Information about Sub-Saharan Africa África subsahariana
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Back Matter

Author(s):
Arvind Subramanian
Published Date:
September 2000
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Information about Sub-Saharan Africa África subsahariana
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1Throughout this paper, the ESA region will comprise the following 22 countries: Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Comoros, Democratic Republic of Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.
2Middle-income countries are defined by the World Bank as those with a 1998 per capita GNP of between US$760 and US$9,360.
3The trade restrictiveness index is a modified version of the one used in Sharer and others (1998), and is based on a classification system for nontariff barriers and for import and export taxes (sec Appendix I).
4For example, in the case of South Africa and its partners in SACU, the maximum tariff was 1,389 percent, there were more than 13,000 tariff lines, and the effective protection ranged from—411 to 189 percent. While extreme. South Africa’s case was not atypical, as Malawi, Mauritius, and Ethiopia also had highly distorted tariff structures.
5Of the 22 countries in the ESA region, 14 had programs with the IMF during the 1990s. The SACU countries (excluding Lesotho), Angola, Eritrea, Mauritius, and the Seychelles did not have programs with the Fund (see Appendix II, Table A2).
6While some countries—Zambia, for example—embarked on a liberalization program that encompassed both tariff and nontariff barriers, some of the other reformers, such as Tanzania, gave priority to the elimination of nontariff barriers and reduced tariffs at a later stage.
7Tentative evidence derived from developments in tariff collection ratios and a categorization of countries on the basis of the Sachs-Warner criterion suggest that the gap between ESA countries and the rest of the world has narrowed considerably since the late 1980s (Appendix II, Table A3).
8Specific revisions to tariff schedules may have prevented reductions in effective protection for important sectors of the economy. In the case of South Africa, the top rate of effective protection increased from 189 percent at the beginning of the decade to 204 percent in 1998, despite the overall trade liberalization achieved during this period.
9With the notable exception of the SACU, which had applied 72 tariff bands by end-1998.
10Zambia and Mozambique have also moved closer to Article VIII status in 1999. However, capital account liberalization has not featured prominently in the reform agenda of most countries in the region. Except for Mauritius, Uganda, and Zambia, several capital account controls are still in place in most countries.
11Including exemptions on imports by nongovernmental organizations and those financed by foreign donors, which usually cover a large part of total imports.
12In Mauritius, the share of exempted imports in total imports increased by about 10 percent during the 1990s. In Tanzania, the scope of exemptions has also increased in recent years, as evidenced by the rise in the ratio of forgone revenue relating to exemptions to total import taxes assessed (including exemptions), from 24 percent in 1993 to 48 percent in 1997–98. In Mozambique and Zambia, the authorities have emphasized recently the use of discretionary exemptions in an attempt to promote foreign investment.
13See, for instance, Rodrik (1998).
14Zambia introduced an across-the-board 5 percent import declaration fee in 1995 for fiscal reasons, which was eliminated in 1998. Also, an import ban on wheat flour, introduced in 1997, was lifted in the following year. The 10 percent export levy on tobacco, tea, and sugar introduced by Malawi in 1995 for fiscal reasons was eliminated in 1998. In Tanzania, some of the tariff increases in creases in 1992 were reversed during See. for instance, Rodrik (1998).
15Binding represents a legal commitment by a country not to raise tariffs above a specified level. If a binding is breached by a country it has to compensate partner countries or face retaliation by them.
16Computed as Hi, = Σj=1,…S(Sjj=1,….SSj)2, where Sj is the sum of deposits and loans for bank j. As defined, the index equals one in the case of a monopoly and 0 in the case of equal shares. An index value higher than 0.3 is normally associated with an imperfect market structure.
17The liberalization index corresponds to the bound rather than the applied level of access, and, therefore, does not necessarily correlate with how liberal actual conditions are.
18Tanzaiiia will withdraw from COMESA effective September 2000.
19Angola, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and the Seychelles are the only three countries that are not signatories of the protocol, though Angola and Seychelles have signaled Their intention to accede to it in the near future.
20ESA countries that are net importers of foodstuffs could also be affected by the increase in prices brought about by the reduction in subsidization of agricultural products. This increase is, however, expected to be small.
21These preferences stem from various arrangements between industrial countries and ESA countries, such as the Generalized System of Preferences between the European Union. Japan, and the United States, on the one hand, and developing countries, on the other. There are also the Lomé Convention, involving the EU and several low-income countries, including ESA countries, and others, such as the Multi-Fiber Arrangement, under which several ESA countries have special quotas for the export of textiles and clothing products.
22Tariff escalation is a phenomenon whereby tariffs increase with the stage of processing.
23This result is based on Yeats (1998) and covers eight ESA countries for which reliable data are available at a disaggregated level. The countries are Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, South Africa, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The non-ESA sub-Saharan African countries covered are Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Gabon, Côte d’lvoire, and Senegal.
24According to Amjadi and Yeats (1995), net payments on freight and insurance by sub-Saharan African countries were in 1990–91 equivalent to about 15 percent of exports of goods and services, more than twice as high as in other developing countries. In landlocked countries such as Malawi and Uganda, the ratio was well above 50 percent.
25The single-product and three-product concentration ratios measure the share of total exports accounted for by the largest and the three largest export items, respectively.
26The following variables are analyzed: GDP growth, GDP per capita growth, growth in export volume, inflation performance, the fiscal balances, the current account balance (the latter two excluding grants and expressed as a share of GDP), and indicators of trade revenue dependency. The Democratic Republic of Congo and Eritrea are excluded from the analysis because their macroeconomic data are either unavailable or highly distorted by the recent wars in these countries.
27In virtually all cases, those countries that had open trade regimes in 1998 were also the ones that undertook the most liberalization since the beginning of the decade.
28The BLNS countries are excluded from the analysis here because their “trade taxes” largely represent transfers from South Africa under the revenue-sharing arrangements in SACU.
29The African Growth and Opportunity Act, enacted by the U.S. Congress in early 2000, provides for duty-free treatment of the exports of sub-Saharan African countries to the United States. The magnitude of benefits to these countries, especially in relation to textiles and clothing products, will be determined by rules of origin requirements that need to be fulfilled to qualify for duty-free access. An interesting feature of the Act is that it envisages the possible negotiation of free trade agreements between the United States and African countries in the future.
30Tariff escalation is significant for many product chains relevant to sub-Saharan African countries, such as wood products, textiles and clothing, fish, and leather products (Amjadi, Reinke, and Yeats, 1996).
31Pre-Uruguay Round tariffs facing sub-Saharan African countries’ exports to the EU. United Stales, and Japan averaged only 0.31 percent, less than for any other group of developing countries (Amjadi, Reinke, and Yeats. 1996).
Appendix I Overall Trade Restrictiveness Classification Scheme

As noted in Sharer and others (1998), the restrictiveness of the tariff regime depends on many factors, including the minimum and maximum tariff rates, the number of bands, the allocation of individual items to the bands, the existence of “exceptional” rates that lie outside the basic tariff structure, any other duties and charges (such as differential rates of excise or value-added taxes on imports, import surcharges, and statistical fees), and the extent of exemptions from customs duties. The classification scheme for overall trade restrictiveness used in this study builds on the approach developed by Sharer and others by including information on export taxes and by adding another category of nontariff barrier (NTB) restrictiveness.

Under this approach, a country is assigned a restrictiveness ranking for both its price-based (import tariffs and export taxes) measures and its NTBs, based on the classification schemes described below. Consistent with the Lerner theorem that an export tax is equivalent to an import tax, the price-based measure is computed as the sum of import and export taxes. Whenever possible, an unweighted average of statutory tariff rates including other duties and charges was used. An average of statutory tariff rates is preferable to one based on customs collections since the latter reflects (often extensive) exemptions. An unweighted average is preferable to a trade-weighted average since items with high tariffs are likely to have small trade weights. Other duties and charges should also be included. The restrictiveness ranking accords greater weight to NTBs, which are inherently less transparent and more distortionary than tariffs.

NTBs include quantitative restrictions, restructure licensing, bans, state trading monopolies, restrictive foreign exchange practices that affect the trade regime (for example, a surrender requirement at a non-market exchange rate, multiple exchange rates), quality controls, and customs procedures that act as trade restrictions. Such measures in effect provide indirect subsidies to import-competing domestic producers in a nontransparent manner. However, information on NTBs and their restrictiveness as measured, for instance, by ad valorem equivalents.1 may either not be available for all countries or be of limited use,2 A review of previous studies on trade reform in developing countries below shows that other researchers have faced similar difficulties. In view of this, this study utilizes four categories of NTBs (see table above).

Overall Trade Restrictiveness Classification Scheme
Trade Taxes2Absolutely No

Restrictions
Nontariff Barriers1Pervasive

Restrictions;

Greater than

40 Percent

Coverage3
Few Restrictions;

0–20 Percent

Coverage3
Substantial

Restrictions;

20–40 Percent

Coverage3
<10 percent1357
10 to 15 percent2468
15 to 20 percent3579
20 to 25 percent46810
25 to 35 percent57910
>35 percent10101010

Includes restrictions on exports and imports and other NTBs.

includes customs duties and all other charges levied exclusively on imports, as well as export taxes.

Refers to the share of total trade being affected by NTBs.

Includes restrictions on exports and imports and other NTBs.

includes customs duties and all other charges levied exclusively on imports, as well as export taxes.

Refers to the share of total trade being affected by NTBs.

The table illustrates the assignment of price-based and NTB categories on the 10-point scale. A country is assigned an overall rating of 10 as long as the average tariff rate exceeds 35 percent, even if the nontariff trade regime is classified as open. Countries with an overall rating of between 7 and 10 are classified as restrictive; those with a 5 or a 6 rating are classified as moderately restrictive; those with 3 or 4 as moderately open; and those with 1 or 2 as open.

1The ad valorem equivalent of an import quota is the rate of advalorem tariff that would yield the same import quantity as the quota. There are many circumstances in which import quotas and import tariffs are not equivalent, including imperfect market structures and changes in supply and demand.
2Trade or production coverage of NTBs may be useful but does not fully capture their restrictiveness.
Appendix II Statistical Tables
Table A1Eastern and Southern Africa: Structure of Production (Constant Prices), 1985–971
AgricultureIndustryServices
198519901997198519901997198519901997
Angola14.012.28.250.254.168.035.433.926.0
Botswana25.65.54.568.154.550.643.045.155.8
Burundi50.248.851.222.722.717.328.229.930.2
Comoros38.342.244.515.79.614.657.357.555.1
Congo, Dem. Rep. of30.032.761.835.727.617.443.743.121.7
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Kenya35.734.430.716.316.415.748.549.553.5
Lesotho23.520.712.323.730.939.157.751.248.6
Madagascar30.631.232.414.013.613.755.955.654.0
Malawi29.426.736.319.320.917.551.853.943.7
Mauritius17.612.89.427.832.933.155.354.757.5
Mozambique33.526.330.239.019.526.427.554.143.4
Namibia10.012.011.333.631.232.156.157.256.8
Rwanda43.139.636.424.022.624.232.937.839.1
Seychelles38.05.021.535.4102.188.0
South Africa4.55.05.341.940.338.753.254.556.0
Swaziland32.022.517.123.741.243.551.638.939.9
Tanzania444.344.346.622.622.921.433.433.231.9
Uganda57.856.446.010.011.316.933.032.936.8
Zambia22.924.016.046.149.335.643.239.862.1
Zimbabwe18.716.116.633.134.328.148.449.855.3
Eastern and Southern Africa
(weighted)11.112.213.138.136.035.549.549.752.1
Eastern and Southern Africa (unweighted)28.526.126.129.928.929.545.148.747.8
Sub-Saharan Africa18.419.220.137.035.733.847.147.047.4
Middle Income5n.a.12.913.238.041.950.654.3
Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators, 1999.

Ratio of appropriate sectoral variable to GDP at factor cost. All averages are unweighted unless indicated otherwise. In a few cases, shares do not add up to 100.

Final period refers to 1995.

Initial period refers to 1988.

Initial period refers to 1988 and final period to 1996.

Initial period refers to 1988.

Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators, 1999.

Ratio of appropriate sectoral variable to GDP at factor cost. All averages are unweighted unless indicated otherwise. In a few cases, shares do not add up to 100.

Final period refers to 1995.

Initial period refers to 1988.

Initial period refers to 1988 and final period to 1996.

Initial period refers to 1988.

Table A2.Eastern and Southern Africa: Countries with IMF Arrangements During the 1990s
1990199119921993199419951996199719981999
Angola
Botswana
Burundi
Comoros
Congo. Dem, Rep. of
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Kenya
Lesotho
Madagascar
Malawi
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Rwanda
Seychelles
South Africa
Swaziland
Tanzania
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
Source: IMF, international Financial Statistics.
Source: IMF, international Financial Statistics.
Table A3.Sachs-Warner Classification of Trade Policy of ESA Countries, 1980s and 1990s
1980s OverallLate 1990s 1 Overall
AngolaOpenClosed
BotswanaOpen
BurundiClosedClosed
ComorosClosed
Congo, Dem. Rep. ofClosedOpen
EthiopiaClosedOpen
KenyaClosedOpen
LesothoOpen
MadagascarOpen
MalawiClosedOpen
MauritiusOpenOpen
MozambiqueClosedOpen
NamibiaOpen
RwandaClosedOpen
SeychellesClosed
South AfricaClosedOpen
SwazilandOpen
TanzaniaClosedOpen
UgandaClosedOpen
ZambiaClosedOpen
ZimbabweClosedClosed
No. of “open” countries in ESA217
Total countries in ESA1421
No.of “open” countries in SSA718
Total countries in SSA2525
No.of “open” countries in Asia711
Total countries in Asia1515
No.of “open” countries in Middle East
and North Africa21
Total countries in Middle East and North Africa99
No. of “open” countries in W. Hemisphere322
Total countries in Western Hemisphere2222
No.of “open” industrial countries2224
Total industrial countries2424

IMF staff’s calculations applying the Sachs-Warner criterion for tariffs and nontariff barriers. That is, a country is classified as closed if its NTBs covered 40 percent or more of the value of trade or if its average tariff exceeded 40 percent.

IMF staff’s calculations applying the Sachs-Warner criterion for tariffs and nontariff barriers. That is, a country is classified as closed if its NTBs covered 40 percent or more of the value of trade or if its average tariff exceeded 40 percent.

Table A4Eastern and Southern Africa: Current Account Exchange Restrictions, 1990 and 1999
Article VIII StatusDate of
1990119991Acceptance
Angolanono
BotswananoyesNov. 1995
Burundinono
ComorosnoyesJun. 1996
Congo, Dem. Rep. ofnono
Eritreanono
Ethiopianono
KenyanoyesJun. 1994
LesothonoyesMar. 1997
MadagascarnoyesSep. 1996
MalawinoyesDec. 1995
MauritiusnoyesSep. 1993
Mozambiquenono
NamibianoyesSep. 1996
RwandanoyesDec. 1998
SeychellesyesyesJan. 1978
South AfricayesyesSep.1973
SwazilandyesyesDec.1989
TanzanianoyesJul. 1996
UgandanoyesApr. 1994
Zambianono
ZimbabwenoyesFeb. 1995
Total “yes”315
In percent of total1468
Memorandum item
IMF membership24681
Sources: IMF (1991); and IMF (2000).

As of December 31.

As of December 31, 1999, in percent of total.

Sources: IMF (1991); and IMF (2000).

As of December 31.

As of December 31, 1999, in percent of total.

Table A5Eastern and Southern Africa: Nontariff Barriers to Imports, December 1998
Quantitative RestrictionsRestrictive Licensing

Requirements
Import State

Trading

Monopolies
Other1
BansQuotasFor all

produccs
For some

produccs
AngolaNoNoyesYesNoNo
BotswanaNoYesNoYesNoNo
BurundiNoNoNoNoNoYes
ComorosNoNoNoNoYesNo
EritreaYesNoNoYesYesNo
EthiopiaNoNoNoYesYesNo
KenyaNoNoNoNoNoNo
LesothoNoNoNoNoNoNo
MadagascarNoNoNoNoNoNo
MalawiNoNoNoNoNoNo
MauritiusNoNoNoNoYesNo
MozambiqueNoNoNoNoNoYes
NamibiaNoYesNoYesYesNo
RwandaNoNoNoNoNoNo
SeychellesNoYesYesYesNo
South AfricaNoNoNoNoNoYes
SwazilandNoNoNoNoYesNo
TanzaniaNoNoNoNoYesNo
UgandaYesNoNoNoNoNo
ZambiaNoNoNoNoNoNo
ZimbabweNoNoNoYesYesNo
Sources: World Bank and IMF staff reports; and data provided by the authorities.

Includes countervailing duties, dumping, etc.

Sources: World Bank and IMF staff reports; and data provided by the authorities.

Includes countervailing duties, dumping, etc.

Table A6Eastern and Southern Africa: Nontariff Barriers to Exports, December 1998
Quantitative RestrictionsLicensing1DutiesMarketing

Monopolies
BansQuotas
AngolaNoNoYesYesNo
BotswanaNoNo2Yes3NoYes
BurundiNoNoNoYesYes
ComorosNoNoNoYesNo
EritreaYesNoNoNoNo
EthiopiaNoNoYesYesNo
KenyaNoNoYesNoYes
LesothoNoNoNo2NoNo
MadagascarNoNoNoNoNo
MalawiNoNoNoNoNo
MauritiusNoNoNoNoNo
MozambiqueNoNoNoYesNo
NamibiaNoNo2Yes3NoYes
RwandaNoNoNoYesNo
SeychellesNoNoNoNoNo
SwazilandNoNoNoyesYes
South AfricaNoNoNoYesNo
TanzaniaNoNoNoNoNo
UgandaNoNoNoNoNo
ZambiaYesNoNoNoNo
ZimbabweNoYesYesNoYes
Sources: World Bank and IMF staff reports; and data provided by the authorities.

Only for restrictive (and not for statistical) purposes.

Except for diamonds.

All exports, except to SACU member countries, require a license. Within SACU, textiles and meat products require a license.

Sources: World Bank and IMF staff reports; and data provided by the authorities.

Only for restrictive (and not for statistical) purposes.

Except for diamonds.

All exports, except to SACU member countries, require a license. Within SACU, textiles and meat products require a license.

Table A7Eastern and Southern Africa: Summary of Uruguay Round Commitments in Agriculture and Industry
Agriculture
Average

bound

duty
Average

bound

ODC1
Total

average

tariff

binding

(duty+ODC)
Industry
Previous

bindings
Share of

lines bound

in UR
Average

bound duty
Average

bound

ODC
Total average

binding

(Duty+ODC)
Actual tariffsGap between bound and actual
(Early 1990s)(1998)(Early 1990s)(1998)
(Percent)(Percent of lines(Percent)
Angola800.18004800.18024245656
Botswana4040316817174515-282
Burundi1003013021003013039419189
Kenya1003013025405444191035
Madagascar3025028011302502803015250262
Malawi12420144447206718124955
Mauritius120171350265178234194863
Mozambique10030040002803003801910362370
Namibia400403168170174515-282
Rwanda808010010010035226578
south Africa4040179817174515-282
swaziland4040316817174515-282
Tanzania12012024000.11201202402520215220
Uganda800800350501893241
Zambia1240124442423714528
Zimbabwe146151618138296630323634
Sources: Sorsa (1996); and IMF staff estimates.

Other duties and charges.

Sources: Sorsa (1996); and IMF staff estimates.

Other duties and charges.

Table A8Eastern and Southern Africa: Commitments Undertaken in Trade in Services in the WTO
BusinessCommunicationsConstructionDistributionEducationalEnvironmentalFinancialHealth and SocialTourism and TravelRecreationalTransportOtherTotal
Angola3
Burundi5
Botswana3
Congo, Dem. Rep. of2
Kenya5
Lesotho10
Madagascar1
Malawi5
Mauritius3
Mozambique1
Namibia2
Rwanda5
South Africa9
Swaziland3
Tanzania1
Uganda2
Zambia4
Zimbabwe3
Total1075323841633367
Source: Based on schedules of commitments submitted to the WTO.
Source: Based on schedules of commitments submitted to the WTO.
Table A9SADC: Intraregional and Extraregional Trade
ImportsExports
199019941999199019941999
(Millions of U.S.)
SADC trade
Intraregional11,5313,0424,7051,0582,9554,403
By SACU from/to rest of SADC region795605714022,0043,135
By rest of SADC region from/to SACU9742,0343,473173442619
Between rest of SADC region478448661484508650
Extraregional27,66731,11535,52133,32731,97048,330
Rest of Africa3813276301,2246331,162
EU12,50213,39315,6659,2777,65614,880
United States3,0674,4564,0474,3673,8966,171
Japan2,3782,9322,2222,0741,5932,477
Rest of world9,33910,00812,95716,38518,19223,640
Total29,19934,15840,22634,38634,92452,733
(Percent of total)
SADC trade
Intraregional5.28.911.73.18.58.3
By SACU from/to rest of SADC region0.31.61.41.25.75.9
By rest of SADC region from/to SACU3.36.08.60.51.31.2
Between rest of SADC region1.61.31.61.41.51.2
Extraregional94.891.188.396.991.591.7
Rest of Africa1.31.01.63.61.82.2
EU42.839.238.927.021.928.2
United States10.513.010.112.711.711.7
Japan8.18.65.56.04.64.7
Rest of world32.029.332.247.752.144.8
Total100100100100100100
(Percent of GDP)
Memorandum items
Intraregional0.91.72.60.61.72.5
Extraregional16.917.619.920.418.027.0
Total17.919.322.521.019.729.5
Source: IMF Direction of Trade Statistics

Import and export data differ mainly because partner country data are used directly or indirectly in estimating missing figures. Imports are measured c.i.f., exports are measured f.o.b.

Source: IMF Direction of Trade Statistics

Import and export data differ mainly because partner country data are used directly or indirectly in estimating missing figures. Imports are measured c.i.f., exports are measured f.o.b.

Table A10COMESA: Intraregional and Extraregional Trade
ImportsExports
199019941999199019941999
(Miffions of U.S. dollars)
COMESA trade
Intraregional11,0151,0541,6248999851,616
Extraregiorial25,29625,07942,32013,94415,33019,780
South Africa9821,8543,932169428696
Rest of Africa388315291320495205
EU11,5859,32815,9155,4855,8098,695
United States2,3022,6634,2592,9393,2313,923
Japan1,3051,2701,845588592711
Rest of world8,7339,64916,0774,4434,7745,550
Total26,31126,13343,94414,84316,31621,397
(Percent of total)
COMESA trade
Intraregional3.94.03.76.16.07.6
Extra regional96.196.096.393.994.092.4
South Africa3.77.18.91.12.63.3
Rest of Africa1.51.20.72.23.01.0
EU44.035.736.237.035.640.6
United States8.810.29.719.819.818.3
Japan5.04.94.24.03.63.3
Rest of world33.236.936.629.929.325.9
Total100100100100100100
(Percent of GDP)
Memorandum items
Intraregional0.90.91.00.80.91.0
Extra regional21.922.00.212.113.512.2
Total22.822.91.212.814.313.2
Source: IMF, Direction of Trade Statistics.

Import and export data differ mainly because partner country data are used directly or indirectly in estimating missing figures. Imports are measured c.i.f., exports are measured f.o.b.

Source: IMF, Direction of Trade Statistics.

Import and export data differ mainly because partner country data are used directly or indirectly in estimating missing figures. Imports are measured c.i.f., exports are measured f.o.b.

Table A11CBI: Intraregional and Extraregional Trade
ImportsExports
199019941999199019941999
(Millions of U.S. dollars)
CBI trade
Intraregional16747241,1106127251,055
Extraregional10,79811,00312,1755,6777,0528,105
South Africa9841,6702,867169320594
Rest of Africa329134126364485399
EU5,0423,9813,6712,8343,2494,153
United States634584531521621722
Japan743705565362368417
Rest of world3,0663,9304,4151,4252,0091,820
Total11,47211,72713,2856,2887,7779,160
(Percent of total)
CBI trade
Intraregional5.96.28.49.79.311.5
Extraregional94.193.891.690.390.788.5
South Africa8.614.221.62.74.16.5
Rest of Africa2.91.11.05.86.24.4
EU43.933.927.645.141.845.3
United States5.55.04.08.38.07.9
Japan6.56.04.35.84.74.5
Rest of world26.733.533.222.725.819.9
Total100100100100100100
(Percent of GDP)
Memorandum items
Intraregional1.51.92.21.41.92.1
Extraregional24.524.50.312.918.316.1
Total26.030.42.514.320.118.2
Source: IMF, Direction of Trade Statistics

Import and export data differ mainly because partner country data are used directly or indirectly in estimating missing figures. Imports are measured c.i.f., exports are measured f.o.b.

Source: IMF, Direction of Trade Statistics

Import and export data differ mainly because partner country data are used directly or indirectly in estimating missing figures. Imports are measured c.i.f., exports are measured f.o.b.

Table A12Selected Eastern and Southern African Countries: Tariff Preferences(In percent, unless otherwise indicated)
OECD

Average

tariff

on exports
Average

preference

margin1
European UnionJapanUSAExport Loss

if Preferences

Eliminated
Export Loss

under

Uruguay

Round

(Percent of

total exports)
Average

tariff

on exports
Preference

margin1
Average

tariff on

exports
Preference

margin1
Average

tariff on

exports
Preference

margin1
(Thousands

of

U.S. dollars)
(Percent

of total

exports)
Angola0.21.50.33.21.80.00.10.43,4970.3
Botswana0.32.80.12.90.02.13.51.1-399-0.6-0.3
Burundi2.50.1
Comoros0.60.1
Ethiopia0.71.30.11.91.51.32.00.45,7691.90.02
Lesotho-3.4
Kenya0.53.30.23.52.41.13.12.324,6202.6
Madagascar0.52.00.42.70.80.20.81.04,7651.70.1
Malawi1.12.40.13.50.00.15.40.62,7761.40.1
Mozambique1.30.1
Mauritius1.33.10.23.44.81.16.41.847,4414.8
Rwanda3.80.1
Swaziland0.84.40.54.96.73.03.51.92,9391.7
Uganda0.92.40.63.00.00.02.10.39,3713.30.2
Tanzania0.12.30.02.51.41.00.02.44,1921.40.0
Zambia0.31.70.52.90.00.61.41.47,2971.00.5
Zimbabwe0.92.50.23.31.21.04.01.019,7701.4
Sources: Yeats (1994); and Harrold (1995).

Difference between unweighted tariff faced by African exports and those paid by competitor countries

Sources: Yeats (1994); and Harrold (1995).

Difference between unweighted tariff faced by African exports and those paid by competitor countries

Table A13Sub-Saharan Africa: Compound Annual Growth Rates for Exports in U.S. Dollars(Percent)
Exporting Country1980–851985–901990–931993–961994–96
All non–oil goods
Kenya0.72.72.69.49.9
Madagascar-8.53.45.418.912.4
Malawi1.92.8-0.45.51.4
Mauritius-0.620.62.26.810.7
SACU-6.97.2-0.215.915.1
Uganda-2.2-10.4-11.253.316.3
Zambia-15.114.3-13.5-1.7-7.3
Zimbabwe11.012.1-4.113.48.5
Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) countries-2.56.6-2.415.28.4
ESA countries, excl. SACU-1.86.5-2.715.17.4
14 SSA countries-5.26.50.014.412.4
All non-SSA countries0.916.03.512.910.8
All Foods
Kenya3.00.81.69.613.3
Madagascar-9.00.55.311.54.0
Malawi2.42.8-0.56.21.3
Mauritius-7.79.60.67.812.1
SACU-12.811.8-4.219.88.4
Uganda-3.4-10.7-13.462.218.0
Zambia-11.411.2-2.614.434.0
Zimbabwe10.914.11.014.34.0
ESA countries-3.55.0-1.518.211.9
ESA countries, excl. SACU-2.24.0-1.118.012.4
14 SSA countries0.02.10.016.411.1
All non-SSA countries-1.711.62.510.98.8
All manufactures
Kenya-6.910.95.71.6-7.5
Madagascar1.110.819.336.928.3
Malawi-8.98.81.9-10.6-9.0
Mauritius12.929.32.76.410.2
SACU1-7.23.48.917.219.3
Uganda-26.9-8.130.8-9.025.9
Zambia-21.829.5-1.87.38.8
Zimbabwe3.214.1-3.27.915.0
ESA countries-6.812.48.07.211.4
ESA countries, excl. SACU-6.813.67.95.810.2
14 SSA countries-0.17.06.515.317.8
All non-SSA countries2.217.04.113.211.4
Source: Yeats (1998).
Source: Yeats (1998).
Table A14Sub–Saharan Africa: Structure of Exports, 1985–96
Percent Share in Total ExportsManufactures Subgroup (Percent Share in Total Exports)
Value (US$ million)All foodsAgricultural materialsFuelsOres and metalsManufacturesMisc. goodsLeather and rubberWood and paperTextilesIron and steelClothingFootwear
Kenya
198586780.67.21.40.59.51.42.20.20.30.00.60.1
199099273.09.71.41.313.71.45.10.30.40.00.60.1
19961,42372.813.20.50.811.80.51.60.50.40.02.40.0
Madagascar
198528780.43.00.05.910.40.00.80.06.60.20.00.0
199033171.15.00.48.114.90.41.10.15.90.03.40.0
199665855.14.82.33.732.72.30.20.42.10.025.80.0
Malawi
198526393.72.60.00.03.40.00.00.03.00.00.10.0
199029793.61.70.00.04.40.00.10.11.90.01.80.0
199634395.31.50.00.13.00.00.00.11.10.01.00.0
Mauritius
198547551.50.80.00.147.50.00.10.21.50.236.90.0
19901,21131.60.50.00.167.50.00.00.22.30.052.60.0
19961,58131.70.50.00.067.30.00.00.12.20.054.60.1
South Africa
19859,73311.26.816.330.333.216.30.61.60.911.20.70.0
199013,15414.36.112.636.629.012.80.82.00.78.90.70.0
199618,11715.34.612.027.239.112.01.32.41.011.91.40.1
Uganda
198540487.911.00.00.10.90.00.00.00.00.00.00.0
199020889.69.30.00.11.00.00.10.00.00.00.00.0
199656495.53.60.00.00.60.00.20.00.00.00.00.0
Zambia
19856041.91.80.094.31.90.00.00.00.10.80.00.0
19901,0871.60.70.093.83.80.00.10.00.90.00.10.0
19965095.12.00.083.29.50.00.10.07.00.00.10.0
Zimbabwe
198563038.714.60.020.825.60.01.00.01.620.71.20.0
19901,03540.69.40.022.127.70.00.90.02.018.73.30.0
19961,32247.89.60.714.227.20.71.50.31.914.83.60.0
ESA countries
198513,26123.56.712.127.728.312.10.71.21.09.31.90.0
199018,31322.55.79.133.328.29.20.91.51.07.44.30.0
199624,51625.35.09.022.736.59.01.11.81.29.65.60.1
14 SSA countries
198520,61929.38.123.218.919.323.20.41.10.96.01.20.0
199026,10325.29.318.425.021.318.40.71.50.95.23.10.0
199633,60628.88.116.117.528.316.10.91.71.07.04.10.1
Source: Years (1998).52
Source: Years (1998).52
Table A15Selected Eastern and Southern African Countries: Concentration of Exports, 1988 and 1996
ExporterShare in Total Exports2(Percent)
Number of Items Exported119881996
Largest

product
Three

largest
Largest

product
Three

largest
19881996
Kenya131330652961
Madagascar131529692551
Malawi8662847490
Mauritius11950875584
South Africa223314321126
Uganda5690958092
Zambia3988946492
Zimbabwe141622543757
Source: Yeats (1998)

Items are defined at the four-digit level of the Standard International Trade Classification (SITC) Revision I system. At this level, the SITC distinguishes among 632 individual products. To be included in the tabulation of an export product, the item had to account for 1 percent or more of total exports

The share of the largest and three largest four-digit SITC products in total exports.

Source: Yeats (1998)

Items are defined at the four-digit level of the Standard International Trade Classification (SITC) Revision I system. At this level, the SITC distinguishes among 632 individual products. To be included in the tabulation of an export product, the item had to account for 1 percent or more of total exports

The share of the largest and three largest four-digit SITC products in total exports.

Table A16Selected Eastern and Southern African Countries: Intra-industry Trade Ratios, 1988 and 1996
CountryYearIntra-Industry Trade Ratios1
Transport and machineryOther manufacturesAll manufactures
Kenya19880.040.100.07
19960.050.140.11
Madagascar19880.010.060.04
19960.020.120.09
Malawi19880.020.050.04
19960.030.110.08
Mauritius19880.040.200.15
19960.090.180.15
South Africa19880.070.250.18
19960.200.360.30
Uganda19880.020.020.02
19960.020.020.02
Zambia19880.020.050.04
19960.010.040.03
Zimbabwe19880.020.070.06
19960.020.130.10
Memorandum items
Brazil19960.570.500.53
Chile19960.080.280.22
Rep. of Korea19960.560.560.55
Turkey19960.230.340.28
Taiwan. Province of China19960.640.520.57
Source: Yeats (1998).

The Intra-Industry trade ratio for any industry i is calculated as li = 1 − (|Xi−Mi|)/(Xi+Mi), where Xi and Mi are the industry’s exports and imports, respectively. The value of the index lies between 0 (no intra-industry trade) and 1 (full intra-industry trade).

Source: Yeats (1998).

The Intra-Industry trade ratio for any industry i is calculated as li = 1 − (|Xi−Mi|)/(Xi+Mi), where Xi and Mi are the industry’s exports and imports, respectively. The value of the index lies between 0 (no intra-industry trade) and 1 (full intra-industry trade).

Table A17Eastern and Southern Africa: Economic Conditions, 1990–92(Average annual rate in percent, unless otherwise indicated)
GDP GrowthGDP Per Capita GrowthExport Volume GrowthInflationInvestment-to-GDP Ratio (Percent)Fiscal Balance. Excluding Grants (Percent of GDP)Current Account Balance. Excluding Grants (Percent of GDP)
Moderate or no liberalization
Angola1.84.54.3128.54.717.2-8.0
Burundi3.10.111.06.814.6-10.4-19.6
Comoros2.71.97.2-2.420.717.2-19.5
Ethiopia-2.5-5.5-24.815.710.4-11.1-4.4
Kenya1.8-1.12.119.420.9-8.3-5.2
Madagascar0.7-4.02.011.95.1-7.6-11.5
Mauritius5.34.20.98.830.0-2.3-2.8
Rwanda0.9-1.94.611.112.3-11.8-10.4
Seychelles5.74.913.13.122.6-5.1-6.2
Tanzania3.20.6-0.326.826.6-5.3-16.9
Zimbabwe1.2-1.9-5.927.618.9-7.4-7.2
Average1.7-0.61.323.417.0-9.4-10.2
Substantial liberalization
Botswana5.93.13.513.121.38.51.6
Lesotho4.71.126.115.58.9-8.4-57.4
Malawi2.4-0.911.814.48.2-8.4-12.9
Namibia3.3-0.12.913.924.9-3.7-11.7
South Africa-1.2-3.93.114.516.2-5.51.1
Swaziland4.51.03.810.922.22.6-10.1
Mozambique-0.7-2.610.840.715.7-16.1-32.8
Uganda3.50.718.236.217.4-11.1-15.9
Zambia0.3-3.3-0.6124.313.4-13.8-16.1
Average2.5-0.58.931.516.5-6.2-17.1
Sources: IMF, African Department database, and World Economic Outlook database
Sources: IMF, African Department database, and World Economic Outlook database
Table A18Eastern and Southern Africa: Economic Conditions(Average annual rate between 1993 and 1999, unless otherwise indicated)
GDP GrowthGDP Per Capita GrowthExport Volume GrowthInflationInvestment-to-GDP Ratio (Percent)Fiscal Balance Excluding Grants (Percent of GDP).Current Account Balance. Excluding Grants (Percent of GDP)Average Annual Real Exchange Rate Depreciation (1990–98)
Moderate or no liberalization
Angola2.0-0.87.41,373.514.0-17.6-21.6-8.8
Burundi-2.2-3.14.417.410.6-8.5-12.2-1.3
Comoros-0.8-3.4-4.45.821.7-14.3-19.1
Ethiopia6.33.211.73.817.2-7.8-8.16.0
Kenya2.5-0.35.615.219.0-2.8-3.0-3.9
Madagascar2.6-0.59.619.612.1-8.7-9.40.1
Mauritius5.23.91.87.027.9-4.1-0.7-0.1
Rwanda2.63.2-0.317.611.0-11.4-22.2-1.6
Seychelles2.60.724.70.734.3-11.5-11.10.1
Tanzania3.30.54.420.719.1-4.3-17.9-5.1
Zimbabwe3.30.02.729.321.7-9.3-4.49.6
Average2.50.36.2137.318.9-9.1-11.8-1.3
Substantial liberalization
Botswana5.12.56.99.828.42.05.0-0.9
Lesotho3.41.18.68.949.0-3.848.20.6
Malawi5.52.35.937.516.4-13.9-15.32.7
Namibia2.6-0.4-0.18.220.4-4.4-7.90.3
South Africa2.30.04.67.916.3-4.8-0.21.5
Swaziland2.30.04.67.916.3-4.8-0.20.2
Mozambique8.76.311.830.420.7-13.3-28.72.7
Uganda7.14.117.59.117.7-7.4-8.51.3
Zambia-0.9-2.9-2.155.914.0-10.4-13.1-1.3
Average4.01.46.419.522.1-6.7-13.00.7
Sources: IMF, African Department database, and World Economic Outlook database
Sources: IMF, African Department database, and World Economic Outlook database
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153. Pension Regimes and Saving, by G.A. Mackenzie, Philip Gerson, and Alfredo Cuevas. 1997.

152. Hong Kong, china: Growth, Structural change, and Economic Stability During the Transition, by John Dodsworth and Dubravko Mihaljek. 1997.

Note: For information on the title and availability of Occasional Papers not listed, please consult The IMF Publications Catalog or contact IMF Publication Services.

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