Board (EDB), in Singapore, 65–66, 68
  • Economic Development Institute, of World Bank, 70
  • Economic Development Plan for the Eighties, in Singapore, 68–69
  • Economic Transformation Programme, in Malaysia, 89–90
  • EDB. See Economic Development Board
  • Education
    • in Algeria, 51–52, 54
    • in GCC, 6, 26–27, 26f, 58–59 2
    • in Korea, 159–60, 169
    • in Malaysia, 90, 169
    • in MENA, 59–60
    • productivity growth and, 118
    • in Saemaul Undong, 159–60, 169
    • in Saudi Arabia, 57–58
    • in Singapore, 76, 76f
    • Zhu on, 177
  • Electronics industry
    • in Saudi Arabia, 177
    • in Singapore, 71
  • Employment
    • by expatriate labor, 12, 48, 68, 87, 173–74
    • in Korea, 160t
    • in private sector, 24–25, 27, 53–54, 57–58
    • in public sector, 3, 6, 24
    • sustainable, 48–49, 91
    • unemployment, xiv, 65, 100, 163t
  • Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária, 147
  • Energy subsidies, in GCC, 24
  • The Entrepreneurial State (Mazzucato), 173
  • Entrepreneurship, xvii, 136, 175–76
  • EPO Worldwide Patent Statistical Database, 135, 136f
  • Equity investment program, in Germany, 142
  • Escape competition effect, 118
  • European Union, 29, 30
  • Expatriate labor, 12, 48, 68, 87, 173–74
  • Export credits, in Korea, 100
  • Export sophistication, 10n8
    • in Denmark, 17
    • in GCC, 10, 10f
    • in Indonesia, 17–18
    • for late-late developers, 47
    • in Latin America, 106
    • in Malaysia, 15, 17, 169
    • manufacturing in, 20n13
    • in MENA, 61
    • in Mexico, 14, 18
    • in Norway, 16–17
  • EXPY, 10n8, 14n9
  • Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative, 58
  • Fally, T., 121
  • FDI. See Foreign direct investment
  • Feenstra, Robert, 14n9
  • Finance sector
    • in GCC, 13–14
    • See also Banks
  • FINEXPO. See Fondo de Exportaciones
  • Fiscal policy, xiv, 6, 23–27
    • for oil rents, 12
  • Fondo de Exportaciones (FINEXPO), 38
  • Foreign direct investment (FDI), 136, 137
    • in Dubai, 169–70
    • in Malaysia, 17, 85
    • in Mexico, 18, 42
    • in Singapore, 68
  • Frankel, J., 122
  • Free trade zones, 18, 169–70
  • Freire, Paulo, 176
  • Frontier innovations, 118, 126
  • Fuentes, R. F., 105
  • Garicano, L., 121
  • GCC. See Gulf Cooperation Council
  • GDP. See Gross domestic product
  • GDP per capita, 21, 104f, 117, 118, 120
    • in GCC, 6–8, 7f
    • in Latin America, 105
  • Gelb, Alan, 41
  • Germany, 96, 123, 142
  • Gini index, 135, 158
  • Global Innovation Index, 83
  • Global Science and Innovation Advisory Council, in Malaysia, 91
  • Good governance, in Korea, 156
  • Good Jobs First, 30
  • Gough, I., 156
  • Government, xiv, xv, 23, 95–96, 139–42, 174–75
    • climate change and, 122–23
    • in GCC, 27–33
    • of Indonesia, 17–18, 41–42
    • in Latin America, 108–10
    • of Norway, 29
    • R&D and, 42–43
    • of Singapore, 29–30, 29n20
    • SMEs and, 32–33
    • See also Saemaul Undong
  • Government Transformation Programme, in Malaysia, 89–90
  • Gredig, R., F., 105
  • Gross domestic product (GDP), xvii, 131–32
    • of Bahrain, 11f
    • growth sources for, 105f
    • of Latin America, 105f
    • of Malaysia, 87
    • relative income and, 8
    • of Singapore, 11f, 66f, 69, 70f, 79t–80t
    • See also GDP per capita
  • Growth decomposition, 9f, 36f
  • Growth model
    • for advanced countries, 131
    • in GCC, 4–8
    • for middle-income countries, 117–28
  • Guaranteed Business Loan Program, of SBA, 141
  • Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), xiii, 3–43, 3n1, 133f, 134
    • Dutch disease in, 12, 14–18, 14n9, 15f, 22n15
    • early childhood education in, 26–27, 26f
    • education in, 6, 26–27, 26f, 58–59
    • entrepreneurship in, 175–76
    • expatriate labor in, 173–74
    • export sophistication in, 10, 10f
    • GDP per worker in, 6–8, 7f
    • government in, 27–33
    • growth model in, 4–8
    • incentives in, xvi, 12
    • infrastructure in, 21, 22f
    • Korea and, 93, 100
    • life expectancy in, 6, 7f
    • market failures in, 20–23, 167–68
    • non-oil tradables in, 3, 5–6
    • nontradable sector in, 23
    • oil rents in, 47
    • oil reserves in, 47
    • PPP in, 9f
    • productivity growth in, 168
    • relative income in, xv, 6–8
    • schooling years in, 6, 6f, 25, 25f
    • sustainable growth in, 8–14
    • technological innovation in, xvii
    • TFP in, 8, 9f, 11
    • top industries in, 134f
    • value-added sectors in, 27–33
  • Hadeed, 55
  • Al-Haj, Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra, 85
  • El Hajdar, 55
  • Hajj, 60
  • Haltiwanger, J., 121
  • Hasanov, Fuad, 8, 28n18, 47, 94, 95, 98
  • Hausmann, Ricardo, 8, 10n8, 14n9, 20, 37, 106
  • Heavy and Chemical Industrialization Plan, in Korea, 99, 100
  • Heckman, James, 25
  • Henry, Clement M., 37–38
  • Henry, Peter Blair, 21
  • Herfindahl-Hirschman index (HHI), 133–34, 133f, 133n2, 137
  • Hirschman, Albert O., xiii, 96
  • Horizontal diversification, 29–30, 84, 84f, 168
  • Housing and Development Board, of Singapore, 67
  • Hsieh, C.-T., 119
  • Human capital, 9, 32
    • in Algeria, xvi, 51, 168
    • in GCC, 8
    • in Latin America, 106
    • in Malaysia, 40, 85
    • in Saudi Arabia, xvi, 168
    • in Singapore, 76, 76f
    • See also Employment
  • Human development index, 6
  • Human Resources Development Fund, 40
  • Hvidt, Martin, 11–12
  • Hwang, Jason, 8, 10n8, 14n9
  • ICT. See Information and communication technologies
  • Imitative innovations, 118
  • Import substitution strategy, 39–40, 122, 163
  • India, 119–20
  • Indonesia, 8, 21, 41–42
    • export sophistication in, 17–18
    • manufacturing in, 17–18, 56f
    • oil exports in, 5, 15
  • Industrial, Technology, and Trade Policy, in Brazil, 147
  • Industrial deepening, 95–96, 98, 100
  • Industrialization
    • in Algeria, 37–38, 49–54
    • in Brazil, xvii, 145–53
    • in GCC, 13
    • in Korea, xvi–xvii, 93–101, 160–62, 160t, 169
    • in Malaysia, 85
    • in Singapore, 65–77
    • in Venezuela, 38
    • See also Manufacturing
  • Industrial Master Plan, in Malaysia, 87
  • Industrial policy, 123–24
    • in Brazil, 145–47
    • Brazilian Development Bank and, 149–51
    • in China, 122
    • competition and, 125
  • Industry clusters, 32, 41–43
  • Infant mortality, in GCC, 6
  • Information and communication technologies (ICT), 118, 119
  • Infrastructure
    • in GCC, 21, 22f
    • in India, 119
    • in Korea, 161–62
    • in Malaysia, 87
    • in Singapore, 77
  • Innovation. See Technological innovation
  • Intellectual property rights, 118
  • Intergenerational equity, xiv, xv
  • International Country Risk Guide, 21
  • INTSOK foundation, 29
  • Investment, 28n18, 126–27
    • in Korea, 99–100
    • in Latin America, 104
    • in Malaysia, 40, 90
    • in Singapore, 71
    • See also Venture capital
  • Ireland, 32–33
  • Irish Development Agency, 32
  • Islamic finance, 60
  • Jamaica, 21
  • Japan, 93–98, 119, 122, 123, 158
  • Jarreau, Joachim, 8, 14n9
  • Al Jasser, Muhammad, xviii, 171–77
  • Jomo, K. S., 17–18, 20, 40, 41
  • Jurong Island, 72–73
  • Jurong Town Corporation, 31
  • Kammer, Alfred, 171–77
  • Kazushige, Ugaki, 97
  • Klenow, P., 119
  • Klette, T., 120
  • Knowledge spillovers, 123
  • Koch, W., 119
  • Koh, W., 162
  • Korea, xvi–xvii, 27, 36f, 162f
    • banks in, 99
    • Corporation Law in, 96
    • education in, 159–60, 169
    • good governance in, 156
    • Heavy and Chemical Industrialization Plan in, 99, 100
    • import substitution strategy in, 163
    • industrial deepening in, 100
    • industrialization in, 93–101, 160–62, 160t, 169
    • land reform in, xvii, 157–60, 158n2
    • National Investment Fund in, 99–100
    • poverty reduction in, 159–60, 161, 161t
    • unemployment in, 100, 163t
    • U.S. and, 98–99
    • See also Saemaul Undong
  • Kortum, S., 120
  • Krugman, Paul, 27
  • Kuwait, 3, 31, 48
  • Labor-Sponsored Venture Capital Corporations (LSVCCs), 140
  • Lall, Sanjaya, 20
  • Land reform, in Korea, xvii, 157–60, 158n2
  • Larraín, M., 105
  • Late-late developers, 47, 47n1
  • Latin America, xvii, 102–12, 105f
    • government in, 108–10
    • human capital in, 106
    • import substitution strategy in, 122
    • investment in, 104
    • market failures in, 108
    • R&D in, 109–11
    • savings in, 104
    • technological innovation in, 107–11
  • Learning externality, 20–21, 20n14, 22, 27
  • Lee Kuan Yew, 167
  • Lelarge, C., 121
  • Lerner, J., 142
  • Lerner index, 124
  • Liassine, Mohammed, 50
  • Life expectancy, 6, 7f, 172
  • Lin, Justin, 28
  • Loan guarantees, OECD and, 140–41
  • Loan Guarantee Scheme, in United Kingdom, 142
  • Looney, R. E., 12
  • Lopez, J., 119
  • LSVCCs. See Labor-Sponsored Venture Capital Corporations
  • Lucas, Robert E., 8–9, 131
  • Machinery real exports per capita, 15f, 16f
  • Mairesse, J., 119
  • “Making a Miracle” (Lucas), 8–9
  • Maksimovic, V., 121n2
  • Malaysia, 83–91
    • education in, 90, 169
    • export sophistication in, 15, 17, 169
    • FDI in, 17
    • horizontal diversification in, 84, 84f
    • human capital in, 40, 85
    • import substitution strategy in, 39–40
    • International Country Risk Guide for, 21
    • investment in, 40, 90
    • manufacturing in, xvi, 39–40, 56f, 85
    • National Science, Technology, and Innovation Policy in, 90–91
    • oil exports in, 5, 15
    • palm oil in, 86, 169
    • rubber in, 86, 169
    • savings in, 40
    • TFP in, 8
    • value-added industries in, 40
    • vertical diversification in, 29, 84f
  • Manufacturing, 8
    • in Algeria, 51f, 56f
    • in Bahrain, 11
    • in Brazil, 146–47, 146f
    • in export sophistication, 20n13
    • in GCC, 4, 5
    • horizontal diversification in, 29–30
    • in Indonesia, 17–18, 56f
    • in Malaysia, xvi, 39–40, 56f, 85
    • SABIC and, 55
    • in Saudi Arabia, 56f
    • in Singapore, 66–67, 78t, 79t, 169
    • in Tunisia, 56f
  • Marcenaro-Gutierrez, Oscar D., 26–27
  • Market distortions, xiv, xv
  • Market failures, 20n14
    • from Dutch disease, xvi
    • in GCC, 20–23, 167–68
    • in Latin America, 108
  • Matsuyama, Kiminori, 20
  • Mazzucato, Mariana, 173
  • McClelland, David, 59
  • MDGs. See Millennium Development Goals
  • Medical technology, in Singapore, 73–74
  • MENA. See Middle East and North Africa
  • Mexico, 5, 8, 14, 15, 18, 32, 42–43
  • Middle East and North Africa (MENA), xvi, 47–61, 133f
    • banks in, 60, 61t
    • HHI for, 134
    • sustainable employment in, 48–49
    • women’s education in, 59
    • work ethic in, 60
  • Middle-income countries
    • growth model for, 117–28
    • productivity growth in, 117–21
  • Middle-income trap, xvii
  • Migrant labor. See Expatriate labor
  • Millennium Development Declaration, 156
  • Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), 156
  • Miller, Conrad, 21
  • Modernization theory, 93
  • Mohamad, Tun Dr Mahathir, 85
  • Monopolies, 20, 22f, 38, 96, 100, 175
  • Moretti, Enrico, 30
  • Morocco, 51f
  • Multimedia Super Corridor, in Malaysia, 89
  • Mutual Security Act, 99
  • Nabli, Mustapha, 13
  • National Industrial Policy, in Malaysia, 87
  • National Investment Fund, in Korea, 99–100
  • Nationalization, in oil exporters, 36–37
  • National Key Results Areas, in Malaysia, 89–90
  • National Linkage Promotion Program, in Ireland, 32–33
  • National Principles (Rukun Negara), of Malaysia, 90
  • National Science, Technology, and Innovation Policy, in Malaysia, 90–91
  • National Transformation Programme, in Malaysia, 89
  • Netherlands, 142
  • New Economic Policy, in Malaysia, 87
  • New Village Movement. See Saemaul Undong
  • Nigeria, 15
  • Nixon, Richard, 99
  • Nokia, 30
  • Non-oil GDP, in GCC, 11
  • Non-oil tradables, 37
    • Dutch disease and, 168
    • in GCC, xv–xvi, 3, 5–6, 20, 27
  • Nontradable sector, viii, xiii–xiv, 30
    • in GCC, 3, 4–5, 13, 14n9, 23
  • North American Free Trade Agreement, 18, 42
  • Norway, 5, 15, 16–17, 21, 29, 36f
  • Nunn, N., 123, 124
  • Ocampo, Jose Antonio, 20
  • OECD. See Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
  • Oil exports and exporters, 5f, 35t, 36–43
    • economic indicators of, 34t
    • in GCC, 5
    • SOEs in, 36–37
  • Oil prices
    • collapse of, viii, ix, 17, 37, 41
    • consumption per capita and, 19f
    • decline of, xiv
    • fiscal policy and, 6
    • peak of, 8n4, 36–37
    • rise of, 38
    • volatility of, 47
  • Oil rents, 12, 47, 47n2, 48t
  • Oil reserves, 14n12, 35t
    • in Bahrain, 3
    • in GCC, 47
    • in Oman, 3
    • in Saudi Arabia, 3
  • Oman, 3, 6, 15
  • OPEC. See Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries
  • Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 119, 132, 133f, 133n1, 139–42, 140t
  • Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), 41
  • Palm oil, in Malaysia, 86, 169
  • Papageorgiou, Chris, 8
  • Park Chung Hee, 94, 98, 163–64
  • Patents, 75f, 136, 136f
  • The Pedagogy of the Oppressed (Freire), 176
  • Peru, 106
  • Peters, M., 120, 121
  • Petronas, 29, 39
  • Pharmaceuticals, 73–74, 150, 170
  • Pinto, Rodrigo, 25
  • Polytechnic institute, in Mexico, 32, 42
  • Poncet, Sandra, 8, 14n9
  • Portfolio diversification, 48–49, 60
  • Poverty reduction, xvii
    • in Korea, 159–60, 161, 161t
    • MDGs and, 156
  • PPP. See Purchasing power parity
  • Precision engineering industry, in Singapore, 72
  • “The Principle of the Hiding Hand” (Hirschman), xiii
  • Private sector, banks and, 53–54, 53t
  • Private sector employment, 24–25, 27, 53–54, 57–58
  • Productive Development Policy, in Brazil, 147
  • Productivity growth
    • in advanced countries, 118–19
    • in emerging markets, 119–20
    • in GCC, 168
    • in India, 119–20
    • in middle-income countries, 117–21
    • tariffs and, 123
    • vertical targeting for, 122–26
  • Public sector employment, 3, 6, 24
  • Purchasing power parity (PPP), 9f, 9n5, 10f, 19f, 34t, 36f
  • Qatar, 3, 6, 8, 37, 48
  • Quah, D., 132
  • Quality ladder, 9, 11
  • Rajan, R., 121
  • Ramey, G., 131–32
  • Ramey, V. A., 131–32
  • Razak, Tun Abdul, 85
  • R&D. See Research and development
  • Realo Plano (Real Plan), 147, 147n2
  • Redistribution, xiv, xv
  • Relative income, xv, 6–8, 14n9
  • Research and development (R&D), 31, 31f, 118
    • in Brazil, 147
    • in Latin America, 109–11
    • in Mexico, 42–43
    • in Singapore, 69, 73–74, 74f
    • TFP and, 110–11
    • in U.S., 141, 141f
  • Risk-return trade-off channel, 23, 24, 30
  • Rodriguez, Francisco, 37
  • Rodrik, Dani, 8, 10n8, 14n9, 20, 22
  • Romer, D., 122
  • Romero, Javier Martínez, 42
  • Rubber, 86, 169
  • Rukun Negara (National Principles), of Malaysia, 90
  • S2A. See Science to Action
  • SABIC. See Saudi Basic Industries Corporation
  • Sachs, Jeffrey, 156
  • Saemaul Undong (New Village Movement), xvii, 27, 101, 155–65, 159t
    • education in, 159–60, 169
    • land reform in, xvii, 157–60
    • policy implications for, 164–65
    • poverty reduction in, 159–60
    • for social inclusion, 160–62
  • Saudi Advanced Electronics Company, 177
  • Saudi Arabia, xvi, 8, 21, 54–58, 168
    • education in, 57–58
    • electronics industry in, 177
    • life expectancy in, 172
    • manufacturing in, 56f
    • public sector employment in, 3
    • R&D in, 31
    • venture capital in, 175
  • Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC), 13, 37, 54–58, 172–73
  • Savelyev, Peter, 25
  • Savings
    • in Latin America, 104
    • in Malaysia, 40
  • SBA. See Small Business Administration
  • SBIR. See Small Business Innovation Research Program
  • Scarpetta, S., 121
  • Schooling years, in GCC, 6, 6f, 25, 25f
  • Schumpeter, Joseph, 110, 146, 146n1
  • Schumpeterian paradigm, 117, 118, 120, 123
  • Science Park, in Taiwan, 30
  • Science to Action (S2A), in Malaysia, 91
  • Second Industrial Revolution, in Singapore, 68–69
  • Service sector, 13, 40, 53, 57
  • Singapore, xvi, 10–11, 11f, 12f, 31, 36f, 66f, 75f
    • in 1960s, 65–67
    • in 1970s, 68
    • in 1980s, 68–69
    • in 1990s and 2000s, 69
    • A*STAR in, 74
    • biomedical sciences industry in, 73–74
    • chemicals industry in, 72–73
    • EDB of, 65–66, 68
    • education in, 76, 76f
    • electronics industry in, 71
    • GDP of, 11f, 66f, 69, 70f, 79t–80t
    • government in, 29–30, 29n20
    • human capital in, 76, 76f
    • industrialization in, 65–77
    • manufacturing in, 66–67, 78t, 79t, 169
    • precision engineering industry in, 72
    • R&D in, 73–74, 74f
    • system integrators in, 29–30
    • technological innovation in, 75–77
    • Urban Redevelopment Authority of, 67
    • value-added in, 68–69
  • Singapore Institute of Management, 68
  • Singapore River, 67
  • Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), 23, 30, 32–33
  • Small Business Administration (SBA), 141
  • Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR), xvii, 30–31, 141–42, 170
  • SMEs. See Small and medium-sized enterprises
  • Société Nationale pour la Recherche, la Production, le Transport, la Transformation, et la Commercialisation des Hydrocarbures (Sonatrach), 52
  • SOEs. See State-owned enterprises
  • Software industry, Brazilian Development Bank and, 151, 151f, 170
  • Solow, R., 117
  • Sonatrach. See Société Nationale pour la Recherche, la Production, le Transport, la Transformation, et la Commercialisation des Hydrocarbures
  • Spatafora, Nicola, 8
  • Special economic zones, 31
  • State monopolies, 38
  • State-owned enterprises (SOEs), 36–37
    • in Brazil, 146
    • in Singapore, 29
    • in Venezuela, 37, 38
  • Stern, N., 20
  • Strategic retreat, in Indonesia, 17, 41–42
  • Subsidies, 30, 124
    • in Germany, 32
    • in Kuwait, 48
    • in nontradable sector, viii
  • Sugarcane industry, 150–51, 170
  • Supreme Council for National Reconstruction, in Korea, 163
  • Sustainable employment, 48–49, 91
  • Sustainable growth, xiv–xv, 4
    • in Brazil, 147, 149–50
    • in GCC, 8–14
    • from industrialization, 160–61
    • in tradable sector, 167
    • tradable sector for, 19
  • System integrators, 29–30, 42–43
  • Taiwan, 30
  • Tariffs, xv, 17, 18, 39, 97, 123, 146
  • Tax breaks, 30, 42, 118, 140
  • Technical Development Credits Scheme, in Netherlands, 142
  • Technological innovation, xvii, 118, 127, 132
    • in Brazil, 148, 148f, 149f, 149t, 170
    • clean, 125–26
    • GDP per capita and, 117
    • in Latin America, 107–11
    • in Malaysia, 90–91
    • by SABIC, 56–57
    • in Singapore, 69, 75–77
    • See also Research and development
  • Total factor productivity (TFP), 110–11, 124
    • in GCC, 8, 9f, 11
    • in Latin America, 103, 104–6
  • Tourism, 13, 60, 85
  • Tradable sector, 31f, 95
    • in GCC, 23
    • investment in, 28n18
    • market failure in, 22
    • relative wage in, 14n9
    • in Singapore, 29
    • for sustainable growth, 19, 167
    • venture capital for, 30–31
  • Trefler, D., 123, 124
  • Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study, 60
  • Tunisia, 51f, 56f
  • Turkey, 36f
  • UAE. See United Arab Emirates
  • Unemployment, xiv, 65, 100, 163t
  • United Arab Emirates (UAE), 3, 6, 13, 15, 24
  • United Nations Industrial Development Organization, 133, 135
  • United Nations Millennium Project, 156
  • United States (U.S.), 6–8, 133f
    • ICT in, 119
    • Korea and, 98–99
    • R&D in, 141, 141f
    • SBA in, 141
    • SBIR in, xvii, 30–31, 141–42, 170
  • Urban Redevelopment Authority, of Singapore, 67
  • U.S. See United States
  • Value-added
    • equation for, 70n2
    • in GCC, 4, 27–33
    • in Malaysia, 40
    • in Singapore, 68–69
    • technological innovation and, 170
  • Van Reenen, J., 120, 121
  • Venezuela, 15, 37, 38
  • Venture capital, viii, xvii, 4, 17, 27, 30–31, 170
    • from Brazilian Development Bank, 152
    • in Canada, 140
    • OECD and, 139
    • in Saudi Arabia, 175
  • Vertical diversification, 29, 84f, 168
  • Vertical greenery, in Singapore, 67
  • Vertical targeting, for productivity growth, 122–26
  • Volatility management, xv
  • Wacziarg, R., 122
  • Wagner, Rodrigo, 37
  • Women
    • education of, in MENA, 59, 59f
    • empowerment of, xvii, 136
  • Woo, Meredith, 170
  • Wood, G., 156
  • Work ethic, 60, 169
  • World Bank, 70, 83, 122, 135, 136f, 137
  • World Development Indicators, 135, 136f, 137
  • World Economic Forum, 57t, 83, 106
  • World Trade Organization, 30, 55–56
  • Young, Alwyn, 27
  • Zahlan, A. B., 57
  • Zaibatsu (conglomerates), 97–98
  • Zhu, Min, 171–77
  • Zingales, L., 121

    Other Resources Citing This Publication