Chapter

Appendix V Data on Developing Countries’ Trade

Author(s):
Wanda Tseng, Lorenzo Pérez, Zubair Iqbal, and Shailendra Anjaria
Published Date:
July 1981
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Table 32.Non-Oil Exporting Developing Countries: Shares in World Imports by Commodity Groups, 1973–791(In per cent, based on value)
Importing countries197319751976197719781979197319751976197719781979
FoodSemimanufactures2
Industrial countries262628312728657666
Oil exporting developing countries2832292825107799
Non-oil exporting developing countries25252930261010121112
Eastern trading countries233533383822322
Total262729312867777
Raw materialsEngineering goods
Industrial countries191718201918334455
Oil exporting developing countries161620262644455
Non-oil exporting developing countries363235323377889
Eastern trading countries3130252825
Total222122222233345
Ores and mineralsTextiles and clothing
Industrial countries283028292925212227262625
Oil exporting developing countries29162520263029302930
Non-oil exporting developing countries31323436352830353436
Eastern trading countries20232016161214131310
Total28292828282223272627
FuelsOther consumer goods
Industrial countries9101191010131216161716
Oil exporting developing countries17304648481815131414
Non-oil exporting developing countries15131313132120242323
Eastern trading countries2221135432
Total9101010101313161616
Nonferrous metalsTotal manufactures
Industrial countries272224232120668889
Oil exporting developing countries1413141112977888
Non-oil exporting developing countries3435433836101012121212
Eastern trading countries8711119222212
Total2522242322768888
Total primary productsTotal world imports
Industrial countries201717181817121112121212
Oil exporting developing countries252930292726121010111012
Non-oil exporting developing countries242021212119151415171515
Eastern trading countries202321222019898988
Total201818191918121112131212
Sources: GATT, International Trade, 1977/78 and International Trade, 1979/80.

For classification of countries and commodities, see Appendix II.

Includes iron and steel, chemicals, and other semimanufactures.

Sources: GATT, International Trade, 1977/78 and International Trade, 1979/80.

For classification of countries and commodities, see Appendix II.

Includes iron and steel, chemicals, and other semimanufactures.

Table 33.Non-Oil Exporting Developing Countries: Trade Balances by Commodity Groups, 1973–791(In billions of U.S. dollars)
197319751976
ExportsImportsBalanceExportsImportsBalanceExportsImportsBalance
Primary products44.2529.3014.9566.3555.5010.8575.8061.5114.29
Food22.0513.059.0031.2419.9111.3335.5019.5515.95
Raw materials7.694.403.297.064.542.529.205.683.52
Ores and minerals4.120.863.266.301.354.956.201.334.87
Fuels5.989.51–3.5317.6927.65–9.9619.6032.63–13.03
Nonferrous metals4.401.462.944.062.062.005.302.312.99
Manufactured products23.1550.05–26.9031.2578.10–46.8542.2081.89–39.69
Semimanufactures6.1716.00–9.837.8624.89–17.039.7524.28–14.53
Engineering products5.9127.04–21.139.3944.58–35.1912.5047.52–35.02
Office and telecommunications equipment1.282.901.621.954.232.282.605.112.51
Other machinery and transport equipment1.809.797.993.1516.4413.294.2517.3913.14
Household appliances1.641.950.312.252.650.403.353.030.32
Other engineering goods1.1912.4011.212.0421.2619.222.3021.9919.69
Textiles4.053.920.134.454.47–0.025.905.150.75
Clothing3.820.892.935.361.044.328.001.156.85
Other consumer goods3.182.210.974.193.101.096.053.812.24
Unclassified trade0.903.55–2.651.204.70–3.501.105.80–4.70
Total trade68.3082.90–14.6098.80138.30–39.50119.10149.20–30.10
1977197819792
ExportsImportsBalanceExportsImportsBalanceExportsImportsBalance
Primary products88.0567.7020.3592.4573.1019.35117.60100.4017.20
Food44.0020.5023.5044.8524.5020.35
Raw materials10.456.753.7011.507.653.85
Ores and minerals6.501.604.906.801.854.95
Fuels21.4036.05–14.6523.1535.75–12.60–21.00
Nonferrous metals5.702.802.906.103.352.75
Manufactured products49.8095.65–45.8563.90119.85–55.9578.90150.30–71.40
Semimanufactures11.7528.15–16.4015.3036.45–21.15
Engineering products15.7555.40–39.6520.6568.50–47.85
Office and telecommunications equipment3.055.452.404.406.502.10
Other machinery and transport equipment5.8020.8515.057.3025.6018.30
Household appliances4.204.205.405.250.15
Other engineering goods2.7024.9022.203.5531.1527.60
Textiles6.306.050.257.657.200.45
Clothing8.751.557.2010.801.908.90
Other consumer goods7.304.502.809.455.753.70
Unclassified trade3.959.05–5.103.259.15–5.902.5010.30–7.80
Total trade141.80172.30–30.50159.60202.10–42.50199.00261.00–62.00
Source: GATT, International Trade, 1977/78 and International Trade, 1979/80.

For classification of countries and commodities, see Appendix II.

Provisional figures.

Source: GATT, International Trade, 1977/78 and International Trade, 1979/80.

For classification of countries and commodities, see Appendix II.

Provisional figures.

Table 34.Korea: Restrictive Trade Measures Affecting Exports1
CountryCommodities AffectedMain Type of MeasuresYear of Introduction
AustraliaTextilesTariff quota1974–77
FootwearGlobal quota1975
Sheets and plates of iron and steelGlobal quota1975
Electric refrigeratorsGlobal quota1975
Passenger motor vehiclesGlobal quota
Electric insulatorsTariff quota
Razors and some other metal productsGlobal and tariff quotas
Leather clothingTariff quota
PlywoodTariff quota1976
Sleeping bagsTariff quota
Tire cords and fabricsTariff quota
AustriaTextilesBilateral quota1974–76
BeneluxCutleryVoluntary export restraint1978
CanadaTextilesBilateral quota1974
Leather coatsBilateral quota1977
Nonrubber footwearGlobal quota1977
DenmarkCutleryBilateral quota1974
European communityTextilesBilateral quota1978
SteelVoluntary export restraint and minimum pricing system1978
Canned mushroomsVoluntary export restraint1978
FinlandCertain textilesBilateral quota1980
Rubber bootsImport deposit1977
FranceRadios, sound recordersUnilateral quota1971
Umbrellas and sunshadesUnilateral quota1971
Miscellaneous manufactures (toys, carpets, chemical products, yachts)Unilateral quota1974
Silk fabricsUnilateral quota1974
TilesAdministrative guidance and global quota1978
SemiconductorsAdministrative guidance and global quota1978
Newsprint and paperGlobal quota1978
Precision instrumentsGlobal quota1978
WristwatchesAdministrative guidance1978
Germany, Fed, Rep, ofCutleryVoluntary export restraint1978
IrelandFootwearVoluntary export restraint1979
JapanFish, dried fish, and dried seaweedImport licensing and quota1960
TunaVoluntary export restraint1975
Raw silk, silk yarn, and silk fabricsImport quota and voluntary export restraint1974–76
Baseball glovesAdministrative guidance1975
FootwearImport quota
Cotton threadAdministrative guidance1976
New ZealandNearly all itemsImport licensing1975
NorwayTextilesBilateral quota1974
CutleryBilateral quota1974
Tires and tubesBilateral quota1974
Tableware of porcelain, china, and potteryBilateral quota1975
Leather clothingBilateral quota1978
Ski bootsBilateral quota1979
SwedenFootwearGlobal quota1979
TextilesBilateral quota1976
Leather clothingVoluntary export restraint1977
United KingdomBlack-and-white television setsBilateral quota1977
FootwearVoluntary export restraint1979
CutleryVoluntary export restraint1979
United StatesTextilesBilateral quota1971
Canned mushroomsVoluntary export restraint1976
Nonrubber footwearBilateral quota1977
Ginseng productsImport ban1977
Steel productsTrigger price system1978
Citizens’ band receiversIncrease in duty1978
Color television setsVoluntary export restraint1979
Industrial fastenersIncrease in duty1979
Porcelain on steel cookwareSpecial duty1980
Some specialty steel productsAdministrative surveillance21981
Source: Data supplied by the Korean authorities.

As of November 1980.

This replaced the quota removed in early 1980.

Source: Data supplied by the Korean authorities.

As of November 1980.

This replaced the quota removed in early 1980.

Table 35.Pakistan: Restrictive Trade Measures Affecting Exports1
Country or Country Group/ProductType of Measures
European Community
RiceImport levies; labeling restrictions (Benelux); compensatory levy (France)
Cereal preparationsImport levies (Benelux, France, and United Kingdom); packing and labeling restrictions (Benelux)
Meat and meat productsImport levies (Benelux, France, and United Kingdom); packing and labeling restrictions (Benelux); compensatory levy (France)
MolassesImport levies; compensatory levy (France)
Sugar and sugar preparationsImport levies (Benelux, France, and United Kingdom); packing and labeling restrictions (Benelux); compensatory levy (France)
Animal feedImport levies (Benelux and United Kingdom); import duty (France)
Artificial honeyImport levies (Benelux, France, and United Kingdom); packing and labeling restrictions (Benelux)
Jams and marmaladesImport levies (Benelux, France, and United Kingdom); packing and labeling restrictions (Benelux)
Fruit and vegetable juicesImport levies (Benelux, France, and United Kingdom); packing and labeling restrictions (Benelux); compensatory levy (France)
Certain light oilsPacking and labeling restrictions (Benelux); compensatory and turnover taxes (Italy)
Certain oil essencesPacking and labeling restrictions (Benelux)
Fish, prawns, mollusks, and other crustaceansImport levies (Benelux and France); packing and labeling restrictions (Benelux)
Manufactured tobaccoImport levies (Benelux and France); labeling restrictions (Benelux)
Certain unmanufactured tobaccoImport levies (Benelux and France); quotas (Benelux); state monopoly (France and Italy)
Pickled vegetables and fruitsImport levies (Benelux and France); packing and labeling restrictions (Benelux)
MangoesImport levies (Benelux, France, and Italy); packing and labeling restrictions (Benelux)
RaisinsImport levies (Benelux); packing and labeling restrictions (Benelux); discretionary licensing (Italy)
ApricotsImport levies (Benelux); packing and labeling restrictions (Benelux)
Preserved fruitsImport levies (Benelux and United Kingdom); packing and labeling restrictions (Benelux); import duty and compensatory duty (France)
Cotton yarn and fabrics, knitted shirts, jerseys and pajamas, blouses, skirts, and toilet linenQuotas (Benelux and France); quota (United Kingdom for specific items); specific limits (other countries)
Cotton glovesQuota (United Kingdom)
Certain sacks and bagsCeiling under surveillance (Benelux); quota or surveillance (France); surveillance licensing (United Kingdom); global quota (Ireland); export restraints (Italy)
Tarpaulins, sails, awnings, sunblinds, tents, and camping goods of cottonCeiling under surveillance (Benelux); quota or surveillance (France); surveillance licensing (United Kingdom); global quota (Ireland); export restraints (Italy)
All other textile itemsSurveillance licensing
Certain footwearQuotas (Benelux); import levy (France); surveillance licensing (United Kingdom); bilateral quota (Denmark and Italy); compensatory and turnover taxes (Italy)
Certain bovine cattle leatherQuotas (Benelux)
Certain positive cinefilmsCeiling (Benelux); quotas (Italy)
Travel goods of materials other than artificial plastic sheetingQuotas (Benelux)
Scissors, knives, spoons, forks, and certain other cutlerySurveillance licensing (United Kingdom); quotas (Benelux); import levy and licensing (France)
United States
MolassesGlobal quota
Certain surgical instrumentsPacking and labeling restrictions
Sheeting, duck cloth, towels, knitted shirts, and blousesSpecific limits; packing and labeling restrictions
Print cloth, twill and satins, underwear, other apparel, and other cotton manufacturesDesignated consultation levels; packing and labeling requirements; countervailing duties
All other textile itemsAggregate limits and countervailing duties
Fish in all formsAdministrative entry procedures
Japan
RiceState trading
Manufactured tobaccoState trading
Unmanufactured tobaccoState trading
Certain leathersDiscretionary licensing
Leather handbags and travel goodsLicensing requirements; 15–20 per cent commodity tax
Leather gloves, apparel, and parts of footwearLicensing requirements
Fish in all formsDiscriminatory licensing; quantitative restrictions
Motor gasoline and petroleumState trading
Australia
FootwearImport licensing/global quotas; general tariff of 46.5 per cent; preferential tariff for United Kingdom, Canada, and Ireland of 31.5 per cent; handmade leather sandals of f.o.b. value less than $2.50/pair, duty free under handicrafts bylaw
Certain animal feedsQuarantine restrictions on all types and embargoes on certain animal feeds
Butter and butterfat in most formsEmbargoes
Cheese of all typesQuota restrictions
Dried, evaporated, and condensed milkEmbargoes
SugarSugar Agreement Act
Syrup in all formsSugar Agreement Act
LactoseImport duty
Cotton yarn: finer than 30 tex and not finer than 10 texImport levy
Other cotton yarnImport levy
Cotton yarn: mercerizedImport duty
Cocoa beans and productsInternational agreement
Turkey and turkey parts and productsQuota and tariff restrictions
Eggs and egg productsQuota and tariff restrictions
Beef and veal in all forms (except offal)Quota and tariff restrictions
Broadwoven filament polyester fabricsSurveillance and tariff restrictions
Certain acrylic yarnsQuota and tariff restrictions
Worsted fabric containing at least 17 per cent by weight of wool from all sources except United Kingdom, France, Federal Republic of Germany, Netherlands, Switzerland, Italy, United States, and JapanQuota and tariff restrictions
Textured polyester filament yarnSurveillance and tariff restrictions
Cotton terry towels and othersGlobal quota restrictions; import levies
All specimens of endangered wild fauna and flora and derivatives thereofInternational agreement
Leather working gloves and mittens of industrial type, made of leatherImport duty
Cotton bags for packingImport levies
Leather bagsImport duty
Most garments of cotton, wool, and leather, including snowsuits, ski suits, jackets and pants, parkas, double-knit and wrap-knit fabrics, leisure suits, jeans, blouses, T-shirts, pajamas, raincoats, sportswear, swimwear, underwear, sweaters, and leather coatsQuota restrictions, surveillance, and tariff restrictions
Certain footwear, not included elsewhereSurveillance and tariff restrictions
Certain handbags, not included elsewehereSurveillance and tariff restrictions
New Zealand
Mixed fabrics and articles of cotton textileImport licensing
Scissors and bladesQuantitative restrictions; licensing requirements
Certain sporting goods, including tennis balls, tennis, badminton, and squash rackets, golf clubs, and cricket batsQuantitative restrictions; licensing requirements
Norway
Cotton yarn, cotton fabrics, ready-made cottons, leather garments, and footwearExcluded from Generalized System of Preferences scheme
Sweden
Leather footwearBilateral quota
Knitted undergarmentsExport restraint
Certain other textiles and hosiery, including knitted pullovers, bed linen of cotton, certain towels of cotton, and blousesSpecific limits
Switzerland
Cotton yarn; cotton fabrics; knotted carpets; cotton embroidery; felt and felt articles; certain garments and textiles, including knitted undergarments and outergarments and bed and table linenAll these items are allowed a 50 per cent reduction on the normal tariff. All the items need a permit, except for felt and felt articles, for which no import permit is required.
Source: Data provided by the Pakistan authorities.

As of June 1980.

Source: Data provided by the Pakistan authorities.

As of June 1980.

Table 36.Philippines: Restrictive Trade Measures Affecting Exports1
MarketProducts AffectedType of Measure
AustriaBeet sugar and cane sugar (solid)Quantitative restrictions; import levy
AustraliaBeet sugar and cane sugar (solid)Import prohibition
Footwear with outer soles of leather, rubber, or artificial plastic material (other than ski boots or sand boots and shoes)Quantitative restrictions
CanadaClothing, wearing apparel, and other articles made from woven cotton fabrics; clothing and other articles of woven man-made fabricsMFA quotas2
Knitted garments, fabrics, and goodsQuantitative restrictions
European CommunityDates, bananas, coconuts, Brazil nuts, cashew nuts, pineapples, avocados, guavas, and mangosteens (fresh or dried)Quantitative restrictions and selective tax
Coffee, unroasted, not decaffeinated; decaffeinated coffee; fixed vegetable oilsSelective internal tax
Cocoa butterImport levy and selective internal tax
Fruit juices with sugar addedSpecific sugar duty
Ethyl alcohol or neutral spiritsQuantitative restrictions
Outergarments and other articles, knitted or crocheted, not elastic or rubberizedQuantitative restrictions under MFA
FinlandBananas, coconut oil, raw sugar, pineapples, and oil cakes and other residuesQuantitative restrictions
Crystallized sugarMinimum import price
JapanFresh fish, chilled or frozen; dried fish, salted or smokedImport quotas; discretionary import licensing
Crustaceans and mollusks, fresh, chilled, frozen, or preparedQuantitative restrictions
Coffee, roasted or not; coffee substitutes containing coffee; coffee beans, nonroastedSelective internal tax
Beet sugar and cane sugar (solid)Minimum import price
Fruits, prepared or preserved; fruit juicesImport quotas; selective internal tax
Footwear with outer soles of leather or composition leather; footwear with outer soles of rubber or artificial plastic materialImport quotas
New ZealandDried fish, salted or in brine, smoked (other than fish livers and salted anchovies)Quantitative restrictions
Copra, copra cake, and coconut oilDiscretionary licensing
Pineapples, prepared or preserved, containing added sugarDiscretionary licensing
Wood, plywood, and builders’ carpentry and jointryDiscretionary licensing
Household utensils of wood, clothespins; furniture, including standard lamps and other fittings of wood and parts thereofDiscretionary licensing
NorwayFruit mixturesQuantitative restrictions
SwedenDried fish, salted or in brine, smokedDiscretionary licensing and import levy
Coconut oil, oil cakes of coconutImport levy
Beet sugar and cane sugar (solid); molassesImport levy
SwitzerlandCopra, coconut oil, and copra oil cake or mealQuantitative restrictions; import levy
Undergarments, knitted or crocheted, of cotton or textiles, not elsewhere specified, not elastic or rubberizedMFA quota
Outergarments and articles, knitted or crocheted, of cotton or textiles, not elsewhere specified, not elastic or rubberizedMFA quota
Men’s or boys’ outergarments of cotton or textiles, not elsewhere specifiedMFA quota
United StatesSugar, syrup, and molasses, principally in crystalline or dry amorphous formGlobal quota
Source: Data provided by the Philippine authorities.

As of November 1980.

Multifiber Arrangement.

Source: Data provided by the Philippine authorities.

As of November 1980.

Multifiber Arrangement.

Table 37.Provisions for Special and Differential Treatment of Developing Countries Contained in Principal MTN Codes and Understandings1
AgreementSpecial Provisions for Developing Countries
Code on Subsidies and Countervailing DutiesRecognizes that subsidies may be an important part of development programs. Use of export subsidies by developing countries on nonprimary products is not prohibited. Developing countries agree not to use export subsidies in a way that would seriously prejudice the interests of trading partners and to phase them out when they are no longer consistent with competitive or development needs.
Antidumping CodeRecognizes that, as special economic conditions affect prices in domestic markets of developing countries, such prices do not provide a commercially realistic basis for dumping calculations. Accordingly, the fact that a developing country’s export price is lower than the comparable domestic price would not per se justify an investigation or the determination of dumping. In such cases, the normal value for the purpose of ascertaining whether the goods are being dumped is to be determined by methods such as comparison of the export price with the comparable price of the like product when exported to any third country, or with the cost of production of the exported goods in the country of origin, plus a reasonable amount for administrative, selling, and any other costs and for profits. A second understanding accepts that developing countries may have difficulties in adapting their legislation to the requirements of the Code. It therefore provides for the granting, on a case-by-case basis, of time-limited exceptions from the relevant provisions of the Code.
Code on Customs ValuationDeveloping countries may delay applying the Code on Customs Valuation for five years and are given greater powers to counter potentially unfair valuation practices. A special protocol grants developing countries more than a five-year delay if “good cause” is shown and allows them to maintain officially established minimum values for certain goods on a limited and transitional basis.
Code on Government ProcurementFewer public entities in developing countries are expected to be covered than in developed countries, the choice depending on their respective development, financial, and trade needs.
Import Licensing ProceduresDeveloping countries are granted a two-year delay in the application of provisions relating to automatic licensing systems.
FrameworkIn addition to special treatment of developing countries under various codes, the Decision on Differential and More Favorable Treatment and Reciprocity and Fuller Participation of Developing Countries reaffirms the agreement of developed countries that they would not seek concessions from developing countries that are inconsistent with their individual development, financial, and trade needs. However, as developing countries progress economically, they would be expected to participate more fully in the framework of rights and obligations under the GATT. Moreover, an “enabling clause” provides a permanent legal basis within the GATT for preferential trade treatment in favor of, and between, developing countries and for special treatment of the least developed countries.
Source: GATT.

This is a selective summary of agreements. For details, see GATT, The Tokyo Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations (Geneva, April 1979) and Supplementary Report (Geneva, January 1980).

Source: GATT.

This is a selective summary of agreements. For details, see GATT, The Tokyo Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations (Geneva, April 1979) and Supplementary Report (Geneva, January 1980).

Table 38.Developing Countries: Estimated Trade Effects of MTN Tariff Reductions(In millions of U.S. dollars)
Estimated Effect on Exports
StudyAssumptionsDecline in exports under GSPIncrease in exports due to MTN tariff cuts
Baldwin and MurrayAcross-the-board tariff cut of 30 per cent Exports of both beneficiaries and nonbeneficiaries of GSP schemes Undiscounted 1971 dollars Industrial exports only–32401
MurrayAcross-the-board tariff cut of 50 per cent Estimate limited to trade between Latin America and the United States Undiscounted 1978 dollars Industrial exports only–10116
BirnbergAcross-the-board tariff cut of 60 per cent Exports of both beneficiaries and nonbeneficiaries of GSP schemes Undiscounted 1974/75 dollars Industrial exports only–83866
Cline, Kawanabe, Kronsjo, and WilliamsAverage tariff cut of 44 per cent All least developed countries Undiscounted 1971 dollars Industrial exports only–891833
UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)2Reduction in average Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) margin of 27 per cent Average tariff cut of 22 per cent for goods of relevance to least developed countries Industrial and agricultural goods Undiscounted 1976 dollars–1,800900
Sources: Robert F. Baldwin and Tracy Murray, “MFN Tariff Reductions and Developing Country Trade Benefits under the GSP,” Economic Journal, Vol. 87 (March 1977), pp. 30–46; Tracy Murray, “The Tokyo Round’ and Latin America,” paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Eastern Economics Association held in Washington, D.C., May 1979; Thomas B. Birnberg, “Tariff Reform Options: Economic Effects on Developing and Developed Countries,” in William R. Cline, ed., Policy Alternatives for a New International Economic Order (New York, 1979), pp. 237–39: William R. Cline, et al. Trade Negotiations in the Tokyo Round: A Quantitative Assessment (Brookings Institution, Washington, 1978); Peter J. Ginman, Thomas A. Pugel, and Ingo Walter, “Tokyo Round Tariff Concessions and Exports from Developing Countries,” Trade and Development (UNCTAD, Autumn 1980), pp. 83–95.

Calculated as 60 per cent of “trade diversion” implied by the GSP schemes as of 1971.

Study prepared by Ginman, Pugel, and Walter (see Sources). An earlier UNCTAD study calculated the reduction in preferential exports at $2.1 billion and the increase in MTN-related exports at $1.7 billion.

Sources: Robert F. Baldwin and Tracy Murray, “MFN Tariff Reductions and Developing Country Trade Benefits under the GSP,” Economic Journal, Vol. 87 (March 1977), pp. 30–46; Tracy Murray, “The Tokyo Round’ and Latin America,” paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Eastern Economics Association held in Washington, D.C., May 1979; Thomas B. Birnberg, “Tariff Reform Options: Economic Effects on Developing and Developed Countries,” in William R. Cline, ed., Policy Alternatives for a New International Economic Order (New York, 1979), pp. 237–39: William R. Cline, et al. Trade Negotiations in the Tokyo Round: A Quantitative Assessment (Brookings Institution, Washington, 1978); Peter J. Ginman, Thomas A. Pugel, and Ingo Walter, “Tokyo Round Tariff Concessions and Exports from Developing Countries,” Trade and Development (UNCTAD, Autumn 1980), pp. 83–95.

Calculated as 60 per cent of “trade diversion” implied by the GSP schemes as of 1971.

Study prepared by Ginman, Pugel, and Walter (see Sources). An earlier UNCTAD study calculated the reduction in preferential exports at $2.1 billion and the increase in MTN-related exports at $1.7 billion.

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