Chapter

Statistical Appendix

Author(s):
International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.
Published Date:
April 2007
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The Statistical Appendix presents historical data, as well as projections. It comprises five sections: Assumptions, What’s New, Data and Conventions, Classification of Countries, and Statistical Tables.

The assumptions underlying the estimates and projections for 2007–08 and the medium-term scenario for 2009–12 are summarized in the first section. The second section presents a brief description of changes to the database and statistical tables. The third section provides a general description of the data and of the conventions used for calculating country group composites. The classification of countries in the various groups presented in the World Economic Outlook is summarized in the fourth section.

The last, and main, section comprises the statistical tables. Data in these tables have been compiled on the basis of information available through end-September 2007. The figures for 2007 and beyond are shown with the same degree of precision as the historical figures solely for convenience; because they are projections, the same degree of accuracy is not to be inferred.

Assumptions

Real effective exchange rates for the advanced economies are assumed to remain constant at their average levels during the period August 22 to September 19, 2007. For 2007 and 2008, these assumptions imply average U.S. dollar/ SDR conversion rates of 1.520 and 1.538, U.S. dollar/euro conversion rates of 1.35 and 1.37, and yen/U.S. dollar conversion rates of 118.4 and 115.0, respectively.

It is assumed that the price of oil will average $68.52 a barrel in 2007 and $75.00 a barrel in 2008.

Established policies of national authorities are assumed to be maintained. The more specific policy assumptions underlying the projections for selected advanced economies are described in Box A1.

With regard to interest rates, it is assumed that the London interbank offered rate (LIBOR) on six-month U.S. dollar deposits will average 5.2 percent in 2007 and 4.4 percent in 2008, that three-month euro deposits will average 4.0 percent in 2007 and 4.1 percent in 2008, and that six-month Japanese yen deposits will average 0.9 percent in 2007 and 1.1 percent in 2008.

With respect to introduction of the euro, on December 31, 1998, the Council of the European Union decided that, effective January 1, 1999, the irrevocably fixed conversion rates between the euro and currencies of the member states adopting the euro are as follows.

1 euro=13.7603Austrian schillings
=40.3399Belgian francs
=1.95583Deutsche mark
=5.94573Finnish markkaa
=6.55957French francs
=340.750Greek drachma1
=0.787564Irish pound
=1,936.27Italian lire
=40.3399Luxembourg francs
=2.20371Netherlands guilders
=200.482Portuguese escudos
=239.640Slovenian tolars2
=166.386Spanish pesetas

See Box 5.4 in the October 1998 World Economic Outlook for details on how the conversion rates were established.

Box A1.Economic Policy Assumptions Underlying the Projections for Selected Economies

The short-term fiscal policy assumptions used in the World Economic Outlook are based on officially announced budgets, adjusted for differences between the national authorities and the IMF staff regarding macroeconomic assumptions and projected fiscal outturns. The medium-term fiscal projections incorporate policy measures that are judged likely to be implemented. In cases where the IMF staff has insufficient information to assess the authorities’ budget intentions and prospects for policy implementation, an unchanged structural primary balance is assumed, unless otherwise indicated. Specific assumptions used in some of the advanced economies follow (see also Tables B5–B7 in the Statistical Appendix for data on fiscal and structural balances).1

United States. The fiscal projections are based on the administration’s FY2008 budget and Mid-Session Review (February and July, 2007). Adjustments are made to account for differences in macroeconomic projections as well as staff assumptions about (1) additional defense spending based on analysis by the Congressional Budget Office; (2) slower compression in the growth rate of discretionary spending; and (3) continued AMT relief beyond FY2008. The projections also assume that proposed Medicare savings are achieved only in part, and that personal retirement accounts are not introduced.

Japan. The medium-term fiscal projections assume that expenditure and revenue of the general government (excluding social security) are adjusted in line with the current government target to achieve primary fiscal balance (excluding social security) by FY2011.

Germany. Projections reflect the fiscal measures announced in the 2005 government’s coalition agreement, 2007 Stability and Growth Pact, the 2008 budget, and 2009–2011 financial plan for the central government. Specifically, projections include the increase in indirect taxes due to the VAT rate increase in 2007, as well as a loss in direct tax revenue due to corporate income tax reform implementation in 2008.

France. The fiscal projections for 2007 are based on the initial budget law and incorporate the impact of the July 2007 tax package. Medium-term projections reflect the authorities’ latest official tax revenue forecast, including the impact of the recent tax measures, but assume different spending and nontax revenue profiles, consistent with an unchanged policy assumption. All fiscal projections are adjusted for the IMF staff’s macroeconomic assumptions.

Italy. For 2007, the deficit projection is based on the IMF staff’s assessment of this year’s budget, adjusted for recent developments, including the additional expenditure package adopted in the summer of 2007. In addition, it is assumed that revenue overperformance relative to the official projections in the medium-term economic and budget plan of June (also known as DPEF) would not be spent. For the medium term, staff projects its own “current policies” scenario, defined as a constant structural primary balance net of one-off measures.

United Kingdom. The fiscal projections are based on information provided in the 2007 Budget Report. Additionally, the projections incorporate the most recent statistical releases from the Office for National Statistics, including provisional budgetary outturns through the first quarter of 2007.

Canada. Projections use the baseline forecast in the 2007 Budget for FY2007/08–2008/09 and the 2006 Economic and Fiscal Update for FY2009/10–2010/11. The staff forecast incorporates the most recent data releases from Statistics Canada, including provincial and territorial budgetary outturns through the first quarter of 2007.

Australia. The fiscal projections through the fiscal year 2010/11 are based on the budget published in May 2007. For the remainder of the projection period, the IMF staff assumes unchanged policies.

Austria. Fiscal figures for 2006 are based on the authorities’ estimated outturn. Projections for 2007 and beyond are IMF staff projections based on current policies in place.

Brazil. The fiscal projections for 2007 are based on the information provided in the 2007 budget and recent budget execution decrees, with some adjustments made by the IMF staff. For the remainder of the projection period, the IMF staff assumes unchanged policies, except for a further increase in public investment in line with the authorities’ intentions.

Belgium. The projections for 2007 are based on the information provided in the 2007 Budget Report. For 2007, the projection excludes one-off measures not explicitly outlined in the budget (representing 0.3 percent of GDP). For the remainder of the projection period, the IMF staff assumes unchanged policies.

China. Projections for 2007 are based on the authorities’ budget released in March, with some adjustment for the IMF staff’s definition for overall budget balance. For 2008, IMF staff projections assume that the deficit will be held roughly constant at its projected 2008 level (just under 1 percent of GDP), which is broadly in line with the authorities’ budget plans.

Denmark. Projections for 2007 are aligned with the latest official projections and budget. For 2008–12, the projections incorporate the June 2006 welfare agreement as well as key features of the prior medium-term fiscal plan.

Greece. Projections are based on the 2007 budget, the latest Stability Program, and other forecasts provided by the authorities. According to preliminary estimates by the European Commission, the revision of gross national income could lead to a permanent increase of Greece’s contribution to the EU budget of less than ¼ percent of GDP, as well as to a one-off payment of arrears of such a contribution of about ¾ percent of GDP, which could accrue to the 2007 balance. These possible contributions are not reflected in the staff projections.

Hong Kong SAR. Fiscal projections for 2007–10 are consistent with the authorities’ medium-term strategy as outlined in the FY2007–08 budget, with projections for 2011–12 based on the assumptions underlying the IMF staff’s medium-term macroeconomic scenario.

India. Projections for 2007 are based on the authorities’ budget, with some adjustment for the IMF staff’s assumptions. For the remainder of the projection period, the IMF staff assumes unchanged policies.

Korea. Projections for 2007 are based on the authorities’ budget, with some adjustment for the IMF staff’s assumptions. For 2008–12, projections are in line with the authorities’ budget plans.

Mexico. Fiscal projections for 2007 build on the authorities’ budget. Projections for 2008 and beyond are based on the IMF staff calculations in line with the Federal Government Fiscal Responsibility Law.

Netherlands. The fiscal projections build on the 2006 and 2007 budgets, the latest Stability Program, and other forecasts provided by the authorities.

New Zealand. The fiscal projections through the fiscal year 2010/11 are based on the 2007/08 budget released in May 2007. For the remainder of the projection period, the IMF staff assumes unchanged policies. The New Zealand fiscal account switched to new GAAP standards beginning in the 2006/07 fiscal year, with no comparable historical data.

Portugal. Fiscal projections through 2010 are based on the IMF staff’s assessment of the 2007 budget and the authorities’ revised projections presented in April 2007, which updated the current Stability Program. In subsequent years, the fiscal projections assume maintaining the primary balance excluding age-related expenditures.

Singapore. For FY2007/08, expenditure projections are based on budget numbers, while revenue projections reflect IMF staff estimates of the impact of new policy measures, including an increase in the goods and services tax. Medium-term revenue projections assume that capital gains on fiscal reserves will be included in investment income.

Spain. Fiscal projections through 2009 are based on the 2007 budget and the 2008 draft budget policies outlined in the authorities’ updated Stability Program 2006–09, information from recent statistical releases, and official announcements. In subsequent years, the fiscal projections assume unchanged policies.

Sweden. The fiscal projections are based on information provided in the budget presented on October 16, 2006. Additionally, the projections incorporate the most recent statistical releases from Statistics Sweden, including provisional budgetary outturns through December 2006.

Switzerland. Projections for 2007–12 are based on IMF staff calculations, which incorporate measures to restore balance in the Federal accounts and strengthen social security finances.

Monetary policy assumptions are based on the established policy framework in each country. In most cases, this implies a nonaccommoda-tive stance over the business cycle: official interest rates will therefore increase when economic indicators suggest that inflation will rise above its acceptable rate or range, and they will decrease when indicators suggest that prospective inflation will not exceed the acceptable rate or range, that prospective output growth is below its potential rate, and that the margin of slack in the economy is significant. On this basis, the LIBOR on six-month U.S. dollar deposits is assumed to average 5.2 percent in 2007 and 4.4 percent in 2008 (see Table 1.1). The projected path reflects the assumption prevailing in financial markets that the Federal Reserve will cut interest rates in late 2007 and early 2008. The rate on three-month euro deposits is assumed to average 4.0 percent in 2007 and 4.1 percent in 2008. The interest rate on six-month Japanese yen deposits is assumed to average 0.9 percent in 2007 and 1.1 percent in 2008.

1 The output gap is actual less potential output, as a percent of potential output. Structural balances are expressed as a percent of potential output. The structural budget balance is the budgetary position that would be observed if the level of actual output coincided with potential output. Changes in the structural budget balance consequently include effects of temporary fiscal measures, the impact of fluctuations in interest rates and debt-service costs, and other noncyclical fluctuations in the budget balance. The computations of structural budget balances are based on IMF staff estimates of potential GDP and revenue and expenditure elasticities (see the October 1993 World Economic Outlook, Annex I). Net debt is defined as gross debt less financial assets of the general government, which include assets held by the social security insurance system. Estimates of the output gap and of the structural balance are subject to significant margins of uncertainty.

What’s New

The following changes have been made to streamline the Statistical Appendix of the World Economic Outlook. Starting with this issue, the printed version of the World Economic Outlook will carry only Part A Tables in the Statistical Appendix section.

Part A contains Tables 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 11, 20, 25, 26, 31, 35, 43, and 44 from the previous issues of the World Economic Outlook; Tables 1.2 and 1.3, which used to be in the main text of the report; and a new table on private capital flows. Tables in Part A present summary data for both advanced economies and emerging market and developing countries in the categories of Output, Inflation, Financial Policies, Foreign Trade, Current Account Transactions, Balance of Payments and External Financing, Flow of Funds, and Medium-Term Baseline Scenario.

Part B of the Statistical Appendix contains the remaining tables. The complete Statistical Appendix, which includes both Part A and Part B Tables, will be available only via the Internet at www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2007/02/index.htm.

Data and Conventions

Data and projections for 182 countries form the statistical basis for the World Economic Outlook (the World Economic Outlook database). The data are maintained jointly by the IMF’s Research Department and area departments, with the latter regularly updating country projections based on consistent global assumptions.

Although national statistical agencies are the ultimate providers of historical data and definitions, international organizations are also involved in statistical issues, with the objective of harmonizing methodologies for the national compilation of statistics, including the analytical frameworks, concepts, definitions, classifications, and valuation procedures used in the production of economic statistics. The World Economic Outlook database reflects information from both national source agencies and international organizations.

The comprehensive revision of the standardized System of National Accounts 1993 (SNA), the IMF’s Balance of Payments Manual, Fifth Edition (BPM5), the Monetary and Financial Statistics Manual (MFSM), and the Government Finance Statistics Manual 2001 (GFSM 2001) represented important improvements in the standards of economic statistics and analysis.3 The IMF was actively involved in all these projects, particularly the Balance of Payments, Monetary and Financial Statistics, and Government Finance Statistics manuals, which reflects the IMF’s special interest in countries’ external positions, financial sector stability, and public sector fiscal positions. The process of adapting country data to the new definitions began in earnest when the manuals were released. However, full concordance with the manuals is ultimately dependent on the provision by national statistical compilers of revised country data, and hence the World Economic Outlook estimates are still only partially adapted to these manuals.

In line with recent improvements in standards of reporting economic statistics, several countries have phased out their traditional fixed-base-year method of calculating real macroeconomic variables levels and growth by switching to a chain-weighted method of computing aggregate growth. Recent dramatic changes in the structure of these economies have obliged these countries to revise the way in which they measure real GDP levels and growth. Switching to the chain-weighted method of computing aggregate growth, which uses current price information, allows countries to measure GDP growth more accurately by eliminating upward biases in new data.4 Currently, real macroeconomic data for Albania, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belgium, Canada, the Czech Republic, Cyprus, Denmark, the euro area, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States are based on chain-weighted methodology. However, data before 1996 (Albania), 1995 (Belgium), 1995 (Cyprus), 1995 (Czech Republic), 1995 (euro area), 1991 (Germany), 2000 (Greece), 1994 (Kazakhstan), 1990 (Iceland), 1995 (Ireland), 1994 (Japan), 1995 (Luxembourg), 2000 (Malta), 1995 (Poland), 1995 (Russia), 1995 (Slovenia), and 1995 (Spain) are based on unrevised national accounts and subject to revision in the future.

The members of the European Union have adopted a harmonized system for the compilation of the national accounts, referred to as ESA 1995. All national accounts data from 1995 onward are presented on the basis of the new system. Revision by national authorities of data prior to 1995 to conform to the new system has progressed but has, in some cases, not been completed. In such cases, historical World Economic Outlook data have been carefully adjusted to avoid breaks in the series. Users of EU national accounts data prior to 1995 should nevertheless exercise caution until such time as the revision of historical data by national statistical agencies has been fully completed. See Box 1.2, “Revisions in National Accounts Methodologies,” in the May 2000 World Economic Outlook.

Composite data for country groups in the World Economic Outlook are either sums or weighted averages of data for individual countries. Unless otherwise indicated, multiyear averages of growth rates are expressed as compound annual rates of change.5 Arithmetically weighted averages are used for all data except inflation and money growth for the other emerging market and developing country group, for which geometric averages are used. The following conventions apply.

  • Country group composites for exchange rates, interest rates, and the growth rates of monetary aggregates are weighted by GDP converted to U.S. dollars at market exchange rates (averaged over the preceding three years) as a share of group GDP.
  • Composites for other data relating to the domestic economy, whether growth rates or ratios, are weighted by GDP valued at purchasing power parities (PPPs) as a share of total world or group GDP.6
  • Composites for data relating to the domestic economy for the euro area (13 member countries throughout the entire period unless otherwise noted) are aggregates of national source data using weights based on 1995 European currency unit (ECU) exchange rates.
  • Composite unemployment rates and employment growth are weighted by labor force as a share of group labor force.
  • Composites relating to the external economy are sums of individual country data after conversion to U.S. dollars at the average market exchange rates in the years indicated for balance of payments data and at end-of-year market exchange rates for debt denominated in currencies other than U.S. dollars. Composites of changes in foreign trade volumes and prices, however, are arithmetic averages of percentage changes for individual countries weighted by the U.S. dollar value of exports or imports as a share of total world or group exports or imports (in the preceding year).

For central and eastern European countries, external transactions in nonconvertible currencies (through 1990) are converted to U.S. dollars at the implicit U.S. dollar/ruble conversion rates obtained from each country’s national currency exchange rate for the U.S. dollar and for the ruble.

All data refer to calendar years, except for the following countries, which refer to fiscal years: Australia (July/June), Bangladesh (July/ June), Egypt (July/June), Ethiopia (July/June), Islamic Republic of Iran (March/February), Mauritius (July/June), Myanmar (April/March), Nepal (July/June), New Zealand (July/June), Pakistan (July/June), Samoa (July/June), and Tonga (July/June).

Classification of Countries

Summary of the Country Classification

The country classification in the World Economic Outlook divides the world into two major groups: advanced economies, and other emerging market and developing countries.7 Rather than being based on strict criteria, economic or otherwise, this classification has evolved over time with the objective of facilitating analysis by providing a reasonably meaningful organization of data. Table A provides an overview of these standard groups in the World Economic Outlook, showing the number of countries in each group and the average 2006 shares of groups in aggregate PPP-valued GDP, total exports of goods and services, and population.

Table A.Classification by World Economic Outlook Groups and Their Shares in Aggregate GDP, Exports of Goods and Services, and Population, 20061(Percent of total for group or world)
Number of CountriesGDPExports of Goods and ServicesPopulation
Advanced economiesWorldAdvanced economiesWorldAdvanced economiesWorld
Advanced economies30100.052.0100.067.7100.015.3
United States37.819.714.69.830.74.7
Euro area1328.214.742.828.732.24.9
Germany7.43.913.38.98.41.3
France5.62.96.14.16.31.0
Italy5.22.75.23.56.00.9
Spain3.51.83.32.24.50.7
Japan12.16.37.45.013.12.0
United Kingdom6.23.26.94.66.20.9
Canada3.41.74.73.13.30.5
Other advanced economies1312.46.423.615.814.52.2
Memorandum
Major advanced economies777.640.458.239.173.911.3
Newly industrialized Asian economies46.53.413.89.38.41.3
Other emerging market and developing countriesWorldOther emerging market and developing countriesWorldOther emerging market and developing countriesWorld
Other emerging market and developing countries143100.048.0100.032.9100.084.7
Regional groups
Africa487.03.47.72.515.312.9
Sub-Sahara455.42.65.81.913.911.8
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa432.91.42.80.910.38.7
Central and eastern Europe147.13.413.14.33.42.9
Commonwealth of Independent States2138.03.810.13.35.24.4
Russia5.42.66.92.32.62.2
Developing Asia2356.327.038.712.761.952.4
China31.415.122.07.224.220.5
India13.16.34.11.320.517.4
Excluding China and India2111.75.612.64.117.114.5
Middle East135.92.814.54.84.33.6
Western Hemisphere3215.77.615.95.210.08.5
Brazil5.42.63.31.13.42.9
Mexico3.71.85.51.81.91.6
Analytical groups
By source of export earnings
Fuel2313.36.426.58.710.99.2
Nonfuel12086.741.673.524.189.175.5
of which, primary products2.11.70.82.20.74.13.5
By external financing source
Net debtor countries12154.126.048.415.964.854.9
of which, official financing346.12.93.81.214.011.8
Net debtor countries by debt-servicing experience
Countries with arrears and/or rescheduling during 2001–055110.24.97.62.519.016.1
Other net debtor countries7043.921.140.813.445.838.8
Other groups
Heavily indebted poor countries302.01.01.20.48.37.0
Middle East and north Africa197.83.816.65.56.45.4

The GDP shares are based on the purchasing-power-parity (PPP) valuation of country GDPs. The number of countries comprising each group reflects those for which data are included in the group aggregates.

Mongolia, which is not a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, is included in this group for reasons of geography and similarities in economic structure.

The GDP shares are based on the purchasing-power-parity (PPP) valuation of country GDPs. The number of countries comprising each group reflects those for which data are included in the group aggregates.

Mongolia, which is not a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, is included in this group for reasons of geography and similarities in economic structure.

A few countries are currently not included in these groups, either because they are not IMF members and their economies are not monitored by the IMF or because databases have not yet been fully developed. Because of data limitations, group composites do not reflect the following countries: the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brunei Darussalam, Eritrea, Iraq, Liberia, Serbia, Somalia, and Timor-Leste. Cuba and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea are examples of countries that are not IMF members, whereas San Marino, among the advanced economies, and Aruba, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and the Republic of Montenegro, among the developing countries, are examples of economies for which databases have not been completed.

General Features and Composition of Groups in the World Economic Outlook Classification

Advanced Economies

The 30 advanced economies are listed in Table B. The seven largest in terms of GDP—the United States, Japan, Germany, France, Italy, the United Kingdom, and Canada—constitute the subgroup of major advanced economies, often referred to as the Group of Seven (G-7) countries. The 13 members of the euro area and the four newly industrialized Asian economies are also distinguished as subgroups. Composite data shown in the tables for the euro area cover the current members for all years, even though the membership has increased over time.

Table B.Advanced Economies by Subgroup
Other Subgroups
Major Currency AreasEuro areaNewly industrialized Asian economiesMajor advanced economiesOther advanced economies
United StatesAustriaIrelandHong Kong SAR1CanadaAustraliaKorea
Euro areaBelgiumItalyKoreaFranceCyprusNew Zealand
JapanFinlandLuxembourgSingaporeGermanyDenmarkNorway
FranceNetherlandsTaiwan Province of ChinaItalyHong Kong SAR1Singapore
GermanyPortugalJapanIcelandSweden
GreeceSloveniaUnited KingdomIsraelSwitzerland
SpainUnited StatesTaiwan Province of China

On July 1, 1997, Hong Kong was returned to the People’s Republic of China and became a Special Administrative Region of China.

On July 1, 1997, Hong Kong was returned to the People’s Republic of China and became a Special Administrative Region of China.

In 1991 and subsequent years, data for Germany refer to west Germany and the eastern Länder (that is, the former German Democratic Republic). Before 1991, economic data were not available on a unified basis or in a consistent manner. Hence, in tables featuring data expressed as annual percent change, these apply to west Germany in years up to and including 1991, but to unified Germany from 1992 onward. In general, data on national accounts and domestic economic and financial activity through 1990 cover west Germany only, whereas data for the central government and balance of payments apply to west Germany through June 1990 and to unified Germany thereafter.

Table C lists the member countries of the European Union, not all of which are classified as advanced economies in the World Economic Outlook.

Table C.European Union
AustriaFinlandLatviaRomania
BelgiumFranceLithuaniaSlovakRepublic
BulgariaGermanyLuxembourgSlovenia
CyprusGreeceMaltaSpain
Czech RepublicHungaryNetherlandsSweden
DenmarkIrelandPolandUnited Kingdom
EstoniaItalyPortugal

Other Emerging Market and Developing Countries

The group of other emerging market and developing countries (143 countries) includes all countries that are not classified as advanced economies.

The regional breakdowns of other emerging market and developing countries—Africa, central and eastern Europe, Commonwealth of Independent States, developing Asia, Middle East, and Western Hemisphere—largely conform to the regional breakdowns in the IMF’s International Financial Statistics. In both classifications, Egypt and the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya are included in the Middle East region rather than in Africa. In addition, the World Economic Outlook sometimes refers to the regional group of Middle East and North Africa countries, also referred to as the MENA countries, whose composition straddles the Africa and Middle East regions. This group is defined as the Arab League countries plus the Islamic Republic of Iran (see Table D).

Table D.Middle East and North Africa Countries
AlgeriaJordanMoroccoSyrian Arab Republic
BahrainKuwaitOmanTunisia
DjiboutiLebanonQatarUnited Arab Emirates
EgyptLibyaSaudi ArabiaYemen, Rep. of
Iran, I.R. ofMauritaniaSudan

Other emerging market and developing countries are also classified according to analytical criteria. The analytical criteria reflect countries’ composition of export earnings and other income from abroad; exchange rate arrangements; a distinction between net creditor and net debtor countries; and, for the net debtor countries, financial criteria based on external financing sources and experience with external debt servicing. The detailed composition of other emerging market and developing countries in the regional and analytical groups is shown in Tables E and F.

Table E.Other Emerging Market and Developing Countries by Region and Main Source of Export Earnings
FuelNonfuel, of Which Primary Products
AfricaAlgeriaBotswana
AngolaBurkina Faso
Congo, Rep. ofBurundi
Equatorial GuineaChad
GabonCongo, Dem.
NigeriaRep. of
SudanGuinea
Guinea-Bissau
Malawi
Mauritania
Namibia
Niger
Sierra Leone
Zambia
Zimbabwe
Commonwealth of Independent StatesAzerbaijanMongolia
RussiaTajikistan
TurkmenistanUzbekistan
Developing AsiaPapua New Guinea
Solomon Islands
Middle EastBahrain
Iran, I.R. of
Kuwait
Libya
Oman
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
Syrian Arab Republic
United Arab Emirates
Yemen, Rep. of
WesternEcuadorChile
HemisphereTrinidad and TobagoSuriname
Venezuela
Note: Mongolia, which is not a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, is included in this group for reasons of geography and similarities in economic structure.
Note: Mongolia, which is not a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, is included in this group for reasons of geography and similarities in economic structure.
Table F.Other Emerging Market and Developing Countries by Region, Net External Position, and Heavily Indebted Poor Countries
Net External PositionHeavily Indebted Poor Countries
Net creditorNet debtor1
Africa
Maghreb
Algeria*
Morocco*
Tunisia*
Sub-Sahara
South Africa*
Horn of Africa
Djibouti*
Ethiopia*
Sudan*
Great Lakes
Burundi*
Congo, Dem. Rep. of**
Kenya*
Rwanda*
Tanzania*
Uganda**
Southern Africa
Angola*
Botswana*
Comoros
Lesotho*
Madagascar*
Malawi*
Mauritius*
Mozambique, Rep. of**
Namibia*
Seychelles*
Swaziland*
Zambia**
Zimbabwe*
West and Central Africa
Cape Verde*
Gambia, The**
Ghana*
Guinea**
Mauritania**
Nigeria*
São Tomé and Príncipe**
Sierra Leone*
CFA franc zone
Benin**
Burkina Faso*
Cameroon**
Central African Republic
Chad**
Congo, Rep. of*
Côte d’Ivoire**
Equatorial Guinea**
Gabon
Guinea-Bissau**
Mali**
Niger*
Senegal**
Togo
Middle East
Bahrain*
Iran, I.R. of*
Kuwait*
Libya*
Oman*
Qatar*
Saudi Arabia*
United Arab Emirates*
Yemen, Rep. of*
Mashreq
Egypt*
Jordan*
Lebanon*
Syrian Arab Republic*
Western Hemisphere
Mexico*
South America
Argentina*
Brazil*
Bolivia*
Chile*
Colombia*
Ecuador*
Paraguay
Central and eastern Europe
Albania*
Bulgaria*
Croatia*
Czech Republic*
Estonia*
Hungary*
Latvia*
Lithuania*
Macedonia, FYR*
Malta*
Poland*
Romania*
Slovak Republic*
Turkey*
Commonwealth of Independent States2
Armenia*
Azerbaijan*
Belarus*
Georgia*
Kazakhstan*
Kyrgyz Republic*
Moldova*
Mongolia
Russia*
Tajikistan
Turkmenistan*
Ukraine*
Uzbekistan*
Developing Asia
Bhutan
China*
Fiji*
Indonesia*
Kiribati*
Lao PDR*
Malaysia*
Myanmar*
Papua New Guinea*
Philippines*
Samoa*
Solomon Islands
Thailand*
Tonga
Vanuatu*
Vietnam
South Asia
Bangladesh
India*
Maldives*
Nepal*
Pakistan*
Sri Lanka*
Peru*
Uruguay*
Venezuela*
Central America
Costa Rica*
El Salvador
Guatemala*
Honduras**
Nicaragua**
Panama*
The Caribbean
Antigua and Barbuda*
Bahamas, The*
Barbados*
Belize*
Dominica*
Dominican Republic
Grenada
Guyana**
Haiti**
Jamaica*
St. Kitts and Nevis*
St. Lucia*
St. Vincent and the Grenadines
Suriname*
Trinidad and Tobago*

Dot instead of star indicates that the net debtor’s main external finance source is official financing.

Mongolia, which is not a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, is included in this group for reasons of geography and similarities in economic structure.

Dot instead of star indicates that the net debtor’s main external finance source is official financing.

Mongolia, which is not a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, is included in this group for reasons of geography and similarities in economic structure.

The analytical criterion, by source of export earnings, distinguishes between categories: fuel (Standard International Trade Classification–SITC 3) and nonfuel and then focuses on nonfuel primary products (SITC 0, 1, 2, 4, and 68).

The financial criteria focus on net creditor countries, net debtor countries, and heavily indebted poor countries (HIPCs). Net debtor countries are further differentiated on the basis of two additional financial criteria: by official external financing and by experience with debt servicing.8 The HIPC group comprises the countries considered by the IMF and the World Bank for their debt initiative, known as the HIPC Initiative, with the aim of reducing the external debt burdens of all the eligible HIPCs to a “sustainable” level in a reasonably short period of time.9

List of Tables

Medium-Term Baseline Scenario

Table A1.Summary of World Output1(Annual percent change)
Ten-Year Averages
1989–981999–20081999200020012002200320042005200620072008
World3.24.43.84.82.53.14.05.34.85.45.24.8
Advanced economies2.72.63.54.01.21.61.93.22.52.92.52.2
United States3.02.64.43.70.81.62.53.63.12.91.91.9
Euro area2.13.03.81.90.90.82.01.52.82.52.1
Japan2.01.5−0.12.90.20.31.42.71.92.22.01.7
Other advanced economies23.23.54.75.31.73.22.54.13.23.73.73.1
Other emerging market and developing countries3.86.54.16.04.35.16.77.77.58.18.17.4
Regional groups
Africa2.24.82.83.24.33.64.75.85.65.65.76.5
Central and eastern Europe1.14.40.54.90.24.54.86.75.66.35.85.2
Commonwealth of Independent States37.15.29.06.35.37.98.46.67.77.87.0
Developing Asia7.38.16.57.06.07.08.38.89.29.89.88.8
Middle East4.54.91.95.43.04.06.65.65.45.65.95.9
Western Hemisphere3.13.30.33.90.50.32.46.04.65.55.04.3
Memorandum
European Union2.02.53.03.92.11.41.52.72.03.23.02.5
Analytical groups
By source of export earnings
Fuel−0.36.03.07.14.34.06.97.36.76.77.06.9
Nonfuel4.66.64.35.94.25.26.67.87.68.48.37.5
of which, primary products2.53.70.61.62.92.83.66.15.14.25.25.3
By external financing source
Net debtor countries3.45.02.84.72.43.44.86.56.26.96.56.1
of which, official financing4.15.43.94.63.53.94.76.57.17.16.76.5
Net debtor countries by debt-servicing experience
Countries with arrears and/or rescheduling during 2001–053.44.71.13.22.51.65.26.97.26.86.86.4
Memorandum
Median growth rate
Advanced economies3.02.94.14.01.91.71.93.73.03.33.42.6
Other emerging market and developing countries3.34.73.44.23.63.54.75.45.45.85.65.4
Output per capita
Advanced economies2.02.02.93.40.61.01.32.62.02.42.01.7
Other emerging market and developing countries2.25.22.74.62.93.75.46.46.26.96.86.2
World growth based on market exchange rates2.53.13.14.11.51.92.63.93.33.83.53.3
Value of world output in billions of U.S. dollars
At market exchange rates26,24640,90930,92531,77531,55932,83436,88241,45244,74548,24553,35257,323
At purchasing power parities32,23256,69742,03945,01047,22749,47452,51056,78261,25966,22970,80775,632

Real GDP.

In this table, “other advanced economies” means advanced economies excluding the United States, euro area countries, and Japan.

Mongolia, which is not a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, is included in this group for reasons of geography and similarities in economic structure.

Real GDP.

In this table, “other advanced economies” means advanced economies excluding the United States, euro area countries, and Japan.

Mongolia, which is not a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, is included in this group for reasons of geography and similarities in economic structure.

Table A2.Advanced Economies: Real GDP and Total Domestic Demand(Annual percent change)
Ten-Year AveragesFourth Quarter1
1989–981999–20081999200020012002200320042005200620072008200620072008
Real GDP
Advanced economies2.72.63.54.01.21.61.93.22.52.92.52.23.02.32.3
United States3.02.64.43.70.81.62.53.63.12.91.91.92.62.02.0
Euro area2.13.03.81.90.90.82.01.52.82.52.13.32.02.2
Germany2.51.51.93.11.2−0.31.10.82.92.42.03.91.71.7
France1.92.13.33.91.91.01.12.51.72.01.92.02.12.21.8
Italy1.61.41.93.61.80.31.20.11.91.71.32.80.91.4
Spain2.83.64.75.03.62.73.13.33.63.93.72.74.03.02.9
Netherlands3.12.34.73.91.90.10.32.21.53.02.62.52.92.62.5
Belgium2.32.23.33.90.71.41.02.81.43.02.61.93.02.32.0
Austria2.72.33.33.40.80.91.22.32.03.33.32.53.33.32.0
Finland1.63.43.95.02.61.61.83.72.95.04.33.06.61.95.8
Greece1.94.13.44.54.53.94.94.73.74.33.93.64.43.54.1
Portugal3.61.73.93.92.00.8−0.71.50.51.31.81.81.61.91.9
Ireland6.46.010.79.15.96.44.34.35.95.74.63.04.82.18.8
Luxembourg4.94.88.48.42.53.81.33.64.06.25.44.25.94.43.8
Slovenia4.35.44.13.13.72.84.44.15.75.43.86.06.75.0
Japan2.01.5−0.12.90.20.31.42.71.92.22.01.72.51.31.9
United Kingdom2.02.73.03.82.42.12.83.31.82.83.12.33.22.92.2
Canada2.13.15.55.21.82.91.93.13.12.82.52.31.92.82.5
Korea5.95.59.58.53.87.03.14.74.25.04.84.64.05.24.3
Australia3.33.44.43.42.14.13.13.72.82.74.43.83.04.63.5
Taiwan Province of China6.84.05.75.8−2.24.63.56.24.14.74.13.84.03.54.3
Sweden1.43.14.54.31.12.01.74.12.94.23.62.83.84.52.3
Switzerland1.41.81.33.61.20.4−0.22.52.43.22.41.62.91.91.8
Hong Kong SAR3.85.34.010.00.61.83.28.67.56.95.74.77.24.76.4
Denmark2.22.02.63.50.70.50.42.13.13.51.91.53.71.71.5
Norway3.52.62.03.32.01.51.03.92.72.83.53.82.93.93.4
Israel5.13.72.98.9−0.4−0.62.35.25.35.25.13.83.86.83.6
Singapore7.85.87.210.1−2.44.23.18.86.67.97.55.86.67.16.2
New Zealand2.13.34.33.92.75.23.54.42.71.62.82.32.12.12.9
Cyprus4.73.74.85.04.02.01.84.23.93.83.83.73.63.74.1
Iceland1.93.44.14.33.9−0.12.77.67.22.62.1−0.12.55.3−0.1
Memorandum
Major advanced economies2.52.23.13.61.01.21.82.92.32.62.11.92.71.91.9
Newly industrialized Asian economies6.15.07.57.91.25.53.25.94.75.34.94.44.54.84.7
Real total domestic demand
Advanced economies2.72.64.14.01.11.72.13.32.52.72.22.1
United States3.12.95.34.40.92.22.84.13.12.81.41.62.11.61.8
Euro area2.13.63.31.20.41.51.91.72.62.12.42.52.02.3
Germany2.30.82.72.2−0.5−2.00.6−0.20.31.91.22.40.72.61.8
France1.62.53.84.31.81.11.73.22.32.41.52.71.93.12.2
Italy1.41.63.22.81.61.30.91.10.31.61.91.42.91.81.0
Spain2.64.66.95.84.23.23.84.85.14.94.32.85.13.83.0
Japan2.01.22.41.0−0.40.81.91.71.41.21.61.90.72.0
United Kingdom2.03.14.23.92.93.12.83.81.63.03.42.33.63.12.1
Canada1.83.84.24.81.23.24.64.35.14.43.23.23.54.02.8
Other advanced economies4.23.65.55.40.43.81.54.53.33.54.43.5
Memorandum
Major advanced economies2.52.33.83.71.11.32.13.12.32.51.61.92.11.91.9
Newly industrialized Asian economies6.23.98.07.64.50.34.62.63.54.64.04.04.92.8

From fourth quarter of preceding year.

From fourth quarter of preceding year.

Table A3.Advanced Economies: Components of Real GDP(Annual percent change)
Ten-Year Averages
1989–981999–20081999200020012002200320042005200620072008
Private consumer expenditure
Advanced economies2.72.74.13.92.32.21.92.82.52.52.62.3
United States3.03.35.14.72.52.72.83.63.23.12.92.2
Euro area1.93.43.12.00.81.21.61.51.81.62.1
Germany2.50.93.02.41.9−0.80.10.2−0.11.0−0.11.9
France1.62.63.53.62.62.42.02.52.22.02.12.7
Italy1.81.32.52.40.70.21.00.70.61.51.81.4
Spain2.43.85.05.63.72.82.94.24.23.83.32.2
Japan2.31.21.00.71.61.10.41.61.60.91.71.8
United Kingdom2.23.14.54.63.03.52.93.41.52.13.02.4
Canada2.13.53.84.02.33.63.03.43.84.24.13.1
Other advanced economies4.23.65.95.62.63.81.13.43.23.23.73.2
Memorandum
Major advanced economies2.62.53.83.52.22.02.02.72.32.32.32.1
Newly industrialized Asian economies6.14.08.27.33.25.1−0.22.43.33.43.83.6
Public consumption
Advanced economies1.82.22.82.52.83.32.31.71.51.81.91.7
United States1.02.13.11.73.14.32.51.50.81.41.61.4
Euro area1.91.92.32.02.41.81.31.31.92.01.8
Germany1.80.81.21.40.51.50.4−1.50.50.91.81.2
France1.71.71.41.91.21.92.02.30.91.42.02.0
Italy1.51.32.33.62.12.01.61.5−0.30.30.8
Spain3.74.94.05.33.94.54.86.35.54.85.14.4
Japan2.82.24.24.33.02.42.31.91.70.40.81.0
United Kingdom1.02.83.73.12.43.53.53.22.72.11.92.5
Canada0.92.82.13.13.92.53.12.52.23.32.52.5
Other advanced economies3.92.61.92.13.13.62.21.82.63.13.32.5
Memorandum
Major advanced economies1.42.02.82.32.73.22.31.51.21.21.51.5
Newly industrialized Asian economies5.92.90.82.43.54.42.51.82.93.74.72.8
Gross fixed capital formation
Advanced economies3.42.65.65.0−0.8−1.52.14.64.14.21.81.4
United States4.62.28.26.1−1.7−3.53.26.15.82.6−2.4−1.3
Euro area2.96.35.00.5−1.51.22.32.65.04.83.3
Germany2.91.44.73.0−3.6−6.1−0.3−0.21.06.16.03.8
France1.33.78.37.22.4−1.72.23.64.03.73.93.3
Italy1.12.23.66.42.54.0−1.71.6−0.52.32.32.0
Spain3.45.910.46.64.83.45.95.16.96.85.83.0
Japan0.90.4−0.81.2−0.9−4.9−0.51.42.43.40.71.9
United Kingdom2.63.63.02.72.63.61.15.91.58.25.62.1
Canada1.75.47.34.74.01.66.27.78.57.23.44.0
Other advanced economies5.63.92.97.1−4.63.82.87.44.35.26.84.0
Memorandum
Major advanced economies3.12.25.64.8−0.6−2.51.84.34.13.80.50.7
Newly industrialized Asian economies8.23.62.910.9−6.22.62.58.11.83.66.24.8
Final domestic demand
Advanced economies2.52.54.13.71.81.42.12.92.62.72.11.9
United States3.02.95.44.51.81.82.83.83.32.71.71.4
Euro area2.13.73.31.70.61.31.61.62.62.22.1
Germany2.41.03.02.30.4−1.50.1−0.20.32.01.52.2
France1.62.53.93.92.21.42.12.72.22.22.12.7
Italy1.31.52.53.11.61.30.61.10.51.31.61.4
Spain3.24.56.66.64.12.93.84.74.64.94.33.1
Japan2.01.21.11.41.2−0.20.51.61.81.41.31.7
United Kingdom2.03.14.14.02.83.52.73.71.83.13.22.4
Canada1.83.84.24.02.93.03.74.14.54.73.63.2
Other advanced economies4.43.44.35.40.93.71.73.93.33.64.43.3
Memorandum
Major advanced economies2.42.44.03.61.71.32.02.82.42.41.81.8
Newly industrialized Asian economies6.63.75.57.60.74.30.93.62.93.54.63.8
Stock building1
Advanced economies−0.20.1−0.60.10.2−0.10.1−0.20.1
United States0.1−0.1−0.90.40.4−0.20.1−0.30.1
Euro area−0.1−0.4−0.30.20.20.1−0.10.2
Germany−0.1−0.2−0.1−0.9−0.60.50.1−0.1−0.40.2
France−0.1−0.10.5−0.4−0.3−0.30.60.2−0.6−0.1
Italy0.10.1−0.20.10.1−0.1−0.21.20.2
Spain−0.10.2−0.1−0.1−0.1−0.10.1
Japan−1.01.0−0.2−0.30.20.3−0.10.1−0.1
United Kingdom0.2−0.10.1−0.30.20.1−0.1−0.20.2−0.1
Canada0.10.8−1.70.20.80.10.3−0.2−0.40.1
Other advanced economies−0.10.10.9−0.50.1−0.10.5−0.10.2
Memorandum
Major advanced economies−0.20.1−0.60.10.10.3−0.10.1−0.20.1
Newly industrialized Asian economies−0.30.22.1−0.1−0.70.2−0.50.9−0.2−0.10.1
Foreign balance1
Advanced economies−0.1−0.6−0.1−0.2−0.4−0.3−0.20.30.1
United States−0.1−0.4−1.0−0.9−0.2−0.7−0.4−0.7−0.2−0.10.40.3
Euro area0.1−0.50.50.70.5−0.60.2−0.20.20.3−0.1
Germany0.20.7−0.81.01.72.0−0.81.30.51.11.3−0.3
France0.3−0.3−0.4−0.50.1−0.1−0.7−0.9−0.7−0.50.4−0.2
Italy0.2−0.2−1.20.80.2−1.0−0.80.1−0.30.2−0.1−0.1
Spain−0.2−0.9−1.7−0.4−0.2−0.6−0.8−1.7−1.6−1.2−0.9−0.3
Japan0.10.4−0.10.5−0.80.70.70.80.30.80.8
United Kingdom0.1−0.4−1.0−0.1−0.5−1.1−0.1−0.6−0.2−0.4
Canada0.3−0.61.40.60.7−0.1−2.5−1.0−1.7−1.4−0.6−0.8
Other advanced economies0.70.40.80.80.21.20.70.91.20.20.6
Memorandum
Major advanced economies−0.1−0.7−0.2−0.2−0.4−0.2−0.20.10.40.1
Newly industrialized Asian economies−0.21.40.30.51.11.02.92.02.42.40.81.0

Changes expressed as percent of GDP in the preceding period.

Changes expressed as percent of GDP in the preceding period.

Table A4.Other Emerging Market and Developing Countries—by Country: Real GDP1(Annual percent change)
Average

1989–98
1999200020012002200320042005200620072008
Africa2.22.83.24.33.64.75.85.65.65.76.5
Algeria1.73.22.22.64.76.95.25.13.64.85.2
Angola0.33.23.03.114.53.311.220.618.623.127.2
Benin4.15.34.96.24.53.93.12.93.84.05.3
Botswana6.57.28.34.95.76.26.33.82.65.05.2
Burkina Faso4.57.41.86.64.78.04.67.15.96.06.1
Burundi−1.0−1.0−0.92.14.4−1.24.80.95.13.55.8
Cameroon2−0.34.44.24.54.04.03.72.03.83.85.3
Cape Verde5.511.97.36.15.34.74.45.86.56.97.5
Central African Republic0.23.61.80.3−0.6−7.61.32.23.84.04.3
Chad3.5−0.7−0.911.78.514.733.67.90.51.54.1
Comoros0.91.91.43.34.12.5−0.24.21.21.03.0
Congo, Dem. Rep. of−5.3−4.3−6.9−2.13.55.86.66.55.16.58.4
Congo, Rep. of3.0−2.67.63.84.60.83.57.86.13.77.3
Côte d’Ivoire3.81.8−4.6−1.6−1.71.61.80.91.73.8
Djibouti−1.73.00.52.02.63.23.03.24.84.85.7
Equatorial Guinea26.924.113.561.918.811.631.76.7−5.210.18.1
Eritrea−13.19.20.63.92.04.82.01.31.3
Ethiopia1.96.05.97.71.2−3.513.110.29.010.59.6
Gabon4.8−8.9−1.92.1−0.32.41.13.01.24.84.2
Gambia, The4.06.45.55.8−3.26.97.05.16.57.06.0
Ghana4.34.43.74.24.55.25.65.96.26.36.9
Guinea4.24.52.93.84.21.22.73.32.21.55.1
Guinea-Bissau0.27.67.50.2−7.1−0.62.23.22.72.52.1
Kenya2.32.40.64.70.32.84.65.86.16.46.5
Lesotho4.9−0.32.01.82.82.74.22.97.24.95.2
Liberia29.32.93.7−31.32.65.37.89.410.4
Madagascar1.54.74.76.0−12.79.85.34.64.96.57.3
Malawi3.73.50.8−4.11.94.25.02.37.95.55.2
Mali5.93.0−3.212.14.37.22.46.15.35.24.8
Mauritania2.26.71.92.91.15.65.25.411.40.94.4
Mauritius5.94.67.24.21.53.84.73.13.54.74.7
Morocco2.80.51.87.63.36.15.22.48.02.55.9
Mozambique, Rep. of5.07.51.913.18.27.97.56.28.57.07.0
Namibia3.73.43.52.46.73.56.64.24.64.84.6
Niger1.9−0.6−1.47.13.04.5−0.87.45.25.65.4
Nigeria3.41.55.43.11.510.76.07.25.64.38.0
Rwanda−1.87.66.06.79.40.94.06.05.34.54.6
São Tomé and Príncipe1.32.50.43.111.66.84.85.47.06.06.0
Senegal2.56.33.24.60.76.75.85.32.15.15.7
Seychelles5.71.94.3−2.31.2−5.9−2.91.25.36.15.9
Sierra Leone−6.6−8.13.818.227.49.57.47.37.47.47.0
South Africa1.42.44.22.73.73.14.85.15.04.74.2
Sudan2.63.18.46.25.47.15.18.611.811.210.7
Swaziland4.23.52.61.62.92.92.12.32.11.01.0
Tanzania3.13.55.16.27.25.76.76.76.27.17.5
Togo1.72.6−1.0−2.3−0.25.22.31.22.02.93.5
Tunisia4.66.14.75.01.75.66.04.05.46.06.2
Uganda6.18.35.34.86.94.45.76.75.46.26.5
Zambia−1.22.23.64.93.35.15.45.25.96.06.2
Zimbabwe2.9−3.6−7.3−2.7−4.4−10.4−3.8−5.3−4.8−6.2−4.5
Central and eastern Europe31.10.54.90.24.54.86.75.66.35.85.2
Albania−0.510.17.37.02.95.75.95.55.06.06.0
Bosnia and Herzegovina9.55.23.65.03.56.15.06.05.86.5
Bulgaria−5.62.35.44.14.55.06.66.26.16.05.9
Croatia−0.92.94.45.65.34.34.34.85.64.7
Czech Republic1.33.62.51.93.64.66.56.45.64.6
Estonia0.310.87.78.07.28.310.211.28.06.0
Hungary−0.24.25.24.14.44.24.84.23.92.12.7
Latvia4.76.98.06.57.28.710.611.910.56.2
Lithuania−1.54.16.66.910.37.37.67.58.06.5
Macedonia, FYR4.34.5−4.50.92.84.14.13.05.05.0
Malta−1.0−1.62.6−0.30.13.33.33.22.6
Serbia−18.04.54.84.22.58.46.25.76.05.0
Poland2.54.54.31.21.43.95.33.66.16.65.3
Romania−2.9−1.22.15.75.15.28.54.17.76.36.0
Slovak Republic0.30.73.24.14.25.46.08.38.87.3
Turkey4.3−4.77.4−7.57.95.88.97.46.15.05.3
Commonwealth of Independent States3,45.29.06.35.37.98.46.67.77.87.0
Russia6.410.05.14.77.37.26.46.77.06.5
Excluding Russia2.46.79.16.69.311.06.99.89.48.1
Armenia3.36.09.613.214.010.514.013.311.110.0
Azerbaijan11.46.26.58.110.510.424.331.029.323.2
Belarus3.45.84.75.07.011.49.39.97.86.4
Georgia3.01.94.75.511.15.99.69.411.09.0
Kazakhstan2.79.813.59.89.39.69.710.78.77.8
Kyrgyz Republic3.75.45.3−0.07.07.0−0.22.77.57.0
Moldova−3.42.16.17.86.67.47.54.05.05.0
Mongolia−0.33.23.91.91.85.413.37.68.68.57.5
Tajikistan3.78.310.29.110.210.66.77.07.58.0
Turkmenistan16.518.620.415.817.114.79.09.010.010.0
Ukraine−0.25.99.25.29.612.12.77.16.75.4
Uzbekistan4.33.84.24.04.27.77.07.38.87.5
Developing Asia7.36.57.06.07.08.38.89.29.89.88.8
Afghanistan, Rep. of28.615.78.014.07.513.08.4
Bangladesh4.75.45.64.84.85.86.16.36.45.86.0
Bhutan4.77.97.67.210.07.66.86.911.022.47.8
Brunei Darussalam3.12.92.73.92.90.50.45.11.92.3
Cambodia12.18.88.16.68.510.313.310.89.57.7
China9.67.68.48.39.110.010.110.411.111.510.0
Fiji3.88.9−1.42.03.21.15.40.73.6−3.11.9
India5.76.95.43.94.56.97.99.09.78.98.4
Indonesia4.80.85.43.64.54.85.05.75.56.26.1
Kiribati2.77.33.91.75.81.4−2.9−0.25.82.51.6
Lao PDR6.67.35.85.75.96.16.47.17.67.17.6
Malaysia7.46.18.90.34.45.57.25.25.95.85.6
Maldives6.77.24.83.56.58.59.5−4.519.15.54.5
Myanmar5.310.913.711.312.013.813.613.612.75.54.0
Nepal4.84.56.15.60.13.94.73.12.82.54.0
Pakistan4.13.74.32.03.24.87.47.76.96.46.5
Papua New Guinea4.21.9−2.5−0.1−0.22.22.73.42.65.24.0
Philippines3.03.46.01.84.44.96.44.95.46.35.8
Samoa2.42.13.77.14.41.63.35.42.33.03.5
Solomon Islands4.8−0.5−14.3−9.0−1.66.48.05.06.15.44.2
Sri Lanka5.04.36.0−1.54.06.05.46.07.46.56.5
Thailand5.84.44.82.25.37.16.34.55.04.04.5
Timor-Leste, Dem. Rep. of15.516.5−6.7−6.20.32.3−2.927.43.8
Tonga1.42.35.42.63.03.21.42.31.3−3.50.8
Vanuatu4.4−3.22.7−2.6−7.43.25.56.85.55.04.0
Vietnam7.74.86.86.97.17.37.88.48.28.38.2
Middle East4.51.95.43.04.06.65.65.45.65.95.9
Bahrain4.84.35.24.65.27.25.67.87.66.86.5
Egypt3.76.15.43.53.23.24.14.56.87.17.3
Iran, I.R. of5.51.95.13.77.57.25.14.44.96.06.0
Iraq
Jordan2.73.44.35.35.84.28.67.16.36.06.0
Kuwait2.7−1.84.70.23.016.510.510.05.03.54.8
Lebanon−0.1−0.81.74.53.34.17.41.02.03.5
Libya−1.11.13.45.91.45.95.06.35.69.26.9
Oman5.2−0.25.57.52.62.05.45.85.96.06.3
Qatar4.15.510.96.33.26.317.79.210.314.214.1
Saudi Arabia3.1−0.74.90.50.17.75.36.14.34.14.3
Syrian Arab Republic5.3−3.12.33.75.91.12.83.34.43.93.7
United Arab Emirates6.63.112.41.72.611.99.78.29.47.76.6
Yemen, Rep. of3.86.23.83.93.74.04.64.03.64.3
Western Hemisphere3.10.33.90.50.32.46.04.65.55.04.3
Antigua and Barbuda3.54.93.31.52.04.35.25.512.23.81.8
Argentina3.8−3.4−0.8−4.4−10.98.89.09.28.57.55.5
Bahamas, The1.64.01.90.82.31.41.82.53.43.14.0
Barbados0.70.42.3−2.60.62.04.84.13.94.22.7
Belize6.58.713.05.05.19.34.63.55.84.13.0
Bolivia4.30.42.51.72.52.74.24.04.64.05.4
Brazil2.00.34.31.32.71.15.72.93.74.44.0
Chile7.5−0.44.53.52.24.06.05.74.05.95.0
Colombia3.6−4.22.91.51.93.94.94.76.86.64.8
Costa Rica5.18.21.81.12.96.44.35.98.26.05.0
Dominica2.31.61.3−4.2−5.10.13.03.34.03.22.8
Dominican Republic4.28.18.13.64.4−1.92.09.310.78.04.5
Ecuador2.9−6.32.85.34.23.68.06.03.92.73.4
El Salvador4.63.42.21.72.32.31.93.14.24.23.8
Grenada3.67.37.0−4.21.26.4−6.512.80.73.04.0
Guatemala3.83.72.52.43.92.53.23.54.94.84.3
Guyana3.93.0−1.32.31.1−0.71.6−1.95.15.64.6
Haiti−0.62.61.3−0.6−0.50.2−2.60.42.23.24.3
Honduras3.4−1.95.72.62.73.55.04.16.05.43.4
Jamaica1.21.00.71.51.12.31.01.42.51.42.0
Mexico3.43.86.60.81.44.22.84.82.93.0
Nicaragua2.37.04.13.00.82.55.34.43.74.24.7
Panama5.83.92.70.62.24.27.56.98.18.58.8
Paraguay3.2−1.5−3.32.13.84.12.94.35.04.0
Peru1.60.93.00.25.04.05.16.77.67.06.0
St. Kitts and Nevis4.33.96.51.7−0.3−1.27.34.44.04.04.1
St. Lucia3.53.90.1−3.70.83.14.53.85.03.54.3
St. Vincent and the Grenadines3.43.62.0−0.13.22.86.82.26.94.46.2
Suriname0.8−0.9−0.16.82.66.08.15.55.85.34.0
Trinidad and Tobago3.08.06.94.27.914.48.88.012.06.05.8
Uruguay3.6−2.8−1.4−3.4−11.02.211.86.67.05.23.8
Venezuela2.1−6.03.73.4−8.9−7.818.310.310.38.06.0

For many countries, figures for recent years are IMF staff estimates. Data for some countries are for fiscal years.

The percent changes in 2002 are calculated over a period of 18 months, reflecting a change in the fiscal year cycle (from July–June to January–December).

Data for some countries refer to real net material product (NMP) or are estimates based on NMP. For many countries, figures for recent years are IMF staff estimates. The figures should be interpreted only as indicative of broad orders of magnitude because reliable, comparable data are not generally available. In particular, the growth of output of new private enterprises of the informal economy is not fully reflected in the recent figures.

Mongolia, which is not a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, is included in this group for reasons of geography and similarities in economic structure.

For many countries, figures for recent years are IMF staff estimates. Data for some countries are for fiscal years.

The percent changes in 2002 are calculated over a period of 18 months, reflecting a change in the fiscal year cycle (from July–June to January–December).

Data for some countries refer to real net material product (NMP) or are estimates based on NMP. For many countries, figures for recent years are IMF staff estimates. The figures should be interpreted only as indicative of broad orders of magnitude because reliable, comparable data are not generally available. In particular, the growth of output of new private enterprises of the informal economy is not fully reflected in the recent figures.

Mongolia, which is not a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, is included in this group for reasons of geography and similarities in economic structure.

Table A5.Summary of Inflation(Percent)
Ten-Year Averages
1989–981999–20081999200020012002200320042005200620072008
GDP deflators
Advanced economies3.21.70.91.51.91.61.72.02.02.11.91.6
United States2.52.31.42.22.41.72.12.93.23.22.61.7
Euro area1.91.01.52.42.62.22.01.91.92.01.9
Japan0.9−1.1−1.3−1.7−1.2−1.5−1.6−1.1−1.3−0.9−0.60.1
Other advanced economies14.01.91.12.02.01.82.12.11.91.91.92.0
Consumer prices
Advanced economies3.52.01.42.22.11.51.82.02.32.32.12.0
United States3.32.72.23.42.81.62.32.73.43.22.72.3
Euro area22.11.12.12.42.32.12.12.22.22.02.0
Japan1.5−0.2−0.3−0.8−0.7−0.9−0.3−0.30.30.5
Other advanced economies4.01.91.11.82.11.71.81.72.12.12.12.2
Other emerging market and developing countries350.36.210.27.06.55.75.75.45.25.15.95.3
Regional groups
Africa328.48.110.812.611.48.07.85.56.66.36.66.0
Central and eastern Europe63.411.323.723.119.714.99.26.14.95.05.14.1
Commonwealth of Independent States417.769.124.119.913.411.910.312.19.48.98.3
Developing Asia9.73.32.51.82.72.02.54.13.64.05.34.4
Middle East11.46.76.64.03.85.36.27.26.97.510.89.2
Western Hemisphere134.27.18.37.66.18.910.66.56.35.45.35.8
Memorandum
European Union11.52.42.23.13.02.52.22.32.32.32.32.3
Analytical groups
By source of export earnings
Fuel74.113.036.213.913.511.711.39.69.98.79.28.6
Nonfuel346.55.26.66.05.54.84.94.84.54.55.54.8
of which, primary products80.712.825.530.925.29.06.94.08.47.87.56.1
By external financing source
Net debtor countries355.87.110.38.78.07.97.05.36.06.36.05.3
of which, official financing27.75.95.53.94.13.75.97.47.37.07.56.8
Net debtor countries by debt-servicing experience3
Countries with arrears and/or rescheduling during 2001–0545.110.013.49.710.613.09.66.89.510.88.78.3
Memorandum
Median inflation rate
Advanced economies3.12.11.42.72.62.22.11.92.22.22.02.1
Other emerging market and developing countries310.34.74.04.04.73.34.14.55.55.66.15.0

In this table, “other advanced economies” means advanced economies excluding the United States, euro area countries, and Japan.

Based on Eurostat’s harmonized index of consumer prices.

Excludes Zimbabwe.

Mongolia, which is not a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, is included in this group for reasons of geography and similarities in economic structure.

In this table, “other advanced economies” means advanced economies excluding the United States, euro area countries, and Japan.

Based on Eurostat’s harmonized index of consumer prices.

Excludes Zimbabwe.

Mongolia, which is not a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, is included in this group for reasons of geography and similarities in economic structure.

Table A6.Advanced Economies: Consumer Prices(Annual percent change)
Ten-Year AveragesEnd of Period
1989–981999–20081999200020012002200320042005200620072008200620072008
Consumer prices
Advanced economies3.52.01.42.22.11.51.82.02.32.32.12.02.02.41.9
United States3.32.72.23.42.81.62.32.73.43.22.72.32.53.32.2
Euro area12.11.12.12.42.32.12.12.22.22.02.01.92.22.0
Germany2.61.60.61.41.91.41.01.81.91.82.11.81.41.91.7
France2.21.80.61.81.81.92.22.31.91.91.61.81.72.11.8
Italy4.52.21.72.62.32.62.82.32.22.21.91.92.11.91.9
Spain4.83.12.23.52.83.63.13.13.43.62.52.82.72.92.5
Netherlands2.22.42.02.35.13.82.21.41.51.72.02.21.72.02.2
Belgium2.22.01.12.72.41.61.51.92.52.31.81.82.11.81.8
Austria2.31.70.52.02.31.71.32.02.11.71.91.91.52.21.9
Finland2.61.61.32.92.72.01.30.10.81.31.51.81.21.51.8
Greece12.03.22.12.93.73.93.43.03.53.33.03.23.23.33.0
Portugal6.72.92.22.84.43.73.32.52.13.02.52.42.52.52.4
Ireland2.53.22.55.24.04.74.02.32.22.72.52.13.02.52.0
Luxembourg2.52.31.03.22.72.12.02.22.52.72.22.22.32.62.0
Slovenia5.16.28.88.47.55.63.62.52.53.23.12.83.82.4
Japan1.5−0.2−0.3−0.8−0.7−0.9−0.3−0.30.30.50.30.5
United Kingdom13.71.61.30.91.21.31.41.32.02.32.42.02.82.12.0
Canada2.52.21.72.72.52.32.71.82.22.02.21.91.32.62.1
Korea6.22.70.82.34.12.83.53.62.82.22.62.72.13.02.7
Australia3.13.01.54.54.43.02.82.32.73.52.32.83.32.92.4
Taiwan Province of China3.30.80.21.3−0.2−0.31.62.30.61.21.50.71.71.5
Sweden4.11.60.51.32.71.92.31.00.81.51.92.01.42.02.0
Switzerland2.61.00.81.61.00.60.60.81.21.01.01.00.61.50.8
Hong Kong SAR8.3−0.7−3.9−3.7−1.6−3.0−2.6−0.40.92.02.03.22.33.71.5
Denmark2.32.12.52.92.42.42.11.21.81.91.92.01.81.92.0
Norway2.72.02.33.13.01.32.50.41.62.30.82.52.21.22.6
Israel12.72.05.21.11.15.70.7−0.41.32.10.52.5−0.12.82.0
Singapore2.20.91.31.0−0.40.51.70.51.01.71.70.82.61.2
New Zealand2.72.3−0.12.62.62.61.72.33.03.42.42.72.73.02.5
Cyprus4.12.61.64.12.02.84.12.32.62.52.02.41.82.02.4
Iceland5.84.43.45.16.64.82.13.24.06.84.83.37.03.83.0
Memorandum
Major advanced economies2.91.91.42.11.91.31.72.02.32.32.11.91.92.31.8
Newly industrialized Asian economies5.31.61.21.91.01.52.42.31.62.02.31.62.72.1

Based on Eurostat’s harmonized index of consumer prices.

Based on Eurostat’s harmonized index of consumer prices.

Table A7.Other Emerging Market and Developing Countries—by Country: Consumer Prices1(Annual percent change)
AverageEnd of Period
1989–981999200020012002200320042005200620072008200620072008
Africa28.410.812.611.48.07.85.56.66.36.66.07.26.55.6
Algeria18.02.60.34.21.42.63.61.62.54.54.34.44.44.2
Angola397.8248.2325.0152.6108.998.343.623.013.311.98.912.210.08.0
Benin7.20.34.24.02.41.50.95.43.83.02.85.32.92.9
Botswana11.37.88.56.68.09.27.08.611.67.07.08.57.46.5
Burkina Faso4.4−1.1−0.34.72.32.0−0.46.42.40.52.01.50.52.0
Burundi14.43.424.39.3−1.310.78.013.62.75.35.79.15.44.0
Cameroon24.82.90.82.86.30.60.32.05.12.02.72.44.30.9
Cape Verde7.34.3−2.43.71.91.2−1.90.45.42.52.36.20.23.0
Central African Republic3.7−1.43.23.82.34.4−2.22.96.73.12.37.23.11.7
Chad4.5−8.43.812.45.2−1.8−5.47.97.93.03.03.021.00.8
Comoros2.91.15.95.63.63.74.53.03.43.03.01.73.03.0
Congo, Dem. Rep. of790.1284.9550.0357.325.312.84.021.413.217.58.818.212.08.0
Congo, Rep. of5.93.10.40.83.11.53.62.54.87.05.08.25.03.0
Côte d’Ivoire5.70.72.54.43.13.31.53.92.52.53.02.03.03.0
Djibouti4.50.21.61.80.62.03.13.13.53.53.53.53.53.5
Equatorial Guinea6.70.44.88.87.67.34.25.74.56.15.73.86.15.5
Eritrea8.419.914.616.922.725.112.517.322.725.217.725.625.5
Ethiopia7.64.86.2−5.2−7.215.18.66.812.317.815.911.617.715.1
Gabon5.7−0.70.52.10.22.10.44.05.53.06.44.52.7
Gambia, The5.83.80.94.58.617.014.23.21.45.04.51.45.04.0
Ghana28.112.425.232.914.826.712.615.110.99.48.810.59.08.3
Guinea3.24.66.85.43.012.917.531.434.723.413.839.115.010.0
Guinea-Bissau44.1−2.18.63.33.3−3.50.83.42.03.02.63.22.82.5
Kenya16.25.810.05.82.09.811.610.314.56.97.215.65.37.2
Lesotho11.78.66.16.912.57.35.03.46.16.66.46.46.96.1
Liberia5.312.114.210.33.66.97.211.29.08.99.58.5
Madagascar16.58.110.76.916.2−1.114.018.410.810.16.910.97.76.0
Malawi25.844.829.627.214.99.611.612.39.07.06.010.18.27.5
Mali3.9−1.2−0.75.25.0−1.3−3.16.41.92.52.52.52.52.5
Mauritania5.53.66.87.75.45.310.412.16.27.67.38.97.96.0
Mauritius8.86.94.25.36.53.94.74.95.510.77.57.610.07.0
Morocco4.70.71.90.62.81.21.51.03.32.52.03.32.52.0
Mozambique, Rep. of36.22.912.79.116.813.512.66.413.26.45.79.45.55.3
Namibia10.98.69.39.311.37.24.12.35.16.35.96.06.65.5
Niger4.6−2.32.94.02.7−1.80.47.80.12.00.40.92.0
Nigeria33.06.66.918.013.714.015.017.88.35.37.48.56.08.0
Rwanda16.7−2.43.93.42.07.412.09.28.88.25.011.95.05.0
São Tomé and Príncipe42.811.011.010.010.19.913.817.223.616.611.423.313.59.5
Senegal4.00.80.73.02.30.51.72.15.42.93.94.12.5
Seychelles1.66.36.36.00.23.33.90.9−0.44.412.90.89.814.3
Sierra Leone45.234.1−0.92.6−3.77.514.212.19.510.810.28.311.09.4
South Africa10.85.25.45.79.25.81.43.44.76.66.25.86.95.6
Sudan81.516.08.04.98.37.78.48.57.28.06.515.77.06.0
Swaziland9.75.97.27.511.77.43.44.85.36.86.35.56.65.6
Tanzania22.59.06.25.14.64.44.14.47.35.65.06.75.05.0
Togo5.9−0.11.93.93.1−0.90.46.82.23.23.01.63.33.0
Tunisia5.32.72.32.02.72.73.62.04.53.03.03.33.03.0
Uganda26.40.25.84.5−2.05.75.08.06.67.55.17.26.64.9
Zambia78.526.826.121.722.221.418.018.39.111.35.78.29.05.0
Zimbabwe323.858.055.673.4133.2365.0350.0237.81,016.716,170.21,281.1137,873.1
Central and eastern Europe463.423.723.119.714.99.26.14.95.05.14.15.14.73.8
Albania34.60.43.15.22.32.92.42.42.53.32.53.13.0
Bosnia and Herzegovina2.95.03.20.30.50.33.67.52.51.9
Bulgaria111.12.68.27.55.82.36.15.07.38.27.96.511.93.8
Croatia4.04.63.81.71.82.03.33.22.32.82.02.72.8
Czech Republic13.92.33.84.71.80.12.81.82.52.94.41.84.04.5
Estonia3.34.05.83.61.33.04.14.46.07.05.17.25.7
Hungary22.710.09.89.25.34.66.83.63.97.64.56.55.93.7
Latvia2.42.62.51.92.96.26.76.59.08.96.89.78.3
Lithuania1.51.11.60.3−1.11.22.73.85.24.64.55.04.2
Macedonia, FYR−0.36.45.52.21.2−0.40.53.22.03.03.03.52.5
Malta3.02.33.02.52.61.92.72.52.60.62.00.81.31.9
Poland70.47.310.15.51.90.83.52.11.02.22.71.42.73.1
Romania102.745.845.734.522.515.311.99.06.64.34.84.94.54.8
Serbia41.170.091.819.511.710.117.312.76.48.86.69.07.5
Slovak Republic10.612.07.13.38.57.52.84.42.42.04.22.02.0
Turkey75.664.955.054.245.125.38.68.29.68.24.69.76.04.0
Commonwealth of Independent States4,569.124.119.913.411.910.312.19.48.98.39.38.88.0
Russia85.720.821.515.813.710.912.79.78.17.59.08.07.0
Excluding Russia35.832.516.38.28.19.010.98.910.410.39.910.610.0
Armenia0.6−0.83.11.14.77.00.62.93.74.95.24.04.5
Azerbaijan−8.51.81.52.82.26.79.78.416.617.011.420.015.0
Belarus293.7168.661.142.628.418.110.37.08.110.06.69.710.2
Georgia19.14.04.75.64.85.78.39.28.58.18.89.37.0
Kazakhstan8.413.38.45.96.46.97.68.68.67.88.48.87.2
Kyrgyz Republic35.918.76.92.13.14.14.35.67.07.05.18.57.0
Moldova39.331.39.85.311.712.511.912.711.28.914.110.08.0
Mongolia7.611.65.60.95.18.312.75.16.77.26.07.57.0
Tajikistan27.532.938.612.216.47.27.310.09.912.612.59.08.0
Turkmenistan23.58.011.68.85.65.910.78.26.59.07.26.012.5
Ukraine22.728.212.00.85.29.013.59.011.510.811.611.010.6
Uzbekistan29.125.027.327.311.66.610.014.212.29.811.411.010.0
Developing Asia9.72.51.82.72.02.54.13.64.05.34.44.15.73.9
Afghanistan, Rep. of5.124.113.212.35.18.37.64.88.57.0
Bangladesh6.66.22.51.93.75.46.17.06.57.26.37.56.85.9
Bhutan10.06.834.03.42.52.14.65.35.04.94.75.34.84.5
Brunei Darussalam1.20.6−2.30.30.91.10.21.21.2
Cambodia4.0−0.80.23.31.23.85.94.76.55.52.86.55.5
China9.4−1.40.40.7−0.81.23.91.81.54.53.92.05.73.5
Fiji4.62.01.14.30.84.22.82.42.55.54.53.17.02.5
India9.74.74.03.84.33.83.84.26.16.24.46.74.94.0
Indonesia12.220.73.811.511.86.86.110.513.16.36.26.66.55.7
Kiribati3.81.80.46.03.22.5−1.9−0.5−0.20.21.0−0.20.21.0
Lao PDR18.3128.423.29.310.615.510.57.26.84.04.54.74.14.4
Malaysia3.72.71.61.41.81.11.43.03.62.12.43.12.22.4
Maldives8.83.0−1.20.70.9−2.86.33.33.77.07.05.07.06.0
Myanmar28.310.9−1.734.558.124.93.810.725.736.927.538.735.020.0
Nepal9.511.43.42.42.94.84.04.58.06.55.38.35.65.3
Pakistan9.95.73.64.42.53.14.69.37.97.87.07.67.06.5
Papua New Guinea7.614.915.69.311.814.72.11.72.33.04.8−1.06.34.8
Philippines10.16.44.06.82.93.56.07.66.23.04.04.34.13.2
Samoa5.50.8−0.21.97.44.37.97.83.22.63.02.22.32.3
Solomon Islands11.38.06.97.69.310.06.97.38.16.37.37.57.06.7
Sri Lanka11.94.01.512.110.22.67.910.69.517.011.517.913.011.0
Thailand5.50.31.61.70.61.82.84.54.62.02.03.52.31.2
Timor-Leste, Dem. Rep. of63.63.64.87.03.21.84.15.43.96.75.43.9
Tonga4.43.95.36.910.411.111.79.77.05.95.36.45.65.4
Vanuatu3.82.22.53.72.03.01.41.21.62.53.02.52.53.5
Vietnam26.94.1−1.6−0.44.03.27.78.37.57.37.66.68.07.3
Middle East11.46.64.03.85.36.27.26.97.510.89.29.49.99.3
Bahrain1.1−1.3−0.7−1.2−0.51.72.32.62.92.92.72.92.82.7
Egypt12.33.72.82.42.43.28.18.84.210.97.87.28.57.9
Iran, I.R. of23.320.112.611.415.815.615.212.113.619.017.716.619.017.7
Iraq
Jordan7.40.60.71.81.81.63.43.56.35.04.57.54.33.3
Kuwait3.63.11.61.40.81.01.34.12.82.62.63.62.62.6
Lebanon31.90.2−0.4−0.41.81.31.7−0.75.63.52.57.22.03.0
Libya6.42.6−2.9−8.8−9.9−2.1−2.22.03.416.26.97.216.26.9
Oman1.70.5−1.2−0.8−0.30.20.71.93.23.83.53.53.63.2
Qatar3.02.21.71.40.22.36.88.811.812.010.0
Saudi Arabia1.4−1.3−1.1−1.10.20.60.40.72.23.03.02.93.03.0
Syrian Arab Republic9.1−3.7−3.93.4−0.55.84.47.210.07.07.011.9−3.25.0
United Arab Emirates3.62.11.42.72.93.25.06.29.38.06.4
Yemen, Rep. of37.78.010.911.912.210.812.511.718.212.512.116.513.211.0
Western Hemisphere134.28.37.66.18.910.66.56.35.45.35.85.05.45.7
Antigua and Barbuda3.80.6−0.6−0.42.42.02.02.11.83.22.00.03.22.0
Argentina125.4−1.2−0.9−1.125.913.44.49.610.99.512.69.810.013.0
Bahamas, The3.21.31.62.02.23.00.92.21.82.42.42.32.62.4
Barbados3.41.52.42.6−1.21.61.46.07.35.53.65.65.72.3
Belize2.1−1.30.71.22.22.63.13.74.33.33.33.03.53.0
Bolivia11.72.24.61.60.93.34.45.44.38.513.35.010.416.0
Brazil456.24.97.16.88.414.86.66.94.23.63.93.14.04.0
Chile12.93.33.83.62.52.81.13.13.43.94.12.65.53.0
Colombia23.610.99.28.06.37.15.95.04.35.54.64.55.04.3
Costa Rica17.410.011.011.39.29.412.313.811.59.16.99.49.06.0
Dominica2.91.20.91.60.11.62.41.62.62.22.01.61.51.5
Dominican Republic17.46.57.78.95.227.451.54.27.65.84.25.06.04.0
Ecuador40.652.296.137.712.67.92.72.13.32.12.32.92.32.3
El Salvador12.20.52.33.71.92.14.53.74.64.43.74.94.03.5
Grenada2.80.62.11.71.12.22.33.53.82.42.01.72.02.0
Guatemala15.35.26.07.38.15.67.69.16.66.26.15.86.06.0
Guyana28.97.56.12.75.36.04.76.96.79.63.34.28.05.0
Haiti20.88.713.714.29.939.321.215.814.29.07.812.48.07.5
Honduras19.311.611.09.77.77.78.18.85.66.99.05.38.09.0
Jamaica27.86.08.17.07.110.513.515.38.66.610.15.88.98.9
Mexico20.416.69.56.45.04.54.74.03.63.94.24.13.63.6
Nicaragua154.77.29.94.74.06.58.59.69.18.27.39.57.37.0
Panama1.01.31.40.31.00.60.52.92.53.83.62.24.43.6
Paraguay18.16.89.07.310.514.24.36.89.67.63.912.55.03.0
Peru201.63.53.82.00.22.33.71.62.01.52.31.12.72.0
St. Kitts and Nevis3.73.42.12.12.12.32.23.48.55.23.28.44.02.5
St. Lucia3.33.53.75.4−0.31.01.53.92.42.52.9−0.62.52.9
St. Vincent and the Grenadines3.31.00.20.80.80.23.03.73.06.14.14.85.83.2
Suriname59.798.758.639.815.523.09.19.911.34.64.34.74.54.0
Trinidad and Tobago6.73.43.65.54.23.83.76.98.38.57.59.18.07.0
Uruguay53.15.74.84.414.019.49.24.76.48.06.86.48.36.0
Venezuela52.123.616.212.522.431.121.716.013.718.019.017.017.021.0

In accordance with standard practice in the World Economic Outlook, movements in consumer prices are indicated as annual averages rather than as December/December changes during the year, as is the practice in some countries. For many countries, figures for recent years are IMF staff estimates. Data for some countries are for fiscal years. In this table, Africa excludes Zimbabwe.

The percent changes in 2002 are calculated over a period of 18 months, reflecting a change in the fiscal year cycle (from July–June to January–December).

Given recent trends, it is not possible to forecast inflation with any degree of precision and consequently no projection for 2008 is shown.

For many countries, inflation for the earlier years is measured on the basis of a retail price index. Consumer price indices with a broader and more up-to-date coverage are typically used for more recent years.

Mongolia, which is not a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, is included in this group for reasons of geography and similarities in economic structure.

In accordance with standard practice in the World Economic Outlook, movements in consumer prices are indicated as annual averages rather than as December/December changes during the year, as is the practice in some countries. For many countries, figures for recent years are IMF staff estimates. Data for some countries are for fiscal years. In this table, Africa excludes Zimbabwe.

The percent changes in 2002 are calculated over a period of 18 months, reflecting a change in the fiscal year cycle (from July–June to January–December).

Given recent trends, it is not possible to forecast inflation with any degree of precision and consequently no projection for 2008 is shown.

For many countries, inflation for the earlier years is measured on the basis of a retail price index. Consumer price indices with a broader and more up-to-date coverage are typically used for more recent years.

Mongolia, which is not a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, is included in this group for reasons of geography and similarities in economic structure.

Table A8.Major Advanced Economies: General Government Fiscal Balances and Debt1(Percent of GDP)
Average

1991–2000
200120022003200420052006200720082012
Major advanced economies
Actual balance−3.0−1.7−4.0−4.8−4.2−3.5−2.7−2.4−2.6−2.4
Output gap20.5−0.5−1.0−0.4−0.5−0.2−0.4−0.8−0.4
Structural balance2−2.8−1.9−3.8−4.3−4.0−3.3−2.6−2.2−2.3−2.2
United States
Actual balance−2.2−0.4−3.8−4.8−4.4−3.6−2.6−2.6−2.9−2.6
Output gap20.7−0.4−0.60.20.3−0.5−1.2−0.5
Structural balance2−2.2−0.7−3.7−4.6−4.3−3.7−2.7−2.4−2.5−2.4
Net debt49.435.638.441.443.244.244.145.046.745.0
Gross debt65.453.756.159.460.460.960.260.862.260.8
Euro area
Actual balance−3.8−1.9−2.6−3.1−2.9−2.6−1.6−0.9−1.1−0.9
Output gap2−0.11.30.1−1.0−1.0−1.4−0.6−0.3−0.2−0.3
Structural balance2−3.3−2.2−2.5−2.6−2.4−1.9−1.2−0.8−0.9−0.8
Net debt56.958.558.559.860.360.958.957.055.957.0
Gross debt69.268.368.269.369.770.468.666.665.466.6
Germany3
Actual balance−2.2−2.8−3.7−4.0−3.8−3.4−1.6−0.2−0.5−0.2
Output gap20.21.3−0.2−1.7−2.0−2.4−1.0−0.10.2−0.1
Structural balance2,4−2.0−2.6−2.9−3.0−2.9−2.5−1.2−0.4−0.7−0.4
Net debt43.652.154.357.760.061.760.258.156.958.1
Gross debt52.457.959.662.864.766.366.063.762.363.7
France
Actual balance−3.8−1.5−3.1−4.1−3.6−3.0−2.5−2.5−2.7−2.5
Output gap2−1.41.0−0.9−0.5−0.8−0.9−1.2−1.3−1.2
Structural balance2,4−2.9−2.1−3.1−3.4−3.1−2.7−1.9−1.7−2.0−1.7
Net debt42.848.249.153.255.357.054.453.653.753.6
Gross debt52.056.958.862.965.066.764.163.363.463.3
Italy
Actual balance−6.3−3.1−2.9−3.5−3.5−4.2−4.4−2.1−2.3−2.1
Output gap2−0.71.40.5−0.7−0.7−1.9−1.3−0.8−0.7−0.8
Structural balance2,4−6.0−3.8−3.9−3.3−3.4−3.5−3.9−1.8−2.0−1.8
Net debt108.3105.2102.1101.5100.9103.1103.1101.7101.1101.7
Gross debt113.8108.7105.6104.3103.8106.2106.8105.3104.7105.3
Japan
Actual balance−3.8−6.3−8.0−8.0−6.2−4.8−4.1−3.9−3.8−3.9
Excluding social security−5.6−6.5−7.9−8.1−6.6−5.1−4.1−3.8−3.9−3.8
Output gap2−0.1−1.4−2.3−2.3−1.2−1.0−0.5−0.2−0.2−0.2
Structural balance2−3.8−5.7−7.0−7.0−5.7−4.5−4.0−3.8−3.8−3.8
Excluding social security−5.6−6.2−7.3−7.6−6.3−4.9−4.0−3.8−3.8−3.8
Net debt31.766.372.676.582.784.087.189.892.189.8
Gross debt100.2151.7160.9167.2178.1191.4193.1194.4194.9194.4
United Kingdom
Actual balance−3.40.9−1.8−3.5−3.4−3.3−2.7−2.5−2.3−2.5
Output gap2−0.60.6−0.1−0.10.5−0.2−0.20.2−0.10.2
Structural balance2−2.3−0.1−1.9−3.0−3.6−3.2−2.7−2.5−2.2−2.5
Net debt34.032.532.534.235.937.838.538.438.538.4
Gross debt39.638.137.739.040.542.443.143.043.143.0
Canada
Actual balance−3.60.7−0.1−0.10.81.61.00.90.90.9
Output gap24.10.30.2−0.7−0.30.20.30.2−0.20.2
Structural balance2−3.40.4−0.20.20.91.50.90.91.00.9
Net debt61.043.742.638.634.430.127.625.123.225.1
Gross debt105.291.589.485.280.278.473.568.464.768.4
Note: The methodology and specific assumptions for each country are discussed in Box A1 in the Statistical Appendix.

Debt data refer to end of year. Debt data are not always comparable across countries.

Percent of potential GDP.

Beginning in 1995, the debt and debt–service obligations of the Treuhandanstalt (and of various other agencies) were taken over by the general government. This debt is equivalent to 8 percent of GDP, and the associated debt service to ½ to 1 percent of GDP.

Excludes one-off receipts from the sale of mobile telephone licenses (the equivalent of 2.5 percent of GDP in 2000 for Germany, 0.1 percent of GDP in 2001 and 2002 for France, and 1.2 percent of GDP in 2000 for Italy). Also excludes one-off receipts from sizable asset transactions, in particular 0.5 percent of GDP for France in 2005.

Note: The methodology and specific assumptions for each country are discussed in Box A1 in the Statistical Appendix.

Debt data refer to end of year. Debt data are not always comparable across countries.

Percent of potential GDP.

Beginning in 1995, the debt and debt–service obligations of the Treuhandanstalt (and of various other agencies) were taken over by the general government. This debt is equivalent to 8 percent of GDP, and the associated debt service to ½ to 1 percent of GDP.

Excludes one-off receipts from the sale of mobile telephone licenses (the equivalent of 2.5 percent of GDP in 2000 for Germany, 0.1 percent of GDP in 2001 and 2002 for France, and 1.2 percent of GDP in 2000 for Italy). Also excludes one-off receipts from sizable asset transactions, in particular 0.5 percent of GDP for France in 2005.

Table A9.Summary of World Trade Volumes and Prices(Annual percent change)
Ten-Year Averages
1989–981999–20081999200020012002200320042005200620072008
Trade in goods and services
World trade1
Volume6.76.75.812.20.23.55.510.87.59.26.66.7
Price deflator
In U.S. dollars0.23.4−1.60.43.51.210.49.55.74.87.02.4
In SDRs0.12.22.43.2−0.62.13.65.95.23.61.2
Volume of trade

Exports
Advanced economies6.75.65.611.70.62.33.39.05.88.25.45.3
Other emerging market and developing countries7.69.33.713.82.77.011.114.611.111.09.29.0
Imports
Advanced economies6.45.78.011.70.62.74.19.36.17.44.35.0
Other emerging market and developing countries7.010.10.613.73.36.310.516.712.114.912.511.3
Terms of trade
Advanced economies0.30.32.60.30.81.0−0.1−1.6−0.90.2−0.2
Other emerging market and developing countries0.92.44.26.0−2.40.60.93.05.74.70.21.0
Trade in goods
World trade1
Volume6.86.85.612.8−0.53.76.410.97.49.36.36.9
Price deflator
In U.S. dollars0.13.7−1.20.4−3.70.69.910.06.45.47.42.4
In SDRs2.4−1.94.0−0.3−1.11.74.06.65.93.91.2
World trade prices in U.S. dollars2
Manufactures0.53.1−2.7−5.3−3.42.114.39.53.73.87.92.8
Oil−1.219.137.557.0−13.82.515.830.741.320.56.69.5
Nonfuel primary commodities−2.25.8−7.24.8−4.91.76.918.510.328.412.2−6.7
Food−1.52.8−12.62.50.23.45.214.3−0.39.98.7−0.5
Beverages0.3−1.0−21.3−15.1−16.116.54.93.021.06.32.9−3.4
Agricultural raw materials−0.32.41.24.4−4.91.83.75.51.610.13.5−1.8
Metals−4.511.8−1.112.2−9.8−2.712.236.126.456.517.9−12.0
World trade prices in SDRs2
Manufactures0.41.8−3.4−1.80.10.45.73.63.94.24.41.6
Oil−1.317.636.462.8−10.70.87.123.641.621.03.28.2
Nonfuel primary commodities−2.34.5−7.98.6−1.5−1.212.110.529.08.6−7.8
Food−1.61.5−13.36.23.81.6−2.88.1−0.110.45.2−1.6
Beverages0.2−2.2−21.9−12.0−13.114.6−3.0−2.521.36.7−0.4−4.5
Agricultural raw materials−0.41.20.48.3−1.5−4.1−0.21.810.60.1−2.9
Metals−4.610.4−1.916.3−6.6−4.43.728.826.757.214.1−13.0
World trade prices in euros2
Manufactures1.11.02.29.3−0.3−3.1−4.5−0.43.52.90.31.0
Oil−0.716.744.481.3−11.1−2.8−3.318.941.019.5−0.87.6
Nonfuel primary commodities−1.63.7−2.620.9−1.9−3.5−10.87.810.027.44.4−8.3
Food−1.00.7−8.218.33.3−1.9−12.23.9−0.59.01.1−2.2
Beverages0.9−3.0−17.3−2.0−13.510.5−12.4−6.320.85.4−4.3−5.1
Agricultural raw materials0.30.46.320.6−1.9−3.5−13.4−4.11.49.2−3.8−3.5
Metals−4.09.53.829.6−6.9−7.8−6.323.826.255.39.7−13.5
Trade in goods
Volume of trade

Exports
Advanced economies6.65.55.112.5−1.52.33.98.75.58.74.75.4
Other emerging market and developing countries7.49.23.413.92.27.312.014.310.911.09.08.8
Fuel exporters3.94.8−0.37.10.62.511.78.65.83.93.35.8
Nonfuel exporters8.810.84.416.02.88.912.116.212.713.911.510.1
Imports
Advanced economies6.65.98.312.3−1.53.05.09.66.17.83.95.1
Other emerging market and developing countries7.110.0−0.214.13.16.612.117.212.212.512.411.7
Fuel exporters1.411.1−10.410.816.07.79.816.518.014.017.414.8
Nonfuel exporters8.99.81.914.70.96.412.617.311.112.111.411.1
Price deflators in SDRs
Exports
Advanced economies−0.21.5−3.10.5−0.1−0.92.63.23.83.94.31.1
Other emerging market and developing countries0.85.64.214.9−1.01.57.614.210.63.62.0
Fuel exporters12.920.643.8−7.31.04.417.133.017.52.95.0
Nonfuel exporters1.03.1−0.16.01.4−0.40.54.47.67.73.90.6
Imports
Advanced economies−0.51.9−2.93.7−0.6−1.91.33.45.95.23.81.2
Other emerging market and developing countries1.72.9−0.76.81.4−0.70.24.47.46.73.80.7
Fuel exporters1.92.2−3.31.90.31.20.64.27.17.23.0−0.1
Nonfuel exporters1.63.1−0.27.71.6−1.10.14.47.56.73.90.8
Terms of trade
Advanced economies0.3−0.4−0.2−3.10.51.01.2−0.2−2.0−1.20.4−0.2
Other emerging market and developing countries−0.92.64.97.5−2.30.71.33.16.43.6−0.21.3
Regional groups
Africa−1.45.18.013.1−3.50.32.74.414.39.5−0.13.6
Central and eastern Europe−0.4−1.8−2.33.61.0−0.41.2−0.6−1.70.90.3
Commonwealth of Independent States3−2.37.17.023.7−2.5−2.310.412.414.79.2−0.11.0
Developing Asia−0.1−0.9−1.2−4.30.7−2.1−1.3−0.7−0.30.3
Middle East−2.110.232.439.8−8.22.0−0.210.824.75.8−0.35.2
Western Hemisphere−0.53.02.77.8−4.41.23.35.55.68.80.7−0.4
Analytical groups
By source of export earnings
Fuel exporters−1.910.524.741.2−7.5−0.23.812.324.29.5−0.15.0
Nonfuel exporters−0.6−1.6−0.10.70.40.11.0−0.2
Memorandum
World exports in billions of U.S. dollars
Goods and services5,42311,3827,0927,8897,6177,9959,31011,28212,82214,69716,78618,334
Goods4,3259,1485,6296,3486,0746,3517,4259,02310,29611,89313,58114,854
Average oil price4−1.219.137.557.0−13.82.515.830.741.320.56.69.5
In U.S. dollars a barrel18.2042.3318.028.224.325.028.937.853.464.368.575.0
Export unit value of manufactures50.53.1−2.7−5.3−3.42.114.39.53.73.87.92.8

Average of annual percent change for world exports and imports.

As represented, respectively, by the export unit value index for the manufactures of the advanced economies; the average of U.K. Brent, Dubai, and West Texas Intermediate crude oil prices; and the average of world market prices for nonfuel primary commodities weighted by their 1995–97 shares in world commodity exports.

Mongolia, which is not a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, is included in this group for reasons of geography and similarities in economic structure.

Average of U.K. Brent, Dubai, and West Texas Intermediate crude oil prices.

For the manufactures exported by the advanced economies.

Average of annual percent change for world exports and imports.

As represented, respectively, by the export unit value index for the manufactures of the advanced economies; the average of U.K. Brent, Dubai, and West Texas Intermediate crude oil prices; and the average of world market prices for nonfuel primary commodities weighted by their 1995–97 shares in world commodity exports.

Mongolia, which is not a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, is included in this group for reasons of geography and similarities in economic structure.

Average of U.K. Brent, Dubai, and West Texas Intermediate crude oil prices.

For the manufactures exported by the advanced economies.

Table A10.Summary of Balances on Current Account(Billions of U.S. dollars)
1999200020012002200320042005200620072008
Advanced economies107.9265.7204.5211.1208.9220.6431.6508.8499.8550.2
United States−299.8−417.4−384.7−459.6−522.1−640.2−754.9−811.5−784.3−788.3
Euro area128.6−37.08.047.342.9109.327.90.9−21.2−48.8
Japan114.5119.687.8112.6136.2172.1165.7170.4195.9195.1
Other advanced economies248.869.184.488.6134.1138.3129.7131.3109.991.8
Memorandum
Newly industrialized Asian economies57.138.948.155.580.083.979.887.690.987.0
Other emerging market and developing countries19.386.440.878.4146.3211.5438.2596.0593.3623.6
Regional groups
Africa−14.28.10.9−6.8−1.81.016.428.9−0.57.8
Central and eastern Europe−25.8−31.8−16.0−23.9−37.4−59.7−61.9−88.1−119.2−134.3
Commonwealth of Independent States323.848.333.130.235.963.588.398.477.257.7
Developing Asia38.338.136.564.682.989.2163.8278.1389.2445.7
Middle East15.171.740.030.359.096.7196.7233.8227.0247.1
Western Hemisphere−56.4−48.0−53.8−15.97.720.934.944.919.5−0.4
Memorandum
European Union−15.8−84.2−27.319.120.962.9−30.0−95.3−167.3−217.7
Analytical groups
By source of export earnings
Fuel40.0151.384.965.0109.3184.3348.4423.1367.0380.6
Nonfuel−59.3−64.9−44.113.537.027.289.8172.9226.3242.9
of which, primary products−0.9−1.5−3.1−4.1−2.60.60.39.110.55.8
By external financing source
Net debtor countries−92.3−94.1−73.8−35.2−31.2−70.1−94.0−96.4−169.3−207.0
of which, official financing−8.7−6.6−4.6−2.30.1−1.7−4.6−7.6−15.6−18.7
Net debtor countries by debt–

servicing experience
Countries with arrears and/or rescheduling during 2001–05−19.0−8.4−10.27.711.2−2.6−7.75.8−13.6−15.1
World1127.2179.3163.7132.762.69.16.687.293.573.3
Memorandum
In percent of total world current account transactions−0.9−1.1−1.1−0.8−0.30.30.30.2
In percent of world GDP−0.4−0.6−0.5−0.4−0.20.20.20.1

Reflects errors, omissions, and asymmetries in balance of payments statistics on current account, as well as the exclusion of data for international organizations and a limited number of countries. Calculated as the sum of the balance of individual euro area countries. See “Classification of Countries” in the introduction to this Statistical Appendix.

In this table, “other advanced economies” means advanced economies excluding the United States, euro area countries, and Japan.

Mongolia, which is not a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, is included in this group for reasons of geography and similarities in economic structure.

Reflects errors, omissions, and asymmetries in balance of payments statistics on current account, as well as the exclusion of data for international organizations and a limited number of countries. Calculated as the sum of the balance of individual euro area countries. See “Classification of Countries” in the introduction to this Statistical Appendix.

In this table, “other advanced economies” means advanced economies excluding the United States, euro area countries, and Japan.

Mongolia, which is not a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, is included in this group for reasons of geography and similarities in economic structure.

Table A11.Advanced Economies: Balance on Current Account(Percent of GDP)
1999200020012002200320042005200620072008
Advanced economies0.41.00.80.80.70.71.31.41.31.4
United States−3.2−4.3−3.8−4.4−4.8−5.5−6.1−6.2−5.7−5.5
Euro area10.4−0.60.10.70.51.10.3−0.2−0.4
Germany−1.3−1.72.01.94.34.65.05.45.1
France3.11.61.91.40.80.1−1.1−1.2−1.6−1.8
Italy0.7−0.5−0.1−0.8−1.3−0.9−1.5−2.4−2.3−2.2
Spain−2.9−4.0−3.9−3.3−3.5−5.3−7.4−8.6−9.8−10.2
Netherlands3.81.92.42.55.58.57.78.67.46.7
Belgium7.94.03.44.64.13.52.62.02.52.5
Austria−3.2−2.5−1.90.3−0.21.72.13.23.73.7
Finland5.98.79.610.16.47.74.95.25.05.0
Greece−5.4−6.8−6.3−5.6−5.6−5.0−6.4−9.6−9.7−9.6
Portugal−8.5−10.2−9.9−8.1−6.1−7.7−9.7−9.4−9.2−9.2
Ireland0.2−0.4−0.6−1.0−0.6−3.5−4.2−4.4−3.3
Luxembourg10.713.28.811.68.011.811.110.610.510.3
Slovenia−3.3−2.70.21.0−0.8−2.7−1.9−2.5−3.4−3.1
Japan2.62.62.12.93.23.73.63.94.54.3
United Kingdom−2.4−2.6−2.2−1.6−1.3−1.6−2.5−3.2−3.5−3.6
Canada0.32.72.31.71.22.32.01.61.81.2
Korea5.52.41.71.02.04.11.90.70.1−0.4
Australia−5.3−3.8−2.0−3.8−5.4−6.0−5.8−5.5−5.7−5.6
Taiwan Province of China2.72.86.38.69.65.64.56.86.87.1
Sweden4.24.14.45.17.36.97.07.26.05.7
Switzerland11.012.37.88.312.912.913.515.115.815.0
Hong Kong SAR6.34.15.97.610.49.511.410.811.29.5
Denmark1.91.43.12.53.43.13.82.41.31.3
Norway5.615.016.112.612.312.715.516.414.615.1
Israel−1.4−0.8−1.1−0.91.22.43.35.63.73.2
Singapore17.411.614.013.724.220.124.527.527.025.4
New Zealand−6.2−5.1−2.8−3.9−4.3−6.4−8.6−8.7−8.5−8.6
Cyprus−1.7−5.3−3.3−3.7−2.2−5.0−5.6−5.9−5.5−5.6
Iceland−6.8−10.2−4.31.5−4.8−9.8−16.1−27.3−11.6−6.0
Memorandum
Major advanced economies−0.9−1.6−1.4−1.4−1.5−1.4−2.0−2.2−1.9−1.9
Euro area2−0.5−1.5−0.30.80.40.8−0.2−0.1−0.3
Newly industrialized Asian economies5.83.54.75.16.96.55.55.65.44.9

Calculated as the sum of the balances of individual euro area countries.

Corrected for reporting discrepancies in intra-area transactions.

Calculated as the sum of the balances of individual euro area countries.

Corrected for reporting discrepancies in intra-area transactions.

Table A12.Other Emerging Market and Developing Countries—by Country: Balance on Current Account(Percent of GDP)
1999200020012002200320042005200620072008
Africa3.21.80.21.40.30.12.03.10.6
Algeria16.712.87.613.013.120.725.619.418.4
Angola−27.58.7−16.0−1.3−5.23.516.823.37.610.7
Benin−7.3−7.7−6.4−8.4−8.3−7.2−6.2−6.4−6.3−6.1
Botswana11.08.89.93.35.62.914.419.320.610.0
Burkina Faso−10.5−12.3−11.2−9.9−8.9−10.4−11.4−10.3−11.4−10.9
Burundi−5.0−8.6−4.6−3.5−4.6−8.1−9.6−12.0−14.2−11.4
Cameroon−3.5−1.4−3.6−5.1−1.8−3.8−3.3−0.7−1.5−3.1
Cape Verde−13.7−10.9−10.6−11.1−11.1−14.3−3.4−6.5−12.6−16.7
Central African Republic−1.6−1.3−1.7−1.6−2.1−1.8−6.5−3.8−3.4−4.3
Chad−13.5−20.5−35.4−95.2−47.2−12.0−5.5−6.3−1.0−3.1
Comoros−6.81.73.0−1.4−3.1−2.9−3.4−5.6−3.7−4.8
Congo, Dem. Rep. of−2.6−4.0−4.0−1.61.0−2.4−10.6−7.5−8.1−10.9
Congo, Rep. of−17.27.9−5.60.61.52.011.212.84.96.8
Côte d’Ivoire−1.4−2.8−0.66.72.11.60.23.02.61.3
Djibouti−4.3−9.6−3.4−1.63.4−1.31.2−8.9−14.5−18.8
Equatorial Guinea−29.5−15.7−40.80.1−33.3−21.9−5.54.43.46.3
Eritrea−17.90.54.27.47.65.60.4−2.1−3.7−1.9
Ethiopia−6.7−4.2−3.0−4.7−1.4−4.2−6.8−10.4−5.9−3.0
Gabon8.419.711.06.89.511.220.219.715.216.7
Gambia, The−2.8−4.1−3.3−3.6−7.1−11.0−25.5−19.8−21.8−18.6
Ghana−11.6−8.4−5.30.51.7−2.7−7.0−9.7−9.7−7.7
Guinea−6.9−6.4−2.7−2.5−3.4−5.8−4.5−5.9−8.7−12.0
Guinea-Bissau−13.3−5.6−22.1−10.7−2.83.1−7.3−12.2−12.7−5.0
Kenya−1.8−2.3−3.12.2−0.20.1−0.8−2.4−3.7−5.1
Lesotho−23.6−18.0−12.4−19.4−12.3−5.5−7.04.41.60.7
Liberia−20.2−17.11.0−14.1−5.6−9.4−28.3−24.3−43.4
Madagascar−5.6−5.6−1.3−6.0−4.9−9.1−10.9−8.6−19.7−23.5
Malawi−8.3−5.3−6.8−12.9−7.2−7.3−11.6−6.2−3.0−2.9
Mali−8.5−10.0−10.4−3.1−6.2−8.4−8.3−4.9−4.5−4.7
Mauritania−2.5−9.0−11.73.0−13.6−34.6−47.2−1.3−6.8−7.0
Mauritius−1.6−1.53.45.72.40.8−3.5−5.3−8.8−7.6
Morocco−0.4−1.34.33.63.21.72.43.40.70.2
Mozambique, Rep. of−22.0−18.2−19.4−19.3−15.1−8.6−10.7−7.8−9.1−8.8
Namibia6.910.51.54.45.19.57.215.018.512.8
Niger−6.5−6.2−4.8−6.3−8.3−7.8−9.4−8.6−11.0−10.8
Nigeria−8.411.74.5−11.7−2.75.39.312.21.86.0
Rwanda−7.7−5.0−5.9−6.7−7.8−3.0−3.2−7.5−7.3−6.5
São Tomé and Príncipe−15.7−17.5−16.4−13.9−11.4−13.8−19.4−45.9−41.2−42.0
Senegal−4.8−6.6−4.4−5.7−6.1−6.1−7.8−10.1−9.6−9.8
Seychelles−19.8−7.3−23.4−16.36.4−0.3−27.6−23.2−30.4−32.4
Sierra Leone−7.9−8.8−6.3−2.0−4.8−5.8−7.1−5.7−6.7−10.0
South Africa−0.5−0.10.30.8−1.1−3.2−4.0−6.5−6.7−6.4
Sudan−8.8−8.2−12.5−10.3−7.8−6.5−10.7−14.7−10.7−8.5
Swaziland−2.6−5.4−4.54.86.53.11.61.60.2−1.1
Tanzania−9.9−5.3−5.0−6.8−4.7−3.9−4.5−8.6−10.6−10.8
Togo−3.4−9.0−9.3−5.4−4.2−3.0−5.3−6.0−6.4−6.3
Tunisia−2.2−4.2−5.1−3.5−2.9−2.0−1.1−2.3−2.6−2.7
Uganda−9.4−7.1−3.8−4.9−5.8−1.2−2.1−4.1−2.4−6.3
Zambia−13.7−18.2−19.9−15.3−14.8−11.8−10.00.5−0.5−2.0
Zimbabwe12.80.4−0.3−0.6−2.9−8.3−11.2−4.0−0.9
Central and eastern Europe4.45.32.73.54.55.95.26.67.37.5
Albania2.2−3.6−3.6−7.1−5.3−3.9−6.5−5.9−7.4−6.5
Bosnia and Herzegovina8.3−7.5−13.3−19.1−20.9−19.7−21.7−11.5−15.3−15.0
Bulgaria−5.0−5.6−5.6−2.4−5.5−6.6−12.0−15.8−20.3−19.0
Croatia−7.1−2.5−3.6−8.3−6.1−5.1−6.4−7.8−8.4−8.8
Czech Republic−2.4−4.7−5.3−5.7−6.3−5.2−1.6−3.1−3.4−3.5
Estonia−4.4−5.4−5.2−10.6−11.3−12.3−10.0−15.5−16.9−15.9
Hungary−7.8−8.4−6.0−7.0−7.9−8.4−6.8−6.5−5.6−5.1
Latvia−8.9−4.8−7.6−6.6−8.2−12.9−12.6−21.1−25.3−27.3
Lithuania−11.0−5.9−4.7−5.2−6.9−7.7−7.1−10.9−14.0−12.6
Macedonia, FYR−2.7−1.9−7.2−9.4−3.3−7.7−1.3−0.4−2.8−5.9
Malta−3.7−12.5−3.82.7−2.8−6.3−8.0−6.1−9.4−8.2
Poland−7.4−5.8−2.8−2.5−2.1−4.2−1.7−2.3−3.7−5.1
Romania−4.1−3.7−5.5−3.3−5.8−8.4−8.7−10.3−13.8−13.2
Serbia−4.1−1.7−2.4−7.9−7.0−11.7−8.5−11.5−14.7−15.0
Slovak Republic−4.8−3.3−8.3−8.0−6.0−7.8−8.6−8.3−5.3−4.5
Turkey−0.7−5.02.4−0.8−3.3−5.2−6.2−7.9−7.5−7.0
Commonwealth of Independent States28.213.68.06.56.38.28.87.64.83.0
Russia12.618.011.18.48.210.111.19.75.93.3
Excluding Russia−0.91.5−0.80.90.42.21.61.01.21.9
Armenia−16.6−14.6−9.5−6.2−6.8−4.5−3.9−1.4−4.0−4.2
Azerbaijan−13.1−3.5−0.9−12.3−27.8−29.81.315.731.439.9
Belarus−1.6−2.7−3.2−2.1−2.4−5.21.6−4.1−7.9−8.1
Georgia−10.0−7.9−6.4−8.4−9.3−12.2−9.8−13.8−15.7−15.2
Kazakhstan−0.23.0−5.4−4.2−0.90.8−1.8−2.2−2.2−1.1
Kyrgyz Republic−14.5−4.3−1.5−4.0−2.24.93.2−6.6−17.9−15.1
Moldova−5.8−7.6−1.7−4.0−6.6−2.3−10.3−12.0−8.0−7.3
Mongolia−5.8−5.0−6.6−8.5−6.81.51.37.02.1−18.0
Tajikistan−0.9−1.6−4.9−3.5−1.3−3.9−2.5−2.9−11.6−12.6
Turkmenistan−14.88.21.76.72.70.65.115.313.012.5
Ukraine5.34.73.77.55.810.62.9−1.5−3.5−6.2
Uzbekistan−1.01.8−1.01.28.710.113.618.821.121.0
Developing Asia1.81.71.52.42.82.64.15.96.97.0
Afghanistan, Rep. of−3.73.03.70.5−1.4−1.4−2.4
Bangladesh−0.9−1.4−0.90.30.3−0.31.21.30.8
Bhutan−4.2−9.7−11.2−13.6−12.5−20.1−14.94.410.36.6
Brunei Darussalam33.748.651.542.549.647.956.055.255.255.9
Cambodia−5.0−2.8−1.2−2.4−3.6−2.2−4.2−2.0−2.8−4.4
China1.41.71.32.42.83.67.29.411.712.2
Fiji−3.8−5.7−3.3−1.6−3.6−11.0−10.8−20.0−22.8−21.3
India−0.7−1.00.31.41.50.1−1.0−1.1−2.1−2.6
Indonesia3.74.84.34.03.50.60.12.71.61.2
Kiribati16.5−1.222.010.712.5−3.0−39.9−37.9−50.7−51.7
Lao PDR−4.0−10.6−8.2−7.2−8.1−14.3−20.2−13.3−22.9−21.1
Malaysia15.99.48.38.412.712.615.317.214.413.3
Maldives−13.4−8.2−9.4−5.6−4.6−16.5−35.8−40.7−40.5−36.6
Myanmar−5.9−0.8−2.40.2−1.02.43.77.26.94.8
Nepal4.33.24.54.22.42.72.02.22.52.4
Pakistan−2.6−0.30.43.94.91.8−1.4−3.9−4.9−4.9
Papua New Guinea2.88.56.5−1.04.52.23.95.37.84.0
Philippines−3.8−2.9−2.5−0.50.41.92.04.33.82.6
Samoa2.01.00.1−1.1−1.00.52.4−6.2−6.2−1.0
Solomon Islands4.3−10.6−10.9−10.2−2.53.1−24.2−26.5−40.0−27.5
Sri Lanka−3.6−6.5−1.1−1.4−0.4−3.2−2.8−5.0−5.1−4.8
Thailand10.27.64.43.73.41.7−4.51.63.72.2
Timor-Leste, Dem. Rep. of2.1−60.2−52.8−37.2−25.430.483.6118.2149.7172.2
Tonga−0.6−6.2−9.55.1−3.14.2−2.6−8.2−10.5−19.0
Vanuatu−4.92.02.0−9.7−10.7−7.3−10.0−8.0−13.2−13.7
Vietnam4.52.31.6−1.9−4.9−3.4−0.9−0.3−3.2−3.2
Middle East2.711.46.34.88.311.719.419.716.716.0
Bahrain−0.310.63.0−0.42.34.011.912.817.215.2
Egypt−1.9−1.20.72.44.33.20.81.40.8
Iran, I.R. of6.313.05.23.10.60.98.88.77.66.6
Iraq
Jordan5.00.7−0.15.611.6−17.9−14.0−12.6−11.9
Kuwait16.838.923.911.219.730.640.543.037.835.3
Lebanon−19.0−17.2−19.3−14.2−13.2−15.5−13.6−6.2−10.6−9.4
Libya14.032.213.33.321.524.341.648.129.930.7
Oman−2.915.59.86.93.91.28.78.44.17.1
Qatar12.523.227.321.925.322.433.431.033.835.7
Saudi Arabia0.37.65.16.313.120.728.527.422.220.1
Syrian Arab Republic1.65.25.77.20.8−3.2−4.1−6.1−5.6−6.6
United Arab Emirates1.617.39.55.08.610.018.322.022.623.0
Yemen, Rep. of7.213.86.84.11.51.63.83.2−2.9−0.6
Western Hemisphere3.12.42.80.90.41.01.41.50.6
Antigua and Barbuda−3.1−3.2−8.0−11.5−12.9−8.3−11.9−16.5−14.2−10.7
Argentina−4.2−3.2−1.48.96.32.11.92.50.90.4
Bahamas, The−5.1−10.4−11.6−7.8−8.6−5.4−14.3−25.4−21.1−16.5
Barbados−5.9−5.7−4.4−6.8−6.3−12.4−12.5−8.4−8.6−8.5
Belize−10.1−20.3−21.9−17.7−18.2−14.8−14.4−2.0−3.0−3.1
Bolivia−5.9−5.3−3.4−4.11.03.86.511.715.19.9
Brazil−4.3−3.8−4.2−1.50.81.81.61.20.80.3
Chile0.1−1.2−1.6−0.9−1.12.21.13.63.72.3
Colombia0.80.9−1.3−1.7−1.2−0.9−1.5−2.1−3.9−3.5
Costa Rica−3.8−4.3−3.7−5.1−5.0−4.3−4.8−4.9−4.8−5.0
Dominica−20.3−23.2−22.0−16.1−15.3−20.3−34.7−22.8−20.0−22.6
Dominican Republic−2.4−5.1−3.4−3.76.06.1−1.4−3.2−3.4−2.3
Ecuador4.65.3−3.2−4.8−1.5−1.70.83.62.42.5
El Salvador−1.9−3.3−1.1−2.8−4.7−4.0−4.6−4.7−4.9−5.0
Grenada−14.1−21.5−26.6−32.0−32.3−12.4−24.7−23.9−28.5−25.1
Guatemala−6.2−6.1−6.7−5.9−4.7−5.1−5.1−5.2−5.1−4.7
Guyana−8.1−14.1−15.7−13.4−8.8−6.2−15.5−17.5−19.7−17.0
Haiti−0.7−1.2−1.9−1.3−1.6−1.51.80.62.11.5
Honduras−4.4−3.9−4.1−3.1−4.0−6.0−0.9−1.6−5.5−5.0
Jamaica−3.9−4.9−10.7−10.3−9.4−5.8−11.2−11.1−10.9−10.8
Mexico−2.9−3.2−2.8−2.2−1.4−1.0−0.6−0.3−0.7−1.1
Nicaragua−24.9−20.1−19.4−17.7−15.7−12.6−14.9−15.8−15.8−16.3
Panama−10.1−5.9−1.5−0.8−4.5−7.5−5.0−3.8−5.4−6.6
Paraguay−2.3−2.3−4.11.82.32.0