- International Monetary Fund
- Published Date:
- September 1986
© 1986 International Monetary Fund
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Fund-supported programs fiscal policy, and income distribution.
(Occasional papers / International Monetary Fund: no. 46)
1. International Monetary Fund. 2. Economic development projects—Developing countries. 3. Developing countries—Economic policy. 4. Fiscal policy—Developing countries. 5. Income distribution—Developing countries. I. International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept. II. Series: Occasional papers (International Monetary Fund); no. 46.
HG3881.5. I58F88 1986 339.5’09172’4 86-18585 ISBN 9780939934645
(US$4.50 to university libraries, faculty members, and students)
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External Relations Department, Publications Unit
International Monetary Fund, Washington, D.C. 20431
- I. Introduction
- II. Methodological Problems and the Counterfactual Argument
- III. An Overview of Macroeconomic Measures in Fund-Supported Adjustment Programs
- IV. Revenue Policies
- V. The Impact of Government Expenditure on Income Distribution
- VI. Policies Regarding Subsidies and State Enterprises and Their Relationship to the Pricing System
- VII. Debt Financing and Distribution
- VIII. Lessons from the Review
- I. Incidence Analyses and Income Redistribution
- II. Some Empirical Evidence on Price and Subsidy Policy
- III. A Review of Policies in Fund Programs, 1980–84
- III. 1. External Sector Policies Employed in Fund-Supported Adjustment Programs
- IV. 4. Administrative Improvements and Direct Tax Policies Employed in Fund-Supported Adjustment Programs
- V. 6. Expenditure Policies Relating to Functional Expenditure in Fund-Supported Adjustment Programs
- VI. 8. Expenditure Policies for Transfers and Subsidies in Fund-Supported Adjustment Programs
- VII. 10. External Debt Policies Employed in Fund-Supported Adjustment Programs
- III. 11. Programs Supported Under Stand-By and Extended Arrangements Approved in 1980–84
The following symbols have been used throughout this paper:
- ... to indicate that data are not available;
- — to indicate that the figure is zero or less than half the final digit shown, or that the item does not exist;
- – between years or months (e.g., 1979–81 or January-June) to indicate the years or months covered, including the beginning and ending years or months;
- / between years (e.g., 1980/81) to indicate a crop or fiscal (financial) year.
“Billion” means a thousand million.
Minor discrepancies between constituent figures and totals are due to rounding.
This is the third in a group of three papers dealing with various aspects of Fund-supported adjustment programs. The other two, Fund-Supported Adjustment Programs and Economic Growth by Mohsin Kahn and Malcolm D. Knight, of the Fund’s Research Department, and The Global Effects of Fund-Supported Adjustment Programs by Morris Goldstein, also of the Research Department, were published earlier in the Fund’s Occasional Paper Series. The three papers were the basis for a discussion at a seminar held in the Fund’s Executive Board in September 1985, and the published versions reflect the comments and suggestions made at that time by Executive Directors. The views expressed in the present study are the authors’ alone, however, and should not necessarily be attributed to Executive Directors or to the Fund.
Many staff members of the Fiscal Affairs Department participated in the preparation of this study. It was therefore truly a departmental effort. Those who contributed specific sections were Ved Gandhi, Peter Heller, Arigapudi Premchand, Bassirou Sarr, Robert Schneider, Parthasarathi Shome, Charles Sisson, Alan Tait, and Christopher Yandle. Mr. Sarr prepared the survey of Fund-supported programs. Mr. Sisson integrated the various parts and comments in a more homogenous whole. Mr. Tait was the project coordinator. Juanita Roushdy, of the External Relations Department, edited the study.